Tue . 20 Jun 2020
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |

Bomis

bomis, bomis babe of the month
Bomis /ˈbɒmᵻs/ to rhyme with "promise" was a dot-com company best known for supporting the creations of free-content online-encyclopedia projects Nupedia and Wikipedia It was founded in 1996 by Jimmy Wales, Tim Shell and Michael Davis Davis became acquainted with Wales after hiring him at Chicago Options Associates in 1994, and Wales became friends with Shell through mailing lists discussing philosophy The primary business of Bomis was the sale of advertising on the Bomiscom search portal

The company initially tried a number of ideas for content, including being a directory of information about Chicago The site subsequently focused on content geared to a male audience, including information on sporting activities, automobiles and women Bomis became successful after focusing on X-rated media "Bomis Babes" was devoted to erotic images; the "Bomis Babe Report" featured adult pictures Bomis Premium, available for an additional fee, provided explicit material "The Babe Engine" helped users find erotic content through a web search engine The advertising director for Bomis noted that 99 percent of queries on the site were for nude women

Bomis created Nupedia as a free online encyclopedia with content submitted by experts but it had a tedious, slow review process Wikipedia was initially launched by Bomis to provide content for Nupedia, and was a for-profit venture a Bomis subsidiary through the end of 2002 As the costs of Wikipedia rose with its popularity, Bomis' revenues declined as result of the dot-com crash Since Wikipedia was a drain on Bomis' resources, Wales and philosophy graduate student Larry Sanger decided to fund the project as a charity; Sanger was laid off from Bomis in 2002 Nupedia content was merged into Wikipedia, and it ceased in 2003

The non-profit Wikimedia Foundation began in 2003 with a Board of Trustees composed of Bomis' three founders Wales, Davis and Shell and was first headquartered in St Petersburg, Florida, Bomis' location Wales used about US$100,000 of revenue from Bomis to fund Wikipedia before the decision to shift the encyclopedia to non-profit status Wales stepped down from his role as CEO of Bomis in 2004 Shell served as CEO of the company in 2005, while on the Wikimedia Foundation board of trustees Wales edited Wikipedia in 2005 to remove the characterizations of Bomis as providing softcore pornography, which attracted media attention; Wales expressed regret for his actions The Atlantic gave Bomis the nickname "Playboy of the Internet", and the term caught on in other media outlets Scholars have described Bomis as a provider of softcore pornography

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Foundation
    • 13 Hosted content
    • 14 Nupedia and Wikipedia
    • 15 Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees
  • 2 Aftermath
  • 3 Analysis
  • 4 Footnotes
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 Bibliography
  • 7 Further reading
  • 8 External links

History

Background

Jimmy Wales left a study track at Indiana University as a PhD candidate to work in finance before completing his doctoral dissertation In 1994 Wales was hired by Michael Davis, CEO of finance company Chicago Options Associates, as a trader focusing on futures contracts and options Wales was adept at determining future movements of foreign currencies and interest rates; he was successful in Chicago, became independently wealthy, and was director of research at Chicago Options Associates from 1994 to 2000 He became acquainted with Tim Shell from email lists discussing philosophy

Wales wanted to participate in the online-based entrepreneurial ventures which were increasingly popular and successful during the mid-1990s His experience from gaming in his youth impressed on him the importance of networking Wales was interested in computer science, experimenting with source code on the Internet and improving his skill at computer programming In his spare time after work at Chicago Options Associates, Wales constructed his own web browser While at the firm, he noted the successful 1995 initial public offering of Netscape Communications

Foundation

Bomis founders Jimmy Wales Tim Shell Michael Davis Bomis was founded by Jimmy Wales, Tim Shell, and Michael Davis

Wales co-founded Bomis in 1996, with business associates Tim Shell, and his then-manager Michael Davis, as a for-profit corporation with joint ownership Wales was its chief manager In 1998 he moved from Chicago to San Diego to work for Bomis, and then to St Petersburg, Florida where the company subsequently relocated

The staff at Bomis was originally about five employees Its 2000 staff included programmer Toan Vo and system administrator Jason Richey; Wales employed his high-school friend and best man in his second wedding, Terry Foote, as advertising director In June 2000, Bomis was one of five network partners of Ask Jeeves The majority of the revenue that came in to Bomis was generated through advertising The most successful time for Bomis was during its venture as a member of the NBC web portal NBCi; this collapsed at the end of the dot-com bubble

