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Bon Festival

bon festival, bon festival 2018
Obon お盆 or just Bon 盆 is a Japanese Buddhist custom to honor the spirits of one's ancestors This Buddhist-Confucian custom has evolved into a family reunion holiday during which people return to ancestral family places and visit and clean their ancestors' graves, and when the spirits of ancestors are supposed to revisit the household altars It has been celebrated in Japan for more than 500 years and traditionally includes a dance, known as Bon-Odori

The festival of Obon lasts for three days; however its starting date varies within different regions of Japan When the lunar calendar was changed to the Gregorian calendar at the beginning of the Meiji era, the localities in Japan reacted differently and this resulted in three different times of Obon "Shichigatsu Bon" "Bon in July" is based on the solar calendar and is celebrated around 15 July in eastern Japan Kantō region such as Tokyo, Yokohama and the Tōhoku region, coinciding with Chūgen "Hachigatsu Bon" Bon in August is based on the lunar calendar, is celebrated around the 15th of August and is the most commonly celebrated time "Kyū Bon" Old Bon is celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month of the lunar calendar, and so differs each year "Kyū Bon" is celebrated in areas like the northern part of the Kantō region, Chūgoku region, Shikoku, and the Okinawa Prefecture These three days are not listed as public holidays but it is customary that people are given leave1

Contents

  • 1 Origin
  • 2 Bon Odori
  • 3 Celebrations outside Japan
    • 31 Argentina
    • 32 Brazil
    • 33 China
    • 34 Korea
    • 35 Malaysia
    • 36 United States and Canada
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 Bibliography
  • 7 External links

Originedit

Obon is a shortened form of Ullambana Japanese: 于蘭盆會 or 盂蘭盆會, urabon'e It is Sanskrit for "hanging upside down" and implies great suffering2 The Japanese believe they should ameliorate the suffering of the "Urabanna"citation needed

Bon Odori originates from the story of Maha Maudgalyayana Mokuren, a disciple of the Buddha, who used his supernatural powers to look upon his deceased mother He discovered she had fallen into the Realm of Hungry Ghosts and was suffering3 Greatly disturbed, he went to the Buddha and asked how he could release his mother from this realm Buddha instructed him to make offerings to the many Buddhist monks who had just completed their summer retreat, on the fifteenth day of the seventh month The disciple did this and, thus, saw his mother's release He also began to see the true nature of her past selflessness and the many sacrifices that she had made for him The disciple, happy because of his mother's release and grateful for his mother's kindness, danced with joy From this dance of joy comes Bon Odori or "Bon Dance", a time in which ancestors and their sacrifices are remembered and appreciated See also: Ullambana Sutra

As Obon occurs in the heat of the summer, participants traditionally wear yukata, or light cotton kimonos Many Obon celebrations include a huge carnival with rides, games, and summer festival food like watermelon4

Families sent their ancestor's spirits back to their permanent dwelling place under the guidance of fire: this rite was known as sending fire Okuribi Fire also marks the commencement Mukaebi as well as the closing of the festival5

Bon Odoriedit

Bon Odori Dancers August 2004 at Imazu Primary School in Osaka

Bon Odori Japanese: 盆踊り, meaning simply Bon dance, is a style of dancing performed during Obon Originally a Nenbutsu folk dance to welcome the spirits of the dead, the style of celebration varies in many aspects from region to region Each region has a local dance, as well as different music The music can be songs specifically pertinent to the spiritual message of Obon, or local min'yō folk songs Consequently, the Bon dance will look and sound different from region to region Hokkaidō is known for a folk-song known as "Sōran Bushi" The song "Tokyo Ondo" takes its namesake from the capital of Japan "Gujo Odori" in Gujō in Gifu Prefecture is famous for all night dancing "Gōshū Ondo" is a folk song from Shiga Prefecture Residents of the Kansai area will recognize the famous "Kawachi ondo" Tokushima in Shikoku is very famous for its "Awa Odori", and in the far south, one can hear the "Ohara Bushi" of Kagoshima

The way in which the dance is performed is also different in each region, though the typical Bon dance involves people lining up in a circle around a high wooden scaffold made especially for the festival called a yagura The yagura is usually also the bandstand for the musicians and singers of the Obon music Some dances proceed clockwise, and some dances proceed counter-clockwise around the yagura Some dances reverse during the dance, though most do not At times, people face the yagura and move towards and away from it Still some dances, such as the Kagoshima Ohara dance, and the Tokushima Awa Odori, simply proceed in a straight line through the streets of the town

