Bursitisbursitis, bursitis of the hip
Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae small sacs of synovial fluid in the body They are lined with a synovial membrane that secretes a lubricating synovial fluid1 There are more than 150 bursae in the human body1 The bursae rest at the points where internal functionaries, such as muscles and tendons, slide across bone Healthy bursae create a smooth, almost frictionless functional gliding surface making normal movement painless When bursitis occurs, however, movement relying on the inflamed bursa becomes difficult and painful Moreover, movement of tendons and muscles over the inflamed bursa aggravates its inflammation, perpetuating the problem Muscle can also be stiffened
- 1 Signs and symptoms
- 2 Cause
- 3 Examples by site
- 4 Treatment
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Signs and symptomsedit
Bursitis commonly affects superficial bursae These include the subacromial, prepatellar, retrocalcaneal, and pes anserinus bursae of the shoulder, knee, heel and shin, etc see below1 Symptoms vary from localized warmth and erythema 1 to joint pain and stiffness, to stinging pain that surrounds the joint around the inflamed bursa In this condition, the pain usually is worse during and after activity, and then the bursa and the surrounding joint becomes stiff the next morning
There can be several concurrent causes Trauma, auto-immune disorders, infection and iatrogenic medicine-related factors can all cause bursitis1 Bursitis is commonly caused by repetitive movement and excessive pressure Shoulders, elbows and knees are the most commonly affected Inflammation of the bursae may also be caused by other inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus and gout Immune deficiencies, including HIV and diabetes, can also cause bursitis1 Infrequently, scoliosis can cause bursitis of the shoulders; however, shoulder bursitis is more commonly caused by overuse of the shoulder joint and related muscles
Traumatic injury is another cause of bursitis The inflammation irritates because the bursa no longer fits in the original small area between the bone and the functionary muscle or tendon When the bone increases pressure upon the bursa, bursitis results Sometimes the cause is unknown It can also be associated with various other chronic systemic diseases
Examples by siteedit
The most common examples of this condition:
- Prepatellar bursitis, "housemaid's knee"
- Infrapatellar bursitis, "clergyman's knee"
- Trochanteric bursitis, giving pain over lateral aspect of hip
- Olecranon bursitis, "student's elbow", characterised by pain and swelling in the elbow
- Subacromial bursitis, giving shoulder pain, is the most common form of bursitis2
- Achilles bursitis
- Retrocalcaneal bursitis
- Ischial bursitis, "weaver's bottom"
- Iliopsoas bursitis
- Anserine bursitis
It is important to differentiate between infected and non-infected bursitis People may have surrounding cellulitis and systemic symptoms include a fever The bursa should be aspirated to rule out an infectious process1
Bursae that are not infected can be treated symptomatically with rest, ice, elevation, physiotherapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and pain medication Since bursitis is caused by increased friction from the adjacent structures, a compression bandage is not suggested because compression would create more friction around the joint Chronic bursitis can be amenable to bursectomy and aspiration1 Bursae that are infected require further investigation and antibiotic therapy Steroid therapy may also be considered1 In cases when all conservative treatment fails, surgical therapy may be necessary In a bursectomy the bursa is cut out either endoscopically or with open surgery The bursa grows back in place after a couple of weeks but without any inflammatory component
- Calcific bursitis
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Vigorita, Vincent J; Ghelman, Bernard; Mintz, Douglas 2008 Orthopaedic Pathology Second ed Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins p 719 ISBN 978-0-7817-9670-5
- ^ Fauci, Anthony S; Langford, Carol A, eds 2010 Harrison's Rheumatology Second ed McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing; Digital Edition p 271 ISBN 9780071741460
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bursitis|
- Bursitis treatment from NHS Direct
- General Bursitis Information at Aboutcom
- Information from the Mayo Clinic
- Bursitis Causes, Types, Self-Management, Treatment, Prevention from University of Washington Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine
- Questions and Answers about Bursitis and Tendinitis – US National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
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