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  • Callithricidae Thomas, 1903
  • Callitrichidae Napier and Napier, 1967
  • Hapalidae Wagner, 1840

The Callitrichidae also called Arctopitheci or Hapalidae are a family of New World monkeys, including marmosets, tamarins and lion tamarins At times, this group of animals has been regarded as a subfamily, called Callitrichinae, of the family Cebidae

This taxon was traditionally thought to be a primitive lineage, from which all the larger-bodied platyrrhines evolved[3] However, some works argue that callitrichids are actually a dwarfed lineage[4][5]

Ancestral stem-callitrichids likely were "normal-sized" ceboids that were dwarfed through evolutionary time This may exemplify a rare example of insular dwarfing in a mainland context, with the "islands" being formed by biogeographic barriers during arid climatic periods when forest distribution became patchy, and/or by the extensive river networks in the Amazon Basin[4]

All callitrichids are arboreal They are the smallest of the simian primates They eat insects, fruit, and the sap or gum from trees; occasionally they take small vertebrates The marmosets rely quite heavily on tree exudates, with some species eg Callithrix jacchus and Cebuella pygmaea considered obligate exudativores[6]

Callitrichids typically live in small, territorial groups of about five or six animals Their social organization is unique among primates and is called a "cooperative polyandrous group" This communal breeding system involves groups of multiple males and females, but only one female is reproductively active Females mate with more than one male and each shares the responsibility of carrying the offspring[7]

They are the only primate group that regularly produces twins, which constitute over 80% of births in species that have been studied Unlike other male primates, male callitrichids generally provide as much parental care as females Parental duties may include carrying, protecting, feeding, comforting, and even engaging in play behavior with offspring In some cases, such as in the cotton-top tamarin Saguinus oedipus, males, particularly those that are paternal, will even show a greater involvement in caregiving than females[8] The typical social structure seems to constitute a breeding group, with several of their previous offspring living in the group and providing significant help in rearing the young

Species and subspecies list

Emperor tamarin Saguinus imperator

A 2017 review of callitrichid species and subspecies confirmed the existence of the following taxa:[9]

  • Family Callitrichidae
    • Genus Cebuella
      • Pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea
        • Western pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea pygmaea
        • Eastern pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea niveiventris
    • Genus Mico
      • Silvery marmoset, Mico argentatus
      • White marmoset, Mico leucippe
      • Black-tailed marmoset, Mico melanurus
      • Hershkovitz's marmoset, Mico intermedius
      • Emilia's marmoset, Mico emiliae
      • Roosmalens' dwarf marmoset, Mico humilis
      • Black-headed marmoset, Mico nigriceps
      • Marca's marmoset, Mico marcai
      • Santarem marmoset, Mico humeralifer
      • Gold-and-white marmoset, Mico chrysoleucos
      • Maués marmoset, Mico mauesi
      • Sateré marmoset, Mico saterei
      • Rio Acarí marmoset, Mico acariensis
      • Rondon's marmoset, Mico rondoni
    • Genus Callithrix
      • Common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus
      • Black-tufted marmoset, Callithrix penicillata
      • Wied's marmoset, Callithrix kuhlii
      • White-headed marmoset, Callithrix geoffroyi
      • Buffy-tufted marmoset, Callithrix aurita
      • Buffy-headed marmoset, Callithrix flaviceps
    • Genus Callimico
      • Goeldi's marmoset, Callimico goeldii
    • Genus Saguinus
      • Subgenus Leontocebus
        • Black-mantled tamarin, Saguinus nigricollis
          • Spix's black-mantle tamarin, Saguinus nigricollis nigricollis
          • Hernández-Camacho's black-mantle tamarin, Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi
        • Brown-mantled tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis
          • Andean saddle-backed tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys
        • Lesson's saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscus
        • Cruz Lima's tamarin, Saguinus cruzlimai[10]
        • Weddell's tamarin, Saguinus weddelli
          • Weddell's tamarin, Saguinus weddelli weddelli
          • White-mantled tamarin, Saguinus weddelli melanoleucus
        • Golden-mantled tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus
      • Subgenus Saguinus
        • Red-handed tamarin, Saguinus midas
        • Western black tamarin, Saguinus niger
        • Eastern black tamarin, Saguinus ursula
        • Pied tamarin, Saguinus bicolor
        • Martins's tamarin, Saguinus martinsi
        • White-footed tamarin, Saguinus leucopus
        • Cottontop tamarin, Saguinus oedipus
        • Geoffroy's tamarin, Saguinus geoffroyi
      • Subgenus Tamarinus
        • Moustached tamarin, Saguinus mystax
          • Spix's moustached tamarin, Saguinus mystax mystax
          • Red-capped moustached tamarin, Saguinus mystax pileatus
          • White-rump moustached tamarin, Saguinus mystax pluto
        • White-lipped tamarin, Saguinus labiatus
          • Geoffroy's red-bellied tamarin, Saguinus labiatus labiatus
          • Gray's red-bellied tamarin, Saguinus labiatus rufiventer
          • Thomas's red-bellied tamarin, Saguinus labiatus thomasi
        • Emperor tamarin, Saguinus imperator
          • Emperor tamarin, Saguinus imperator imperator
          • Bearded emperor tamarin, Saguinus imperator subgrisescens
        • Mottle-faced tamarin, Saguinus inustus
    • Genus Leontopithecus
      • Golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia
      • Golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas
      • Black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus
      • Superagui lion tamarin, Leontopithecus caissara


  1. ^ Groves, CP 2005 Wilson, DE; Reeder, DM, eds Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press pp 129–136 ISBN 0-801-88221-4 OCLC 62265494 
  2. ^ Rylands AB & Mittermeier RA 2009 "The Diversity of the New World Primates Platyrrhini" In Garber PA, Estrada A, Bicca-Marques JC, Heymann EW & Strier KB South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation Springer pp 23–54 ISBN 978-0-387-78704-6 
  3. ^ Hershkovitz, P Living New World Monkeys Platyrrhini with an Introduction to the Primates University of Chicago 1977
  4. ^ a b Ford, S M 1980-01-01 "Callitrichids as phyletic dwarfs, and the place of the Callitrichidae in Platyrrhini" Primates 21 1: 31–43 doi:101007/BF02383822 ISSN 0032-8332 
  5. ^ Naish, Darren Marmosets and tamarins: dwarfed monkeys of the South American tropics Scientific American November 27, 2012
  6. ^ Harrison, M L; Tardif, S D 1994 "Social implications of gummivory in marmosets" American Journal of Physical Anthropology 95 4: 399–408 doi:101002/ajpa1330950404 PMID 7864061 
  7. ^ Sussman, RW 2003 "Chapter 1: Ecology: General Principles" Primate Ecology and Social Structure Pearson Custom Publishing p 29 ISBN 978-0-536-74363-3 
  8. ^ Cleveland and Snowdon Social development during the first twenty weeks in the cotton-top tamarin Saguinus o oedipus Animal Behaviour 1984 vol 32 2 pp 432-444
  9. ^ Garbino, Guilherme ST; Martins-Junior, Antonio MG "Phenotypic evolution in marmoset and tamarin monkeys Cebidae, Callitrichinae and a revised genus-level classification" Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 118: 156–171 doi:101016/jympev201710002 
  10. ^ Sampaio et al April 2015 "Re-description and assessment of the taxonomic status of Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai Hershkovitz, 1966 Primates, Callitrichinae" Primates 56 2: 131–144 doi:101007/s10329-015-0458-2 CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter link CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al link

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