The dance of a region can depict the area's history and specialization For example, the movements of the dance of the Tankō Bushi the "coal mining song" of old Miike Mine in Kyushu show the movements of miners, ie digging, cart pushing, lantern hanging, etc; the above-mentioned Soran Bushi mimics the work of fishermen such as hauling in the nets All dancers perform the same dance sequence in unison

There are other ways in which a regional Bon dance can vary Some dances involve the use of different kinds of fans, others involve the use of small towels called tenugui which may have colorful designs Some require the use of small wooden clappers, or "kachi-kachi" during the dance The "Hanagasa Odori" of Yamagata is performed with a straw hat that has been decorated with flowers

The music that is played during the Bon dance is not limited to Obon music and min'yō; some modern enka hits and kids' tunes written to the beat of the "ondo" are also used to dance to during Obon season

The Bon dance tradition is said to have started in the later years of the Muromachi period as a public entertainment In the course of time, the original religious meaning has faded, and the dance has become associated with summer

The Bon dance performed in the Okinawa Islands is known as eisā Similarly, the Yaeyama Islands have Angama

Celebrations outside Japanedit

Argentinaedit

In Argentina, the Bon Festival is celebrated by Japanese communities during the summer of the southern hemisphere The biggest festival is held in Colonia Urquiza, in La Plata It takes place on the sports ground of the La Plata Japanese School The festival also includes taiko shows and typical dances6

Braziledit

Bon Odori Festival is celebrated every year in many Japanese communities all over Brazil, as Brazil is home to the largest Japanese population outside Japan São Paulo is the main city of the Japanese community in Brazil, and also features the major festival in Brazil, with street odori dancing and matsuri dance It also features Taiko and Shamisen contests And of course, this festival is also a unique experience of a variety of Japanese food & drinks, art and dance

Chinaedit

Main article: Ghost Festival

Koreaedit

The Korean version of the Bon celebration is known as Baekjung Participants present offerings at Buddhist shrines and temples, and masked dances are performed It is as much an agricultural festival as a religious one78

Malaysiaedit

In Malaysia, Bon Odori Festivals are also celebrated every year in Esplanade Padang Kota Lama Penang, Matsushita Corp Stadium in Shah Alam, Selangor, and also Universiti Malaysia Sabah at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah This celebration, which is a major attraction for the state of Selangor, is the brain child of the Japanese Expatriate & Immigrant's Society in Malaysia In comparison to the celebrations in Japan, the festival is celebrated on a much smaller scale in Penang, Selangor and Sabah, and is less associated with Buddhism and more with Japanese culture Held mainly to expose locals to a part of Japanese culture, the festival provides the experience of a variety of Japanese food and drinks, art and dance, with the vast number of Japanese companies in Malaysia taking part to promote their products

United States and Canadaedit

Bon Odori festivals are also celebrated in North America, particularly by Japanese-Americans or Japanese-Canadians affiliated with Buddhist temples and organizations Buddhist Churches of America BCA temples in the US typically celebrate Bon Odori with both religious Obon observances and traditional Bon Odori dancing around a yagura Many temples also concurrently hold a cultural and food bazaar providing a variety of cuisine and art, also to display features of Japanese culture and Japanese-American history9 Performances of taiko by both amateur and professional groups have recently become a popular feature of Bon Odori festivals1011 Bon Odori festivals are usually scheduled anytime between July and September Bon Odori melodies are also similar to those in Japan; for example, the dance Tankō Bushi from Kyushu is also performed in the US In California, due to the diffusion of Japanese immigration, Bon Odori dances also differ from Northern to Southern California, and some are influenced by American culture, such as "Baseball Ondo"

Even Ke'ei, a remote place, 12 on the western side of Hawaii, comes alive when bon dance is held under the monkey pod tree of the Buddhist mission & cemetery every August

