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boreoeutheria, boreoeutheria cladogram images
Boreoeutheria synonymous with Boreotheria Greek: βόρειο "north" + ευ "good" + θεριό "beast" is a clade magnorder of placental mammals that is composed of the sister taxa Laurasiatheria most hoofed mammals, most pawed carnivores, and several other groups and Euarchontoglires Supraprimates It is now well supported by DNA sequence analyses, as well as retrotransposon presence or absence data[citation needed]

The earliest known fossils belonging to this group date to about 65 million years ago, shortly after the K-Pg extinction event, though molecular data suggest they may have originated earlier, during the Cretaceous period[1]

With a few exceptions[a] male animals in the clade have a scrotum which serves the function of cooling the testicles to improve the production of sperm[2][3] The sub-clade Scrotifera was named after this feature[4]


  • 1 Boreoeutherian ancestor
  • 2 Classification
    • 21 Cladogram
    • 22 Notes
  • 3 References
    • 31 Additional references
  • 4 External links

Boreoeutherian ancestor

The common ancestor of Boreoeutheria lived between 100 and 80 million years ago The boreoeutherian ancestor gave rise to species as diverse as giraffes, dogs, mice, bats, whales, and humans The concept of boreoeutherian ancestor was first proposed in 2004 in the journal Genome Research[5][6] The paper’s authors claimed that the genome sequence of the boreoeutherian ancestor could be computationally predicted with 98% accuracy, but would “take a few years and a lot of money” It is estimated to contain three billion base pairs[5]


Class Mammalia

  • Magnorder Boreoeutheria
    • Superorder Euarchontoglires Supraprimates
      • Grandorder Euarchonta
        • Order Scandentia: treeshrews Southeast Asia
        • Mirorder Primatomorpha
          • Order Dermoptera: flying lemurs or colugos Southeast Asia
          • Order Primates: lemurs, bushbabies, monkeys, apes cosmopolitan
      • Grandorder Glires
        • Order Lagomorpha: pikas, rabbits, hares Eurasia, Africa, Americas
        • Order Rodentia: rodents cosmopolitan
    • Superorder Laurasiatheria
      • Order Eulipotyphla
        • Family Erinaceidae: hedgehogs and gymnures Eurasia, Africa, extinct in North America
        • Family Soricidae: shrews, solenodons Eurasia, Africa, North America, northern South America
        • Family Talpidae: moles and desmans Eurasia, North America
        • Family Solenodontidae: solenodons Caribbean
      • Order Cetartiodactyla: even-toed ungulates, including pigs, hippopotamus, camels, giraffe, deer, antelope, cattle, whales, dolphins, porpoises, etc
          • Suborder Tylopoda: camels and extinct relatives
          • Suborder Suina: pigs,peccaries, and extinct relatives
          • Suborder Ruminantia: cattle, sheep, goats, deer, antelope, etc
          • Suborder Whippomorpha: whales, dolphins, porpoises, and hippopotamuses
            • Family Hippopotamidae: hippopotamuses
            • Infraorder Cetacea: whales, dolphins, and porpoises[b]
      • Order Chiroptera: bats cosmopolitan
      • Order Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates, including horses, donkeys, zebras, tapirs, rhinoceroses, and Chalicotheres cosmopolitan
      • Clade Ferae
        • Order Pholidota: pangolins or scaly anteaters Africa, South and Southeast Asia
        • Order Carnivora: carnivorans cosmopolitan


The weakly favoured cladogram favours Boreoeuthearia as a basal Eutherian clade as sister to the Atlantogenata[7][c][8]











  1. ^ Exceptional clades whose males lack the usual Boreoeutherian scrotum are moles, hedgehogs, pangolins, some seals and walruses, rhinoceroses, tapirs, hippopotamuses, and cetaceans
  2. ^ While it is agreed that the cetaceans evolved within even-toed ungulates Artiodactyla, much of the branching order within Laurasiatheria is not yet well resolved In particular, the most difficult order to place definitively has been and still is Perissodactyla: Their proper place within or beside the Artiodactyls is controversial
  3. ^ Exceptional clades whose males lack the usual Boreoeutherian scrotum are moles, hedgehogs, pangolins, some seals and walruses, rhinoceroses, tapirs, hippopotamuses, and cetaceans

A 2013 study by Tsagkogeorga, et al suggests that the carnivores, cetaceans, chiroptera, and ungulates form an ancient clade[9] This is supported by a study by Morgan, et al 2013 that suggests that Eulipotyphla are the earliest diverging clade within the Laurasiatheria[10]


