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Bringing Up Baby

bringing up baby, bringing up baby trailer
Bringing Up Baby is a 1938 American screwball comedy film directed by Howard Hawks, starring Katharine Hepburn and Cary Grant, and released by RKO Radio Pictures The film tells the story of a paleontologist in a number of predicaments involving a scatterbrained woman and a leopard named Baby The screenplay was adapted by Dudley Nichols and Hagar Wilde from a short story by Wilde which originally appeared in Collier's Weekly magazine on April 10, 1937

The script was written specifically for Hepburn, and was tailored to her personality Filming began in September 1937 and wrapped in January 1938; it was over schedule and over budget Production was frequently delayed due to uncontrollable laughing fits between Hepburn and Grant Hepburn struggled with her comedic performance and was coached by her co-star, vaudeville veteran Walter Catlett A tame leopard was used during the shooting; its trainer was off-screen with a whip for all its scenes

Bringing up Baby was a commercial flop upon its release, although it eventually made a small profit after its re-release in the early 1940s Shortly after the film's premiere, Hepburn was infamously labeled box-office poison by the Independent Theatre Owners of America and would not regain her success until The Philadelphia Story two years later The film's reputation began to grow during the 1950s, when it was shown on television

Since then, the film has received acclaim from both critics and audience for its zany antics and pratfalls, absurd situations and misunderstandings, perfect sense of comic timing, completely screwball cast, series of lunatic and hare-brained misadventures, disasters, light-hearted surprises and romantic comedy2 Nowadays, it is considered one of the greatest films ever made

In 1990 Bringing Up Baby was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant", and it has appeared on a number of greatest-films lists, ranking at 88th on the American Film Institute's 100 greatest American films of all time list

Contents

  • 1 Plot
  • 2 Cast
  • 3 Production
    • 31 Development and writing
      • 311 Unscripted ad-lib by Grant
    • 32 Casting
    • 33 Filming
    • 34 Post-production and previews
  • 4 Reception and box office
  • 5 Legacy
  • 6 References
    • 61 Notes
    • 62 Citations
    • 63 Bibliography
  • 7 Further reading
  • 8 External links

Plotedit

David Huxley Cary Grant is a mild-mannered paleontologist For the past four years, he has been trying to assemble the skeleton of a Brontosaurus but is missing one bone: the "intercostal clavicle" Adding to his stress is his impending marriage to the dour Alice Swallow Virginia Walker and the need to impress Elizabeth Random May Robson, who is considering a million-dollar donation to his museum

The day before his wedding, David meets Susan Vance Katharine Hepburn by chance on a golf course She is a free-spirited young lady, and unknown to him at first Mrs Random's niece Susan's brother, Mark, has sent her a tame leopard from Brazil named Baby Nissa to give to their aunt The leopard is native to Africa and Asia but not to South America Susan thinks David is a zoologist rather than a paleontologist, and persuades David to go to her country home in Connecticut to help bring up Baby which includes singing "I Can't Give You Anything But Love" to soothe the leopard Complications arise since Susan has fallen in love with David and tries to keep him at her house as long as possible to prevent his marriage

David finally receives the intercostal clavicle, but Susan's dog George Skippy takes it out of its box and buries it Susan's aunt, Elizabeth Random, arrives The dowager is unaware of David's identity, since Susan has introduced him as "Mr Bone" Baby and George run off, and Susan and David mistake a dangerous leopard who was being driven to be euthanized from a nearby circus also portrayed by Nissa for Baby, and let it out of the cage

David and Susan in jail

After considerable running around, David and Susan are jailed by a befuddled town policeman, Constable Slocum Walter Catlett, for breaking into the house of Dr Fritz Lehman Fritz Feld where they had cornered the circus leopard When Slocum does not believe their story, Susan tells him they are members of the "Leopard Gang"; she calls herself "Swingin' Door Susie", and David "Jerry the Nipper"a David fails to convince the constable that Susan makes things up "from motion pictures she's seen" Eventually, Alexander Peabody George Irving shows up to verify everyone's identity Susan, who during a police interview contrived to sneak out a window, unwittingly drags the irritated circus leopard into the jail David saves her, using a chair to shoo the big cat into a cell