The "Bon season" is an important part of the present-day culture and life of Hawaii It was brought there by the plantation workers from Japan, and now the bon dance events are held among the five major islands Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii on weekend evenings from June to August They are held usually at Buddhist missions, but sometimes at Shintoist missions or at shopping centers 13 14 At some Buddhist missions, the dance is preceded by a simple ritual where the families of the deceased in the past year burn incense for remembrance, but otherwise the event is non-religious The songs played differ among the regions --- one or two hour bon dance in the western part of the Big Island in and around Kailua Kona, for example, typically starts with Tankō Bushi, continues with songs such as Kawachi Otoko Bushi using wooden clappers, Yukata Odori using the towels given at the donation desk, Asatoya Yunta and Ashibina from Okinawa Prefecture reflecting the fact that many Okinawan descendants live in Hawaii, Pokémon Ondo for children, zumba songs for the young, Beautiful Sunday, etc, and ends with Fukushima Ondo celebrating abundant harvest 15 The participants, Japanese descendants and the people of all races, dance in a big circle around the yagura, the central tower set up for the dance, from which recorded songs are broadcast and, most of the time, the taiko group accompany the songs playing drums In larger cities, bon dance lessons are given by volunteers before the actual events 16

Some Japanese museums may also hold Obon festivals, such as the Morikami Japanese Museum17 in Florida

See alsoedit

  • Segaki, the concept of offering food to the hungry ghosts in Japanese Buddhism
  • Awa Dance Festival
  • Ghost Festival, the Chinese counterpart of the Bon Festival
  • Pitru Paksha, A Hindu festival that bears similarities to the Bon festival
  • Day of the Dead, a Mexican festival also revolving around the dead
  • Qingming Festival
  • Japanese calendar
  • Japanese culture

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Bon A-B-C, 2002, Bonodorinet, Japan, http://wwwbonodorinet/E/sekai/bonabc3HTML
  2. ^ Chen, K 1968, ‘Filial Piety in Chinese Buddhism’, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, p88
  3. ^ What is Obon, 1998, Shingon Buddhist International Institute, California, http://wwwshingonorg/library/archive/Obonhtml
  4. ^ Obon: Japanese festival of the dead, 2000, Asia Society, http://wwwasiasourceorg/news/at_mp_02cfmnewsid=27391
  5. ^ HUR, Nam-Lin Death and Social Order in Tokugawa Japan: Buddhism, Anti-Christianity, and the Danka System Harvard University Asia Center, 2007 p 192 ISBN 9780674025035 
  6. ^ "Una tradición que se afirma en la Ciudad", El Día, Sunday, January 9, 2010
  7. ^ MobileReference 2007 Encyclopedia of Observances, Holidays and Celebrations from MobileReference MobileReference p 490 ISBN 978-1-60501-177-6 Retrieved 2 April 2013 
  8. ^ Dong-Il Cho 2005 Korean Mask Dance Ewha Womans University Press p 49 ISBN 978-89-7300-641-0 Retrieved 2 April 2013 
  9. ^ Nakao, Annie, "Japanese Americans keeping Obon tradition alive", San Francisco Chronicle, Friday, July 8, 2005
  10. ^ Schulze, Margaret, "Obon Story: Honoring ancestors, connecting to our community", in the Nikkei West newspaper, San Jose, California, Vol 10, No 14, July 25th, 2002 Archived August 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "Obon Basics" - San Jose Taiko, California Archived August 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Keei Beach: Kona's Best-Kept Secret
  13. ^ Hawai'i Summer 2016 Bon Dance Schedule
  14. ^ 2016 Obon season calendar in Hawaii
  15. ^ "Fukushima Ondo in Hawaii" YouTube
  16. ^ Bon Dance Overseas --- Hawaii in ten web pages in Japanese
  17. ^ http://morikamiorg/cultural-programs/lantern-festival/

Bibliographyedit

  • Marinus Willem de Visser: Ancient Buddhism in Japan – Sutras and Ceremonies in Use in the 7th and 8th Centuries AD and their History in Later Times 2 volumes, Paul Geuthner, Paris 1928-1931; Brill, Leiden 1935, pp 58-115
  • Robert J Smith: Ancestor Worship in Contemporary Japan, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California 1974 ISBN 0-8047-0873-8
  • Ensho Ashikaga 1950, The Festival for the Spirits of the Dead in Japan, Western Folklore 9 3, 217-228  – via JSTOR subscription required

External linksedit

  • Japanese Bon Odori Dance Video
  • Japanese Bon Odori Dance Video #2
  • Japanese-Citycom - Annual Japanese Obon Festival & Bon Odori Practice Schedule
  • Bon Dance: Description of various Bon Dance styles and resources
  • Obon Festival in Japan
  • Photo Gallery of Bon Odori 2007 in Penang, Malaysia
  • El Bon Odori de La Plata en Argentina

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