Although Bomis is not an acronym, the name stemmed from "Bitter Old Men in Suits" as Wales and Shell called themselves in Chicago The site began as a web portal, trying a number of ideas including serving as an access point for information about Chicago It later focused on male-oriented content, including information on sporting activities, automobiles and women

Hosted content

Bomis Babes Silvia Saint Deanna Merryman Silvia Saint and Deanna Merryman in Bomis t-shirts

Working from the Open Directory Project, Bomis created and maintained hundreds of webrings on topics related to lad culture In 1999 the company introduced the Bomis Browser, which helped users block online pop-up ads Its webring on Star Wars was considered a useful resource for information on Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace Additional webrings included sections helping users find information on Casablanca, Hunter S Thompson, Farah Fawcett, Geri Haliwell of the Spice Girls and Snake Eyes "Bomis: The Buffy the Vampire Slayer Ring", devoted to Buffy the Vampire Slayer, organized over 50 sites related to the program Sheila Jeffreys noted in her Beauty and Misogyny that in 2004 Bomis maintained "The Lipstick Fetish Ring", which helped users with a particular attraction to women in makeup

Bomis became successful after it focused on X-rated and erotic media Advertising generated revenue which enabled the company to fund other websites, and the site published suggestive pictures of professional models In addition to Bomis the company maintained nekkidcom and nekkidinfo, which featured pictures of nude women About ten percent of Bomis' revenue was derived from pornographic films and blogs

The website included a segment devoted to erotic images, "Bomis Babes", and a feature enabled users to submit recommended links to other sites appealing to a male audience Peer-to-peer services provided by the site helped users find other websites about female celebrities, including Anna Kournikova and Pamela Anderson In the Bomis Babes section was the Bomis Babe Report, begun in 2000, with pictures of porn stars in a blog format The Bomis Babe Report produced original erotic material, including reports on pornographic film actors and celebrities who had posed nude It was referred to as The Babe Report for short

Wales referred to the site's softcore pornography as "glamour photography", and Bomis became familiar to Internet users for its erotic images During this period Wales was photographed steering a yacht with a peaked cap, posing as a sea captain with a female professional model on either side of him In the photograph, the women were wearing panties and T-shirts advertising Bomis

A subscription section, Bomis Premium, provided access to adult content and erotic material; A three-day trial was US$295 While Bomis Babes provided nude images of females to subscribers, Bomis Premium featured lesbian sexual practices and female anatomy Bomis created the Babe Engine, which helped users find erotic material online through a web search engine According to Bomis advertising director Terry Foote, 99 percent of searches on the site related to nude women

Nupedia and Wikipedia

Bomis staff, summer 2000 From left to right standing: Tim Shell, Christine Wales, Jimmy Wales, Terry Foote, Jarod Papas-Kelly, Liz Campeau Nupedia employee standing almost completely behind Rita Sanger, Rita Sanger, Jason Richey, Toan Vo Seated: Jeremy Rosenfeld, Larry Sanger

Bomis is best known for supporting the creation of free-content online-encyclopedia projects Nupedia and Wikipedia Tim Shell and Michael David continued their partnership with Wales during the 2000 Nupedia venture Larry Sanger met Jimmy Wales through an e-mail communication group about philosophy and objectivism, and joined Bomis in May 1999 Sanger was a graduate student working towards a PhD degree in philosophy, with research focused on epistemology; he received his degree from Ohio State University, moving to San Diego to help Bomis with its encyclopedia venture At the time Sanger joined Bomis the company had a total workforce of two employees with help from programmers

Sanger and Wales began Nupedia with resources from Bomis; at the beginning of 2000, the company agreed to provide early financing for Nupedia from its profits Nupedia went live in March, when Wales was CEO of Bomis; Sanger was Nupedia's editor-in-chief Nupedia's reading comprehension was intended for high-school graduates, and Bomis set its goal: "To set a new standard for breadth, depth, timeliness and lack of bias, and in the fullness of time to become the most comprehensive encyclopedia in the history of humankind"