Some time later Susan finds David, who has just been jilted by Alice because of her, on a high platform at his brontosaurus reconstruction at the museum After showing him the missing bone which she'd found by trailing George for three days, Susan, against his warnings, climbs a tall ladder next to the dinosaur to be closer to him She tells David that her Aunt has given her the million dollars, and she wants to donate it to the museum, but David is more interested in telling her that the day spent with her was the best day of his life Unconsciously swaying the ladder from side to side upon hearing David's further words of endearment and love, Susan tells him that she loves him too, then notices that the ladder is on the verge of falling over Frightened, she climbs onto and over the skeleton, but just before the dinosaur bones collapse David grabs her hand, she dangles below him, and he lifts her onto the platform Regrettably surveying the wreckage of his work, David soon accepts the destruction and chaos, gives in, and hugs and kisses Susan

Castedit

Productionedit

Development and writingedit

Director Howard Hawks began working on the film after plans to adapt "Gunga Din" were delayed

In March 1937 Howard Hawks signed a contract at RKO for an adaptation of Rudyard Kipling's "Gunga Din", which had been in pre-production since the previous fall When RKO was unable to borrow Clark Gable, Spencer Tracy and Franchot Tone from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for the film and the adaptation of "Gunga Din" was delayed, Hawks began looking for a new project In April 1937 he read a short story by Hagar Wilde in Collier's magazine called "Bringing Up Baby" and immediately wanted to make a film from it,3 remembering that it made him laugh out loud4 RKO bought the screen rights in June5 for $1,004, and Hawks worked briefly with Wilde on the film's treatment6 Wilde's short story differed significantly from the film: David and Susan are engaged, he is not a scientist and there is no dinosaur, intercostal clavicle or museum However, Susan gets a pet panther from her brother Mark to give to their Aunt Elizabeth; David and Susan must capture the panther in the Connecticut wilderness with the help of Baby's favorite song, "I Can't Give You Anything but Love, Baby"5

Hawks then hired screenwriter Dudley Nichols, best known for his work with director John Ford, for the script; Wilde would develop the characters and comedic elements of the script, while Nichols would take care of the story and structure Hawks worked with the two writers during summer 1937, and they came up with a 202-page script7 Wilde and Nichols wrote several drafts together, beginning a romantic relationship and co-authoring the Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers film Carefree a few months later5 The Bringing Up Baby script underwent several changes, and at one point there was an elaborate pie fight, inspired by Mack Sennett films Major Applegate had an assistant and food taster named Ali which was intended to be played by Mischa Auer, but this character was replaced with Aloysius Gogarty The script's final draft had several scenes in the middle of the film in which David and Susan declare their love for each other which Hawks cut during production8

Nichols was instructed to write the film for Hepburn, with whom he had worked on John Ford's Mary of Scotland in 19369 Barbara Leaming alleged that Ford had an affair with Hepburn, and claims that many of the characteristics of Susan and David were based on Hepburn and Ford10 Nichols was in touch with Ford during the screenwriting, and the film included such members of the John Ford Stock Company as Ward Bond, Barry Fitzgerald, D'Arcy Corrigan and associate producer Cliff Reid11 John Ford was a friend of Hawks, and visited the set The round glasses Grant wears in the film are reminiscent of Harold Lloyd and of Ford12

Filming was initially scheduled to begin on September 1, 1937 and wrap on October 31, but was delayed for several reasons Production had to wait until mid-September to clear the rights for "I Can't Give You Anything but Love, Baby" for $1,000 In August Hawks hired gag writers Robert McGowan and Gertrude Purcell13 for uncredited script rewrites, and McGowan added a scene inspired by the comic strip Professor Dinglehoofer and his Dog in which a dog buries a rare dinosaur bone8 RKO paid King Features $1,000 to use the idea for the film on September 2114

Unscripted ad-lib by Grantedit

It is debated by some whether Bringing Up Baby is the first fictional work apart from pornography to use the word gay in a homosexual context1516 In one scene, Cary Grant's character is wearing a woman's marabou-trimmed négligée; when asked why, he replies exasperatedly "Because I just went gay all of a sudden!" leaping into the air at the word gay As the term gay did not become familiar to the general public until the Stonewall riots in 1969,17 it is debated whether the word was used here in its original sense meaning "happy"18 or is an intentional, joking reference to homosexuality18

