Borjigin


Borjigin plural Borjigid; Mongolian: Боржигин, Borjigin; Борджигин, Bordjigin; Mongolian script: , Borjigit, is the last name of the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors The senior Borjigids provided ruling princes for Mongolia and Inner Mongolia until the 20th century1 The clan formed the ruling class among the Mongols and some other peoples of Central Asia and Eastern Europe Today, the Borjigid are found in most of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang,1 although genetic research has shown that descent from Genghis Khan is common in Central Asia

Contents

  • 1 Origin
  • 2 Mongol Empire
  • 3 Post-Mongol Empire
  • 4 Genghisids
  • 5 Yuan dynasty family tree
  • 6 Modern relevance and descent from Genghis Khan
  • 7 List of Kiyad-Borjigin dynasties
  • 8 Prominent Kiyads or Borjigins
    • 81 Rulers of the Khamag Mongol 11th century – 1206
    • 82 Emperors and rulers of the Mongol Empire 1206–1368
      • 821 Genghis Khan's brothers
      • 822 Rulers of the Khanates
        • 8221 Yuan dynasty
        • 8222 Golden Horde
        • 8223 Ilkhanate
        • 8224 Chagatai Khanate
    • 83 Post-Mongol Empire Golden Horde 1360–1502
    • 84 Crimean Khanate 1441–1783
    • 85 Kazan Khanate 1438–1552
    • 86 Uzbek Khanates 15th – mid 20th century
    • 87 Kazakh Khanate 1456–1847
    • 88 Northern Yuan dynasty 1368–1635
      • 881 Ruler of the Tumed
      • 882 Khalkha
    • 89 Empress of the Qing dynasty 1636–1717
  • 9 Gallery
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References

Originedit

See also: Family tree of Genghis Khan

The patrilineage began with Blu-grey Wolf Börte Chino and Fallow Doe Gua Maral As in The Secret History of the Mongols, their 11th generation descendant Dobu Mergen's widow Alan Gua the Fair was impregnated by a ray of light2 Her youngest son became the ancestor of the later Borjigid3 He was Bodonchar Munkhag , who along with his brothers sired the entire Mongol nation4 According to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, many of the older Mongolian clans were founded by members of the Borjigin — Barlas, Urud, Manghud, Taichiut, Chonos, Kiyat, etc The first Khan of the Mongol was Bodonchar Munkhag's great-great-grandson Khaidu Khan Khaidu's grandsons Khabul Khan and Ambaghai Khan founder of the Taichiut clan succeeded him Thereafter, Qabul's sons, Hotula Khan and Yesugei, and great-grandson Temujin Genghis Khan ruled the Khamag Mongol By the unification of the Mongols in 1206, virtually all of Temujin's uncles and first cousins died, and from then on only the descendants of Yesugei Baghatur formed the Borjigid

Mongol Empireedit

See also: Appanage The Mongol Empire, ca 1300 The gray area is the later Timurid empire

The Borjigin family ruled over the Mongol Empire from the 13th to 14th century The rise of Genghis Chingis narrowed the scope of the Borjigid-Kiyad clans sharply5 This separation was emphasized by the intermarriage of Genghis's descendants with the Barlas, Baarin, Manghud and other branches of the original Borjigid In the western regions of the Empire, the Jurkin and perhaps other lineages near to Genghis's lineage used the clan name Kiyad but did not share in the privileges of the Genghisids The Borjigit clan had once dominated large lands stretching from Java to Iran and from Indo-China to Novgorod In 1335, with the disintegration of the Ilkhanate in Iran, the first of numerous non-Borjigid-Kiyad dynasties appeared Established by marriage partners of Genghisids, these included the Suldus Chupanids, Jalayirids in the Middle East, the Barulas dynasties in Chagatai Khanate and India, the Manghud and Onggirat dynasties in the Golden Horde and Central Asia, and the Oirats in western Mongolia

In 1368, under Toghun Temür, the Yuan dynasty was overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China but members of the family continued to rule over Mongolia homeland into the 17th century, known as the Northern Yuan dynasty Descendants of Genghis Khan's brothers, Hasar and Belgutei, surrendered to the Ming in the 1380s By 1470 the Borjigin lines were severely weakened, and Mongolia was almost in chaos