Although Bomis began a search for experts to vet Nupedia articles, this proved tedious In August 2000 Nupedia had more than 60 academics contributing to the peer-review process on the site, most with doctor of philosophy or doctor of medicine degrees Scholars wishing to contribute to Nupedia were required to submit their credentials via fax for verification At that time, Bomis was attempting to obtain advertising revenue for Nupedia and the company was optimistic that it could fund the project with ad space on Nupediacom

Wikipedia began as a feature of Nupediacom on January 15, 2001, later known as Wikipedia Day It was originally intended only to generate draft articles for Nupedia, with finished articles moved to the latter Wikipedia became a separate site days after the Nupedia advisory board opposed combining the two In September 2001, Wales was simultaneously CEO of Bomis and co-founder of Wikipedia; Sanger was chief organizer of Wikipedia and editor-in-chief of Nupedia

Nupedia was encumbered by its peer-review system, a seven-step process of review and copyediting, and Wikipedia grew at a faster rate In November 2000, Nupedia had 115 potential articles awaiting its peer-review process By September 2001, after a total investment of US$250,000 from Bomis, Nupedia produced 12 articles; from 2000 through 2003, Nupedia contributors produced a total of 24 finalized articles Wikipedia had about 20,000 articles and 18 language versions by the end of 2001

Bomis originally planned to make Wikipedia profitable, providing staffing and hardware for its initial structure; Wikipedia would not have survived without this early support Bomis provided web servers and bandwidth for the projects, owning key items such as domain names Wales used checks from Bomis to maintain the Wikipedia servers in Tampa, Florida

As the cost of Wikipedia rose with its popularity, Bomis' revenues declined as a result of the dot-com crash In late 2000 Bomis had a staff of about 11 employees, but by early 2002 layoffs reduced the staff to its original size of about five Sanger was laid off in February 2002; from January 15, 2001 through March 1, 2002, he was the sole paid editor of Wikipedia Sanger stepped down from his dual roles as chief organizer of Wikipedia and editor-in-chief of Nupedia on March 1, 2002, feeling unable to commit to these areas on a volunteer basis and a dearth of "the habit or tradition of respect for expertise" from high-ranking Wikipedia members He continued contributing to community discussions, optimistic about Wikipedia's future success

After Sanger's departure, Wikipedia was managed by Wales and a burgeoning online community; although he thought advertising a possibility, the Wikipedia community was opposed to business development and Internet marketing was difficult at the end of 2002 Wikipedia remained a for-profit venture under the auspices of Bomis through the end of 2002 By then it had moved from a com domain name to org, and Wales said that the site would not accept advertising Material from Nupedia was folded into Wikipedia, and by 2003 the former was discontinued

Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees

Wikimedia Foundation Board beginnings The first Wikimedia Foundation Board consisted of the three Bomis founders Board members in 2004 In 2004, community elections added two Wikipedia contributors to the board; Bomis' three founders retained their seats

By 2003 Wikipedia had grown to 100,000 articles in its English-language version, and it became difficult for Bomis to continue financially supporting the project With Wikipedia a drain on the company's resources, Wales and Sanger decided to fund the project on a non-profit basis Bomis laid off most of its employees to continue operating, since Wikipedia was not generating revenue The company owned Wikipedia from its creation through 2003, and Wales used about $100,000 of Bomis' revenue to fund Wikipedia before the decision to shift the encyclopedia to non-profit status

In June 2003 Wikipedia was transferred to a nascent non-profit organization, the Wikimedia Foundation, which was formed as a charitable institution to supervise Wikipedia and its associated wiki-based sites When the foundation was established, its staff began to solicit public funding and Bomis turned Wikipedia over to the non-profit All Bomis-owned hardware used to run Wikipedia-associated websites was donated to the Wikimedia Foundation, and Wales transferred Wikipedia-related copyrights from Bomis to the foundation It was first headquartered in St Petersburg, Florida, where Bomis was located The foundation shifted Wikipedia's dependence away from Bomis, allowing it to purchase hardware for expansion

The Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees was initially composed of Bomis' three founders: Jimmy Wales and his two business partners, Michael Davis and Tim Shell Shell and Davis were appointed to the board by Wales, but after Wikipedia community members complained that the board was composed of appointed individuals, the first elections were held in 2004 Two community members, Florence Devouard and Angela Beesley, were elected to the Board of Trustees

In August 2004 Wales was chief executive officer of Bomis, and on September 20 Wikipedia reached the million-article mark on an expenditure of $500,000 most directly from Wales In November 2004 he told the St Petersburg Times he no longer controlled Bomis' day-to-day operations, but retained ownership as a shareholder In 2005, Tim Shell was CEO of Bomis and one of the board members overseeing Wikipedia Shell remained CEO of Bomis in 2006, becoming vice-president of the Wikimedia Foundation and continuing to serve on its board Bomis co-founder Michael Davis became treasurer of the Wikimedia Foundation that year Wales told The Sydney Morning Herald in 2007 that although he retained partial ownership of Bomis, "It's pretty much dead" According to the Internet Archive, the Bomis website was last accessible with content in 2010; when accessed in 2013 by the archive, it had a welcome message for PetaBox

Aftermath

Wikipedia edits about Bomis by Jimmy Wales September 4, 2005 October 20, 2005 October 28, 2005 Edits to Wikipedia about Bomis made by Jimmy Wales were publicized by Rogers Cadenhead

In 2005, Wales made 18 changes to his Wikipedia biography He removed references to Bomis Babes as softcore pornography and erotica, and Larry Sanger as co-founder of Wikipedia Wales' actions were publicized by author Rogers Cadenhead, attracting attention from US and UK media In 2011, Time listed Wales' 2005 edits in its "Top 10 Wikipedia Moments"

Wikipedia policy warned users not to edit their own biography pages, with its rules on autobiographical editing quoting Wales: "It is a social faux pas to write about yourself" Larry Sanger said, "It does seem that Jimmy is attempting to rewrite history", and began a discussion on the talk page of Wales' biography about historical revisionism

Wales called his actions fixing mistakes, but after Cadenhead publicized the edits to his biography he expressed regret for his actions In The Times Wales said that individuals should not edit their own Wikipedia biographies, telling The New Yorker that the standard applied to himself as well Wales warned that the activity should be discouraged because of the potential for bias: "I wish I hadn't done it It's in poor taste"

Bomis was called the "'Playboy' of the Internet" by The Atlantic, and the sobriquet was adopted by other media outlets Wales considered the "'Playboy' of the Internet" nickname inappropriate, although he was asked in interviews if his time at Bomis made him a "porn king" The 2010 documentary film about Wikipedia, Truth in Numbers, discussed this characterization of Wales by journalists Wales, interviewed in the film, called the characterization inaccurate and explained that his company responded to content demand from customers In later interviews, he responded to "porn king" questions by telling journalists to look at a page on Yahoo! about pornography related to dwarfism According to a 2007 article in Reason, "If he was a porn king, he suggests, so is the head of the biggest Web portal in the world"

Jimmy Wales Joseph Farah Jimmy Wales chose to engage in a back-and-forth email discussion in 2012 with WorldNetDaily editor Joseph Farah about the history of Bomis

On December 14, 2012, academic and writer Judith Reisman stated in a piece for WorldNetDaily that in her view Wales had received revenue from a website which dealt in pornography Relatively soon after the article was published, Wales wrote to WorldNetDaily to object to this characterization: "This is absolutely and categoricallly false I have never made any 'fortune', as a pornography trafficker or otherwise, and I have never been a 'pornography trafficker' at all I demand an immediate edit to that story to remove the lie about me" WorldNetDaily editor Joseph Farah personally replied to Wales to explain that Wikipedia's coverage of the history of Bomis acknowledged at the time that: "Bomis ran a website called Bomis Premium at premiumbomiscom until 2005, offering customers access to premium, X-rated pornographic content" Wales sent an email to Farah stating Wikipedia: "doesn't say anything remotely like me making a 'fortune' from 'pornography" Wales inquired to Farah what he was going to do next about what Wales characterized as "libel" Farah responded to Wales' reply with a subsequent email asking: "Let me get this straight: You admit making money from pornography, but you feel defamed because you didn’t make enough for it to be considered a 'fortune'" Wales then repeated his original request to Farah and again asserted the original article was "defamatory", writing in an email: "This is a defamatory falsehood I have never made any 'fortune' as a 'porngraphy trafficker' Fix it"