In the film, the line was an ad-lib by Grant and not in any version of the original script19 According to Vito Russo in The Celluloid Closet 1981, revised 1987, the script originally had Grant's character say "II suppose you think it's odd, my wearing this I realize it looks oddI don't usuallyI mean, I don't own one of these" Russo suggests that this indicates that people in Hollywood at least in Grant's circles were familiar with the slang connotations of the word; however, neither Grant nor anyone involved in the film suggested this17

The 1933 film My Weakness had previously used the word "gay" as an overt descriptor of homosexuality; one of two men pining away for the same woman suddenly suggests a solution to their mutual problem: "Let's be gay!" However, the Studio Relations Committee censors decreed that the line was too risque and had to be muffled20 The 1934 film This Side of Heaven included a scene in which a fussy, gossipy interior decorator tries to sell a floral fabric pattern to a customer, who knowingly replies, "It strikes me as a bit too gay"21

Castingedit

Hepburn and Grant in their second of four film collaborations

After briefly considering Hawks' cousin Carole Lombard for the role of Susan Vance, Katharine Hepburn was chosen to play the wealthy New Englander because of her background and similarities to the character RKO agreed to the casting, but had reservations because of Hepburn's salary and lack of box-office success for several years7 Producer Lou Lusty said, "You couldn't even break even if a Hepburn show cost eight hundred grand"14 At first, Hawks and producer Pandro S Berman could not agree on who to cast in the role of David Huxley Hawks initially wanted silent-film comedian Harold Lloyd; Berman rejected Lloyd and Ronald Colman, offering the role to Robert Montgomery, Fredric March and Ray Milland all of whom turned it down22

Hawks' friend Howard Hughes finally suggested Cary Grant for the role23 Grant had just finished shooting his breakthrough romantic comedy The Awful Truth,7 and Hawks may have seen a rough cut of the unreleased film14 Grant then had a non-exclusive, four-picture deal with RKO for $50,000 per film, and Grant's manager used his casting in the film to renegotiate his contract, earning him $75,000 plus the bonuses Hepburn was receiving22 Grant was initially concerned about being able to play an intellectual character and took two weeks to accept the role, despite the new contract Hawks built Grant's confidence by promising to coach him throughout the film, instructing him to watch Harold Lloyd films for inspiration24 Grant met with Howard Hughes throughout the film to discuss his character, which he said helped his performance24

Hawks obtained character actors Charlie Ruggles on loan from Paramount Pictures for Major Horace Applegate and Barry Fitzgerald on loan from The Mary Pickford Corporation to play gardener Aloysius Gogarty7 Hawks cast Virginia Walker as Alice Swallow, David's fiancée; Walker was under contract to him and later married his brother William Hawks25 As Hawks could not find a panther that would work for the film, Baby was changed to a leopard so they could cast the trained leopard Nissa, who had worked in films for eight years, making several B-movies14

Filmingedit

Shooting began September 23, 1937 and was scheduled to end November 20, 193726 on a budget of $767,67627 Filming began in-studio with the scenes in Susan's apartment, moving to the Bel Air Country Club in early October for the golf-course scenes14 The production had a difficult start due to Hepburn's struggles with her character and her comedic abilities She frequently overacted, trying too hard to be funny,27 and Hawks asked vaudeville veteran Walter Catlett to help coach her Catlett acted out scenes with Grant for Hepburn, showing her that he was funnier when he was serious Hepburn understood, acted naturally and played herself for the rest of the shoot; she was so impressed by Catlett's talent and coaching ability that she insisted he play Constable Slocum in the film2829

Katharine Hepburn and Nissa in a publicity photo; at one point, Nissa lunged at Hepburn and was only stopped by the trainer's whip