Post-Mongol Empireedit

The Tumens of Mongolia Proper and vassal states of the Mongol Empire by 1400

After the breakup of the Golden Horde, the Khiyat continued to rule the Crimea and Kazan until the late 18th century They were annexed by the Russian Empire and the Chinese In Mongolia, the Kublaids reigned as Khagan of the Mongols, however, descendants of Ögedei and Ariq Böke usurped the throne briefly

Under Dayan Khan 1480–1517 a broad Borjigid revival reestablished Borjigid supremacy among the Mongols proper His descendants proliferated to become a new ruling class The Borjigin clan was the strongest of the 49 Mongol banners from which the Bontoi clan proper supported and fought for their Khan and for their honor The eastern Khorchins were under the Hasarids, and the Ongnigud, Abagha Mongols were under the Belguteids and Temüge Odchigenids A fragment of the Hasarids deported to Western Mongolia became the Khoshuts

The Qing dynasty respected the Borjigin family and the early emperors married the Hasarid Borjigids of the Khorchin Even among the pro-Qing Mongols, traces of the alternative tradition survived Aci Lomi, a banner general, wrote his History of the Borjigid Clan in 1732–356 The 18th century and 19th century Qing nobility was adorned by the descendants of the early Mongol adherents including the Borjigin7

Genghisidsedit

Asian dynasties descended from Genghis Khan included the Yuan dynasty of China, the Ilkhanids of Persia, the Jochids of the Golden Horde, the Shaybanids of Siberia, and the Astrakhanids of Central Asia As a rule, the Genghisid descent played a crucial role in Tatar politics For instance, Mamai had to exercise his authority through a succession of puppet khans but could not assume the title of khan himself because he lacked Genghisid lineage

The word "Chingisid" derives from the name of the Mongol conqueror Genghis Chingis Khan c 1162–1227 CE Genghis and his successors created a vast empire stretching from the Sea of Japan to the Black Sea

  • The Chingisid principle,8 or golden lineage, was the rule of inheritance laid down in the Yassa, the legal code attributed to Genghis Khan
  • A Chingisid prince was one who could trace direct descent from Genghis Khan in the male line, and who could therefore claim high respect in the Mongol and Turkic world
  • The Chingisid states were the successor states or Khanates after the Mongol empire broke up following the death of the Genghis Khan's sons and their successors
  • The term Chingisid people was usedby whom to describe the people of Genghis Khan's armies who came in contact with Europeans It applied primarily the Golden Horde, led by Batu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Members of the Horde were predominantly Oghuz — Turkic-speaking people rather than Mongols Although the aristocracy was largely Mongol, Mongols were never more than a small minority in the armies and the lands they conquered Europeans often incorrectly called the people of the Golden Horde "Tartars"

Babur and Humayun, founders of the Mughal Empire in India, asserted their authority as Chinggisids Because they claimed descent through their maternal lineage, they had never used the clan name Borjigin

The last ruling monarch of Genghisid ancestry, Mohammed Alim Khan d 1944, Emir of Bukhara from 1911 to 1920, was overthrown by Red Army in 1920

Yuan dynasty family treeedit

See also: Yuan and Northern Yuan dynasties emperor's family tree

Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire in 1206 His grandson, Kublai Khan, after defeating his younger brother Ariq Böke, founded the Yuan dynasty in China in 1271 The dynasty was overthrown by the Ming dynasty during the reign of Toghaghan-Temür in 1368, but it survived in Mongolia homeland, known as the Northern Yuan dynasty Although the kingship was usurped by Esen Tayisi of the Oirats in 1453, he was overthrown in the next year A recovery of the khaganate was achieved by Dayan Khan, but the territory was segmented by his descendants The last khaan Ligden died in 1634 and his son Ejei Khongghor submitted himself to Hong Taiji the next year, ending the Northern Yuan regime9 However, the Borjigin nobles continued to rule their subjects until the 20th century under the Qing1011

Or in a different version years of reign over the Northern Yuan dynasty up to 1388 are given in brackets

Modern relevance and descent from Genghis Khanedit

Further information: Descent from Genghis Khan Navaanneren, Minister of the Interior, who along with the 23rd Tushiyetu Khan Dorjsurenkhoroljav 1908–1937 was the last of the Borjigin with the title of Khan in Mongolia He was executed during the great purges of 1937