WorldNetDaily published a correction on December 17, 2012, in the form of a new full article by journalist Chelsea Schilling which presented an analysis of the history of Bomis Schilling reported that WorldNetDaily had performed a search of archives of Bomis and found that the Bomis Premium feature had indeed advertised on its site that membership included access to naked pictures of models Schilling's article included historical screenshots of the appearance of the site when Bomis Premium was an active feature She cited a Wired article, and noted the prior history from 2005 of Wales's repeated attempts to remove references on Wikipedia to the term "pornography" in reference to Bomis In its final determination, Schilling reported that WorldNetDaily had modified the original article from stating Wales "made his original fortune as a pornography trafficker" to: "originally made his living off a website that earned revenue from pornography traffickers"

Analysis

The Chronicle of Philanthropy characterized Bomis as "an Internet marketing firm which also traded in erotic photographs for a while" Jeff Howe wrote in his book, Crowdsourcing, about "one of Wales's less altruistic ventures, a Web portal called Bomiscom that featured, among other items, soft-core pornography" In his book, The Future of the Internet—And How to Stop It, legal scholar Jonathan Zittrain wrote that "Bomis helped people find 'erotic photography', and earned money through advertising as well as subscription fees for premium content" The Guardian described the site as on "the fringes of the adult entertainment industry", and The Edge called Bomiscom an "explicit-content search engine" Business 20 Magazine described it as "a search portal which created and hosted Web rings around popular search terms – including, not surprisingly, a lot of adult themes"

Footnotes

  1. ^ Jimmy Wales' edits to Wikipedia to change information about Bomis and remove references to Larry Sanger as co-founder of the site was reported in The Times, Wired, New Statesman, Time, the Herald Sun, The New Yorker, and The New York Times
  2. ^ "Playboy of the Internet" as a reference to Bomis was first used by The Atlantic, and subsequently by publications including The Sunday Times, The Daily Telegraph, MSN Money, Wired, The Torch Magazine, and the book The Cult of the Amateur by Andrew Keen
  3. ^ Wales stated in Truth in Numbers: "You know the press has this idea that I am a porn king I really wasn't a king of anything, frankly, you know Because at the time, when we looked at it, we were just like, 'Okay, well, this is what our customers will want, let's follow this'"