Most shooting was done at the Arthur Ranch in the San Francisco Valley, which was used as Aunt Elizabeth's estate for interior and exterior scenes14 Beginning at the Arthur Ranch shoot,19 Grant and Hepburn often ad-libbed their dialogue and frequently delayed production by making each other laugh30 The scene where Grant frantically asks Hepburn where his bone is was shot from 10 am until well after 4 pm because of the stars' laughing fits31 After one month of shooting Hawks was seven days behind schedule During the filming, Hawks would refer to four different versions of the film's script and make frequent changes to scenes and dialogue19 His leisurely attitude on set and shutting down production to see a horse race contributed to the time it took to film,31 and he took twelve days to shoot the Westlake jail scene instead of the scheduled five19 Hawks later facetiously blamed the setbacks on his two stars' laughing fits and having to work with two animal actors31

The terrier George was played by Skippy, known as Asta in The Thin Man film series and co-starring with Grant as Mr Smith in The Awful Truth The tame leopard Baby and the escaped circus leopard were both played by a trained leopard, Nissa The big cat was supervised by its trainer, Olga Celeste, who stood by with a whip during shooting At one point, when Hepburn spun around causing her skirt to twirl Nissa lunged at her and was subdued when Celeste cracked her whip Hepburn wore heavy perfume to keep Nissa calm and was unafraid of the leopard, but Grant was terrified; most scenes of the two interacting are done in close-up with a stand-in Hepburn played upon this fear by throwing a toy leopard through the roof of Grant's dressing room during production31 There were also several news reports about Hawks' difficulty filming a live leopard, and some scenes required rear-screen projection32

Hawks and Hepburn had a confrontation one day during shooting While Hepburn was chatting with a crew member, Hawks yelled "Quiet!" until the only person still talking was Hepburn When Hepburn paused and realized that everyone was looking at her, she asked what was the matter; Hawks asked her if she was finished imitating a parrot Hepburn took Hawks aside, telling him never to talk to her like that again since she was old friends with most of the crew When Hawks an older friend of the crew asked a lighting tech who he would rather drop a light on, Hepburn agreed to behave on set A variation of this scene, with Grant yelling "Quiet!", was incorporated into the film2933

The Westlake Street set was shot at 20th Century Fox Studios13 Filming was eventually completed on January 6, 1938 with the scenes outside Mr Peabody's house RKO producers expressed concerns about the film's delays and expense, coming 40 days over schedule and $330,000 over budget, and also disliked Grant's glasses and Hepburn's hair33 The film's final cost was $1,096,79623, primarily due to overtime clauses in Hawks', Grant's and Hepburn's contracts26 The film's cost for sets and props was only $5,000 over budget, but all actors including Nissa and Skippy were paid approximately double their initial salaries Hepburn's salary rose from $72,500 to $121,68050, Grant's salary from $75,000 to $123,43750 and Hawks' salary from $88,04625 to $202,500 The director received an additional $40,000 to terminate his RKO contract on March 21, 193834

Post-production and previewsedit

Hawks' editor, George Hively, cut the film during production and the final prints were made a few days after shooting ended26 The first cut of the film 10,150 feet long35 was sent to the Hayes Office in mid-January36 Despite several double entendres and sexual references it passed the film,26 overlooking Grant saying he "went gay" or Hepburn's reference to George urinating The censor's only objections were to the scene where Hepburn's dress is torn, and references to politicians such as Al Smith and Jim Farley36

Like all Hawks' comedies, the film is known for its fast pace despite being filmed primarily in long medium shots, with little cross-cutting Hawks told Peter Bogdanovich, "You get more pace if you pace the actors quickly within the frame rather than cross cutting fast"32

By February 18, the film had been cut to 9,204 feet36 It had two advance previews in January 1938, where it received either As or A-pluses on audience-feedback cards Producer Pandro S Berman wanted to cut five more minutes, but relented when Hawks, Grant and Cliff Reid objected36 At the film's second preview, the film received rave reviews and RKO expected a hit26 The film's musical score is minimal, primarily Grant and Hepburn singing "I Can't Give You Anything But Love, Baby" There is incidental music in the Ritz scene, and an arrangement of "I Can't Give You Anything But Love, Baby" during the opening and closing credits by musical director Roy Webb37