  1. ^ O'Leary, M A; Bloch, J I; Flynn, J J; Gaudin, T J; Giallombardo, A; Giannini, N P; Cirranello, A L 2013 "The placental mammal ancestor and the post–K-Pg radiation of placentals" Science 339 6120: 662–667 doi:101126/science1229237 PMID 23393258 
  2. ^ D S Mills; Jeremy N Marchant-Forde 2010 The Encyclopedia of Applied Animal Behaviour and Welfare CABI pp 293– ISBN 978-0-85199-724-7 
  3. ^ Drew, Liam 8 July 2013 "Why are testicles kept in a vulnerable dangling sac" slatecom Between these branches, however, is where it gets interesting, for there are numerous groups, our descended but a-scrotal cousins, whose testes drop down away from the kidneys but don't exit the abdomen Almost certainly, these animals evolved from ancestors whose testes were external, which means at some point they backtracked  , evolving anew gonads inside the abdomen They are a ragtag bunch including hedgehogs, moles, rhinos and tapirs, hippopotamuses, dolphins and whales, some seals and walruses, and scaly anteaters 
  4. ^ Waddell; et al 1999 "Using novel phylogenetic methods to evaluate mammalian mtDNA, including amino acid-invariant sites-LogDet plus site stripping, to detect internal conflicts in the data, with special reference to the positions of hedgehog, armadillo, and elephant" Systematic Biology 48 1: 31–53 doi:101080/106351599260427 Retrieved 4 October 2011 The name comes from the word scrotum, a pouch in which the testes permanently reside in the adult male All members of the group have a postpenile scrotum, often prominently displayed, except for some aquatic forms and pangolin which has the testes just below the skin It appears to be an ancestral character for this group, yet other orders generally lack this as an ancestral feature, with the probable exception of Primates 
  5. ^ a b John Roach 25 Jan 2005 "Scientists recreate genome of ancient human ancestor" National Geographic Retrieved 14 Feb 2015 
  6. ^ Mathieu Blanchette; Eric D Green; Webb Miller; David Haussler 2004 "Reconstructing large regions of an ancestral mammalian genome in silico" Genome Research 14: 2412–2423 doi:101101/gr2800104 PMC 534665  PMID 15574820 Retrieved 14 Feb 2015 
  7. ^ Foley, Nicole M; Springer, Mark S; Teeling, Emma C 19 July 2016 "Mammal madness: Is the mammal tree of life not yet resolved" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 371 1699: 20150140 doi:101098/rstb20150140 ISSN 0962-8436 PMC 4920340  PMID 27325836 
  8. ^ Esselstyn, Jacob A; Oliveros, Carl H; Swanson, Mark T; Faircloth, Brant C 2017-08-26 "Investigating Difficult Nodes in the Placental Mammal Tree with Expanded Taxon Sampling and Thousands of Ultraconserved Elements" Genome Biology and Evolution 9 9: 2308–2321 doi:101093/gbe/evx168 ISSN 1759-6653 PMC 5604124  PMID 28934378 
  9. ^ Tsagkogeorga, G; Parker, J; Stupka, E; Cotton, JA; Rossiter, SJ 2013 "Phylogenomic analyses elucidate the evolutionary relationships of bats" Current Biology 23: 2262–2267 doi:101016/jcub201309014 PMID 24184098 
  10. ^ Morgan, CC; Foster, PG; Webb, AE; Pisani, D; McInerney, JO; O'Connell, MJ 2013 "Heterogeneous models place the root of the placental mammal phylogeny" Molecular Biology and Evolution 30 9: 2145–2256 doi:101093/molbev/mst117 

Additional references

  • Waddell, PJ; Kishino, H; Ota, R 2001 "A phylogenetic foundation for comparative mammalian genomics" Genome Inform Ser Workshop Genome Inform 12: 141–154 
  • Murphy, William J; Eizirik, Eduardo; Springer, Mark S; et al 2001 "Resolution of the early placental mammal radiation using Bayesian phylogenetics" Science 294 5550: 2348–2351 doi:101126/science1067179 PMID 11743200 
  • Kriegs; Ole, Jan; Churakov, Gennady; Kiefmann, Martin; Jordan, Ursula; Brosius, Juergen; Schmitz, Juergen 2006 "Retroposed elements as archives for the evolutionary history of placental mammals" PLoS Biology 4 4: e91 doi:101371/journalpbio0040091 PMC 1395351  PMID 16515367 
  • Blanchette, M; Green, ED; Miller, W; Haussler, D Dec 2004 "Reconstructing large regions of an ancestral mammalian genome in silico" Genome Research 14 12: 2412–2423 doi:101101/gr2800104 PMC 534665  PMID 15574820 
  • Ma, J; Zhang, L; Suh, BB; Raney, BJ; Burhans, RC; Kent, WJ; Blanchette, M; Haussler, D; Miller, W Dec 2006 "Reconstructing contiguous regions of an ancestral genome" Genome Research 16 12: 1557–1565 doi:101101/gr5383506 PMC 1665639  PMID 16983148 

External links

  • Gross, Liza 14 March 2006 "Resolving the family tree of placental mammals" PLoS Biology Retrieved 16 June 2018 
  • Olson, Steve April 2006 "Bringing back the brontosaurus" Wired 

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