The Borjigin held power over Mongolia for many centuries even during Qing period and only lost power when Communists took control in the 20th century Aristocratic descent was something to be forgotten in the socialist period12 Joseph Stalin's henchmen executed some 30,000 Mongols including Borjigin nobles in a series of campaigns against their culture and religion13 Clan association has lost its practical relevance in the 20th century, but is still considered a matter of honour and pride by many Mongolians In 1920s the communist regime banned the use of clan names When the ban was lifted again in 1997, and people were told they had to have surnames, most families had lost knowledge about their clan association Because of that, a disproportionate number of families registered the most prestigious clan name Borjigin, many of them without historic justification1415 The label Borjigin is used as a measure of cultural supremacy16

In Inner Mongolia, the Borjigid or Kiyad name became the basis for many Chinese surnames adopted by ethnic Inner Mongols5 The Inner Mongolian Borjigin Taijis took the surname Bao 鲍, from Borjigid and in Ordos Qi 奇, Qiyat A genetic research has proposed that as many as 16 million men from populations as far apart as Hazaras in the West and Hezhe people to the east may have Borjigid-Kiyad ancestry,17 but the professionalism of that study is being criticisedcitation needed The Qiyat clan name is still found among the Kazakhs, Uzbeks and Karakalpaks

List of Kiyad-Borjigin dynastiesedit

  • Mongol Empire:
    • Golden Horde
      • Kazan Khanate
        • Qasim Khanate
      • Shaibanid
        • Uzbek Khanate
          • Kazakh Khanate
          • Manghit Dynasty
          • Khanate of Khiva
          • Khanate of Bukhara
      • Giray Dynasty
        • Crimean Khanate
      • Astrakhan Khanate
    • Chagatai Khanate
    • Yuan dynasty
    • Ilkhanate
  • Northern Yuan dynasty

Prominent Kiyads or Borjiginsedit

The division of the Mongol Empire, c 1300, with the Golden Horde in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east

Rulers of the Khamag Mongol 11th century – 1206edit

  • Khaidu
  • Khabul Khan
  • Yesugei

Emperors and rulers of the Mongol Empire 1206–1368edit

  • Genghis Khan
  • Tolui Khan
  • Ögedei Khan
  • Güyük Khan
  • Möngke Khan

Genghis Khan's brothersedit

  • Hasar
  • Belgutei
  • Temüge

Rulers of the Khanatesedit

Yuan dynastyedit
  • Kublai Khan
  • Temür Khan
  • Toghon Temür Khan
Golden Hordeedit Batu Khan on his throne
  • Jochi
  • Orda Khan
  • Batu Khan
  • Berke
  • Shiban
  • Toqta
  • Uzbeg Khan
Ilkhanateedit
  • Hulagu
  • Abaqa
  • Ghazan
Chagatai Khanateedit
  • Chagatai Khan
  • Kaidu
  • Duwa
  • Esen Buqa I
  • Kebek
  • Tarmashirin
    • Timurid Empire
      • Mughal Empire

Post-Mongol Empire Golden Horde 1360–1502edit

  • Urus Khan
  • Toqtamish
  • Mamai18
  • Olug Moxammat

Crimean Khanate 1441–1783edit

  • Mengli Giray

Kazan Khanate 1438–1552edit

  • Olug Moxammat

Uzbek Khanates 15th – mid 20th centuryedit

Mohammed Alim Khan, last Emir of the Manghit lineage, 1911 Early color photograph by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
  • Muhammad Shaybani
  • Abulghazi Bahadur
  • Mohammed Alim Khan

Kazakh Khanate 1456–1847edit

  • Janybek Khan

Northern Yuan dynasty 1368–1635edit

  • Öljei Temür Khan
  • Dayan Khan
  • Ligdan Khan
  • Ejei Khan

Ruler of the Tumededit

  • Altan Khan

Khalkhaedit

  • Zanabazar

Empress of the Qing dynasty 1636–1717edit

The royals of the Khorchin Mongols were descended from Khasar, the brother of Genghis Khan

  • Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
  • Empress Xiaohuizhang
  • Borjigit, Demoted Empress
Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang of the Borjigit

During the initial building of the Qing dynasty, the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan had the tradition of diplomatic marriages with Mongols to earn their support Qing rulers would make Mongol ladies empresses and major concubines As the Khorchin were the strongest banner, the Manchus were anxious to make alliances from the Borjigit These marriages produced two empresses and three dowager empresses of the Qing dynasty, from which Xiaozhuang subsequently became a notable grand empress dowager Hence, it is not surprising to note that from Nurhaci to the Shunzhi Emperor, all the empresses and major concubines were Mongols