Reception and box officeedit

The film received good advance reviews; Otis Ferguson of The New Republic thought the film very funny, praising Hawks' direction38 Variety praised the film, singling out Hawks' pacing and direction, calling Hepburn's performance "one of her most invigorating screen characterizations" and saying Grant "performs his role to the hilt";39 their only criticism was the length of the jail scene40 Film Daily called it "literally a riot from beginning to end, with the laugh total heavy and the action fast"41 Harrison's Reports called the film "An excellent farce" with "many situations that provoke hearty laughter,"42 and John Mosher of The New Yorker wrote that both stars "manage to be funny" and that Hepburn had never "seemed so good-natured"43 However, Frank S Nugent of the New York Times disliked the film, considering it derivative and cliché-ridden, a rehash of dozens of other screwball comedies of the period He labeled Hepburn's performance "breathless, senseless, and terribly, terribly fatiguing",44 and added, "If you've never been to the movies, Bringing Up Baby will be new to you – a zany-ridden product of the goofy-farce school But who hasn't been to the movies"45

Despite Bringing Up Baby's reputation as a flop, it was successful in some parts of the US The film premiered on February 16, 1938 at the Golden Gate Theatre in San Francisco where it was a hit, and was also successful in Los Angeles, Portland, Denver, Cincinnati and Washington, DC However, it was a financial disappointment in the Midwest, as well as most other cities in the country, including NYC; to RKO's chagrin, the film's premiere in New York on March 3, 1938 at Radio City Music Hall made only $70,000 and it was pulled after one week46 in favor of Jezebel with Bette Davis47

During its first run, Bringing Up Baby made $715,000 in the US and $394,000 in foreign markets for a total of $1,109,000;34 its reissue in 1940 and 1941 made an additional $95,000 in the US and $55,000 in foreign markets46 Following its second run, the film made a profit of $163,00034 Due to its perceived failure, Hawks was released early from his two-film contract with RKO34 and Gunga Din was eventually directed by George Stevens48 Hawks later said the film "had a great fault and I learned an awful lot from that There were no normal people in it Everyone you met was a screwball and since that time I learned my lesson and don't intend ever again to make everybody crazy"49 The director went on to work with RKO on three films over the next decade50 Long before Bringing Up Baby's release, Hepburn had been branded "box-office poison" by Harry Brandt president of the Independent Theatre Owners of America and thus was allowed to buy out her RKO contract for $22,0005152 However, many critics marveled at her new skill at low comedy; Life magazine called her "the surprise of the picture"53 Hepburn's former boyfriend Howard Hughes bought RKO in 1941, and sold it in 1959; when he sold the company, Hughes retained the copyright to six films including Bringing Up Baby50

Legacyedit

Bringing Up Baby was the second of four films starring Grant and Hepburn; the others were Sylvia Scarlett 1935, Holiday 1938 and The Philadelphia Story 1940 The film's concept was described by philosopher Stanley Cavell as a "definitive achievement in the history of the art of film"54 Cavell noted that Bringing Up Baby was made in a tradition of romantic comedy with inspiration from ancient Rome and Shakespeare55 Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing and As You Like It have been cited in particular as influences on the film and the screwball comedy in general, with their "haughty, self-sufficient men, strong women and fierce combat of words and wit"56 Hepburn's character has been cited as an early example of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl film archetype57

The popularity of Bringing Up Baby has increased since it was shown on television during the 1950s, and by the 1960s film analysts including the writers at Cahiers du Cinema in France affirmed the film's quality In a rebuttal of fellow New York Times critic Nugent's scathing review of the film at the time of release, A O Scott has said that you'll "find yourself amazed at its freshness, its vigor, and its brilliance-qualities undiminished after sixty-five years, and likely to withstand repeated viewings"45 Leonard Maltin stated that it is now "considered the definitive screwball comedy, and one of the fastest, funniest films ever made; grand performances by all"45

Bringing Up Baby has been adapted several times Hawks recycled the nightclub scene in which Hepburn's dress is torn and Grant walks behind her in the 1964 comedy, Man's Favorite Sport Peter Bogdanovich's 1972 film What's Up, Doc, starring Barbra Streisand, was intended as an homage to the film, and has contributed to its reputation49 In the commentary track for Bringing Up Baby, Bogdanovich discusses how the coat-ripping scene in What's Up, Doc was based on the scene in which Grant's coat and Hepburn's dress are torn in Bringing Up Baby32 The 1987 film Who's That Girl, starring Madonna, is also loosely based on Bringing Up Baby58