Empress Xiaoduanwen Jere was made empress in 1636, Empress of Emperor Hung Taiji Daughter of Prince Manjusri Known as a benevolent empress and the most virtuous of all Made "Motherly Empress Dowager Empress" Mu Hou Huang Tai Hou in 1643 after the death Of Emperor Hung Taiji She died in 1649 Shunzhi's 6th year of rule

Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang Bumbutai was historically considered the mother of Qing dynasty She was a concubine of Huang Taiji Daughter of Prince Jaisang and niece of Empress Xiaoduan Made the "Enlightened Mother Dowager Empress" Sheng Mu Huang Tai Hou in 1643 after the death of Emperor Hung Taiji She died in 1688 having helped Shunzhi Emperor, her son, run the country till his death and Kangxi Emperor, her grandson, for 25 years of his reign This makes all Qing dynasty emperors who ruled China proper descendants of Genghis Khan Xiaozhuang was an excellent politician who did not like to interfere in politics, unlike the notorious Empress Dowager Cixi However, when the conditions required, she rendered her efforts

Galleryedit

See alsoedit

  • Mongol Empire
  • Family tree of Genghis Khan
  • List of Mongol Khans
  • Tatar
  • Mongolian name
  • List of medieval Mongolian tribes and clans
  • History of Mongolia
  • Khalkha
  • Turco-Mongol
  • Timurid dynasty
  • List of family trees

Referencesedit

Footnotes
  1. ^ a b Caroline Humphrey, David Sneath The end of Nomadism, p27
  2. ^ The Secret History of the Mongols, Ch1 $17
  3. ^ Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907-1368, p330
  4. ^ Kahn, Paul The Secret History of the Mongols, p 10
  5. ^ a b C P Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p45
  6. ^ Peter C Perdue China marches west, p487
  7. ^ Pamela Kyle Crossley A Translucent Mirror, p213
  8. ^ Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History Chapter VIII by Charles J Halperin, Indiana University Press, 1985 ISBN 0-253-20445-3, ISBN 978-0-253-20445-5
  9. ^ Ann Heirman, Stephan Peter Bumbacher The spread of Buddhism, p395
  10. ^ David Sneath Changing Inner Mongolia: pastoral Mongolian society and the Chinese state, p21
  11. ^ Wada Sei did pioneer work on this field, and Honda Minobu and Okada Hidehiro modified it, using newly discovered Persian Timurid records and Mongol chronicles
  12. ^ Caroline Humphrey, David Sneath The end of Nomadism, p28
  13. ^ Jack Weatherford Genghis Khan, pXV
  14. ^ "In Search of Sacred Names", Mongolia Today 
  15. ^ Magnier, Mark October 23, 2004 "Identity Issues in Mongolia" Los Angeles Times 
  16. ^ Carole Pegg Mongolian music, dance, & oral narrative, p22
  17. ^ Genetic legacy of the Mongols, American journal of Human genetics 72 p 717-721
  18. ^ According to HHHoworth, Mamai used the clan name Kiyad which is near to Genghisid lineage However, he was not direct descendant of Genghis Khan, The History of the Mongols, partII, DII, p190
Further reading
  • Wada Sei 和田清 Tōashi Kenkyū Mōko Hen 東亜史研究 蒙古編 Tokyo, 1959
  • Honda Minobu 本田實信 On the genealogy of the early Northern Yüan, Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher, XXX-314, 1958
  • Okada Hidehiro 岡田英弘 Dayan Hagan no nendai ダヤン・ハガンの年代 Tōyō Gakuhō, Vol 48, No 3 pp 1–26 and No 4 pp 40–61, 1965
  • Okada Hidehiro 岡田英弘 Dayan Hagan no sensei ダヤン・ハガンの先世 Shigaku Zasshi Vol 75, No 5, pp 1–38, 1966
— Royal house — House of Borjigin
Preceded by
Liao dynasty
Ruling House of Mongolia
11th century–1691
Succeeded by
Qing dynasty
New title Ruling House of the Mongol Empire
1206–1368
Succeeded by
Northern Yuan dynasty
Preceded by
Song dynasty
Ruling House of China
1271–1368
Succeeded by
Ming dynasty
New title Protector of Tibet
1270–1354
Succeeded by
Phagmodrupa Dynasty
Preceded by
Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty
Ruling House of Persian Empire
1247–1335
Succeeded by
Jalayirids
Chupanid Suldus
Preceded by
The Khanate established
Ruling House of the Golden Horde
1236–1502
Succeeded by
Kiyat Girays
Tatars


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