In 1990 the registry's second year, Bringing Up Baby was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" Entertainment Weekly voted the film 24th on its list of greatest films In 2000, readers of Total Film magazine voted it the 47th-greatest comedy film of all time Premiere ranked Cary Grant's performance as Dr David Huxley 68th on its list of 100 all-time greatest performances,59 and ranked Susan Vance 21st on its list of 100 all-time greatest movie characters60

The National Society of Film Critics also included Bringing Up Baby in their "100 Essential Films", considering it to be arguably the director's best film56

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

  • 1998: AFI's 100 Years100 Movies – #9761
  • 2000: AFI's 100 Years100 Laughs – #1462
  • 2002: AFI's 100 Years100 Passions – #5163
  • 2005: AFI's 100 Years100 Movie Quotes:
    • Dr David Huxley: "It isn't that I don't like you, Susan, because after all, in moments of quiet, I'm strangely drawn toward you; but, well, there haven't been any quiet moments!" – Nominated64
  • 2007: AFI's 100 Years100 Movies 10th Anniversary Edition – #8865
  • 2008: AFI's 10 Top 10:
    • Nominated Romantic Comedy Film66

Referencesedit

Notesedit

  1. ^ "Jerry the Nipper" was Irene Dunne's nickname for Grant's character in The Awful Truth, which also featured Asta

Citationsedit

  1. ^ Hanson 1993, p 235
  2. ^ "Bringing Up Baby 1938" wwwfilmsiteorg Retrieved February 8, 2016 
  3. ^ Mast 1988, p 4
  4. ^ Eliot 2004, p 175
  5. ^ a b c Mast 1988, p 5
  6. ^ McCarthy 1997, p 246
  7. ^ a b c d McCarthy 1997, p 247
  8. ^ a b Mast 1988, p 6
  9. ^ Leaming 1995, p 348
  10. ^ Leaming 1995, pp 348–349
  11. ^ Leaming 1995, pp 348–9
  12. ^ Leaming 1995, p 349
  13. ^ a b Mast 1988, p 29
  14. ^ a b c d e f Mast 1988, p 7
  15. ^ "Censored Films and Television at University of Virginia online" University of Virginia Library Retrieved March 9, 2014 
  16. ^ Boswell 2009, p 43
  17. ^ a b Russo 1987, p 47
  18. ^ a b Harper, Douglas 2001–2013 "Gay" Online Etymology dictionary 
  19. ^ a b c d Mast 1988, p 8
  20. ^ Vieira, Mark A, Sin in Soft Focus: Pre-Code Hollywood, Abrams, 1999, pg 133
  21. ^ Vieira, Mark A, Sin in Soft Focus: Pre-Code Hollywood, Abrams, 1999, pg 168
  22. ^ a b Eliot 2004, pp 176–177
  23. ^ Eliot 2004, p 174
  24. ^ a b Eliot 2004, p 178
  25. ^ McCarthy 1997, p 248
  26. ^ a b c d e McCarthy 1997, p 254
  27. ^ a b McCarthy 1997, p 250
  28. ^ McCarthy 1997, pp 250–251
  29. ^ a b Mast 1988, p 261
  30. ^ McCarthy 1997, p 251
  31. ^ a b c d McCarthy 1997, p 252
  32. ^ a b c Bringing Up Baby DVD Special Features Peter Bogdanovich Audio Commentary Turner Home Entertainment 2005
  33. ^ a b McCarthy 1997, p 253
  34. ^ a b c d Mast 1988, p 14
  35. ^ Mast 1988, p 12
  36. ^ a b c d Mast 1988, p 13
  37. ^ Mast 1988, p 9
  38. ^ Mast 1988, p 268
  39. ^ Mast 1988, p 266
  40. ^ Mast 1988, p 267
  41. ^ "Reviews of the New Films" Film Daily: 12 February 11, 1938 
  42. ^ "Bringing Up Baby" Harrison's Reports: 31 February 19, 1938 
  43. ^ Mosher, John March 5, 1938 "The Current Cinema" The New Yorker: 61–62 
  44. ^ Mast 1988, p 265
  45. ^ a b c Laham 2009, p 29
  46. ^ a b McCarthy 1997, p 255
  47. ^ Brown 1995, p 140
  48. ^ McCarthy 1997, p 257
  49. ^ a b McCarthy 1997, p 256
  50. ^ a b Mast 1988, p 16
  51. ^ Eliot 2004, pp 180–1
  52. ^ McCarthy 1997, pp 255–7
  53. ^ Mast 1988, p 15
  54. ^ Cavell 1981, p 1
  55. ^ Mast 1988, p 3
  56. ^ a b Carr 2002, p 48
  57. ^ Bowman, Donna; Gillette, Amelie; Hyden, Steven; Murray, Noel; Pierce, Leonard; Rabin, Nathan August 4, 2008 "Wild things: 16 films featuring Manic Pixie Dream Girls" The AV Club Retrieved March 27, 2014 
  58. ^ "'Who's That Girl' PG" The Washington Post August 8, 1987 Retrieved March 9, 2014 
  59. ^ Premiere "The 100 Greatest Characters of All Time" Hachette Filipacchi Media US, April 2004, retrieved November 18, 2013
  60. ^ Premiere "The 100 Greatest Characters of All Time" Hachette Filipacchi Media US, April 2006, retrieved November 18, 2013
  61. ^ "AFI's 100 Years100 Movies" PDF American Film Institute Retrieved July 17, 2016 
  62. ^ "AFI's 100 Years100 Laughs" PDF American Film Institute Retrieved July 17, 2016 
  63. ^ "AFI's 100 Years100 Passions" PDF American Film Institute Retrieved July 17, 2016 
  64. ^ "AFI's 100 Years100 Movie Quotes Nominees" PDF Retrieved July 17, 2016 
  65. ^ "AFI's 100 Years100 Movies 10th Anniversary Edition" PDF American Film Institute Retrieved July 17, 2016 
  66. ^ "AFI's 10 Top 10 Nominees" PDF Archived from the original on July 16, 2011 Retrieved August 19, 2016 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown link

Bibliographyedit

  • Boswell, John February 15, 2009 Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century University of Chicago Press ISBN 978-0-226-06714-8 
  • Brown, Gene November 1, 1995 Movie time: a chronology of Hollywood and the movie industry from its beginnings to the present Macmillan ISBN 978-0-02-860429-9 
  • Carr, Jay January 2002 The A List: The National Society of Film Critics' 100 Essential Films Da Capo Press ISBN 978-0-306-81096-1 
  • Cavell, Stanley 1981 Pursuits of Happiness: The Hollywood Comedy of Remarriage Harvard University Press ISBN 978-0-674-73906-2 
  • Eliot, Marc 2004 Cary Grant: A Biography New York: Harmony Books ISBN 978-0-307-20983-2 
  • Hanson, Patricia King, ed 1993 The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Feature Films, 1931-1940 Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press ISBN 978-0-520-07908-3 
  • Laham, Nicholas January 1, 2009 Currents of Comedy on the American Screen: How Film and Television Deliver Different Laughs for Changing Times McFarland ISBN 978-0-7864-5383-2 
  • Leaming, Barbara 1995 Katharine Hepburn New York: Crown Publishers, Inc ISBN 978-0-87910-293-7 
  • Mast, Gerald 1988 Bringing Up Baby Howard Hawks, director New Brunswick and London: Rutgers University Press ISBN 978-0-8135-1341-6 
  • McCarthy, Todd 1997 Howard Hawks: The Grey Fox of Hollywood New York: Grove Press ISBN 978-0-8021-3740-1 
  • Russo, Vito September 20, 1987 The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies HarperCollins ISBN 978-0-06-096132-9 

Further readingedit

  • Swaab, Peter January 4, 2011 Bringing Up Baby British Film Institute ISBN 978-1-84457-070-6 

External linksedit

  • Bringing Up Baby on Internet Movie Database
  • Bringing Up Baby at AllMovie
  • Bringing Up Baby at the TCM Movie Database
  • Bringing Up Baby at the American Film Institute Catalog
  • Pauline Kael analysis
  • Bringing Up Baby at moviediva
  • Reprints of historic reviews, photo gallery at CaryGrantnet
  • Bringing Up Baby on Theater of Romance: July 24, 1945

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