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Barnett 2005, p 62
  2. ^ a b c d Heise Online October 28, 2006
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Business Insider 2013
  4. ^ a b c d e f Zittrain 2008, p 133
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hansen 2005
  6. ^ a b Miller 2007, p 17
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rosenzweig 2013
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Henderson 2008, p 500
  9. ^ a b Wright 1999
  10. ^ a b c d Mahadevan 2006, p 15
  11. ^ a b c d e f Hasan 2011
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Rosenzweig 2006
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Hutcheon 2007
  14. ^ Conway 2010, p 7
  15. ^ a b c d Seybold 2006, p 250
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i DiBona 2005
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lih 2009
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Craig 2013, p 84
  19. ^ a b c Stöcker 2010
  20. ^ a b c d Anderson 2012, pp 136–138
  21. ^ a b The Globe and Mail 2012, pp 89–91
  22. ^ a b Weinberger 2008, p 138
  23. ^ a b c d Shirky 2009
  24. ^ a b c d e f Kuchinskas 2009
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Blakely 2005
  26. ^ a b c d e f Mangu-Ward 2007
  27. ^ a b c d The Economist 2008
  28. ^ a b c d e Seitz 2011, p A3
  29. ^ a b c d e Edemariam 2011, p 27
  30. ^ a b c d e Jensen 2006
  31. ^ a b c d e Meyer 2012
  32. ^ a b c d e f g Neate 2008
  33. ^ a b c d e The Star 2007
  34. ^ a b Waters 2010, pp 179–180
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ayers 2008
  36. ^ a b c d Mehegan 2006
  37. ^ a b Hickman 2006
  38. ^ a b Krueger 2004, p 1E
  39. ^ a b c d e Bernstein 2011, p 34
  40. ^ a b c d Elliott 2007, p 22
  41. ^ a b c Mitchell 2005
  42. ^ a b c d e Poe 2006
  43. ^ a b c d e f The Sunday Times 2011
  44. ^ a b c d e Keen 2008, pp 41–42
  45. ^ a b c d Howe 2008, pp 58–60
  46. ^ a b Long 2012, p 5
  47. ^ a b c d e f g Chozick 2013, p 9
  48. ^ a b c d e Chozick 2013, p MM28
  49. ^ Doran 2006, p 49
  50. ^ a b McNichol 2007
  51. ^ PC Quest 2012
  52. ^ a b c Slater 2011, p B3
  53. ^ Lee 2013, p 91
  54. ^ The Hamilton Spectator 2008, p A14
  55. ^ Friedman 2007, p 121
  56. ^ a b c d Schiff 2006
  57. ^ a b c d Pink 2005
  58. ^ Du Bois 2000, p 33
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Schilling 2012
  60. ^ a b Isaacson 2014, The Daily Beast
  61. ^ a b c d e Duval 2010
  62. ^ Bomis Magazine March 2, 2000
  63. ^ Bomis Magazine March 1, 2000
  64. ^ Cadenhead 2005
  65. ^ Daughn 2000
  66. ^ Gillmor 1999
  67. ^ Soriano 1999, p 2E
  68. ^ Merlock 2000, p 33
  69. ^ Chester R July 23, 1998, p 25
  70. ^ Ward 2000, p 8
  71. ^ LaPointe 1998, p F10
  72. ^ Chester R October 1, 1998, p 21
  73. ^ QNP 1998, p 17
  74. ^ Jeffreys 2005, pp 60, 181
  75. ^ Szpilma 2014
  76. ^ Bhaskar 2013, pp 158–159
  77. ^ Spirrison 2006, p 62
  78. ^ Nekkidinfo 2002
  79. ^ a b Finkelstein December 18, 2008
  80. ^ a b Beveridge 2007, p 68
  81. ^ Semuels 2008, p E4
  82. ^ Bergstein March 26, 2007
  83. ^ Kopytoff 2007, p C1
  84. ^ Forman 2010
  85. ^ a b c d e f Frauenfelder 2000, p 110
  86. ^ Lievrouw 2011, pp 202–205
  87. ^ a b Moody 2006, p 5
  88. ^ Reagle 2010
  89. ^ Lessig 2009, pp 156–157
  90. ^ a b c d e Myers 2006, p 163
  91. ^ Gobillot 2011, pp 84–86
  92. ^ a b Rollins 2000, p 1786
  93. ^ a b School Library Journal 2000, p S6
  94. ^ a b c Koerner 2006, pp 115–117
  95. ^ a b Curley 2012, pp 35–38
  96. ^ a b c d e Lewis 2013
  97. ^ Meyers 2001, p D2
  98. ^ Richardson 2004, p 339
  99. ^ Twose 2007, p 5
  100. ^ a b c Kleeman 2007, p 4
  101. ^ a b Finkelstein September 24, 2008
  102. ^ Peterson 2002, p C1
  103. ^ Kleinz 2011
  104. ^ a b c Chern 2008
  105. ^ Middleton 2009
  106. ^ Heise Online January 15, 2006
  107. ^ Kleinz 2004, p 38
  108. ^ Brooks 2004
  109. ^ Bomiscom February 24, 2010
  110. ^ Bomiscom August 15, 2013
  111. ^ a b c d e Romero 2011
  112. ^ Bergstein April 2, 2007
  113. ^ Buckland 2011, p 1
  114. ^ a b Greenwald 2013, p 82
  115. ^ a b Paley Center for Media 2014
  116. ^ Tai 2013
  117. ^ a b Glosserman 2010, Time index 34:30
  118. ^ Reisman 2012

Bibliography

  • Anderson, Paul 2012 Web 20 and Beyond: Principles and Technologies Chapman and Hall/CRC pp 136–38 ISBN 978-1-4398-2867-0 
  • Ayer, Phoebe; Matthews, Charles; Yates, Ben 2008 How Wikipedia Works: And How You Can Be a Part of It No Starch Press pp 46–47, 448–51 ISBN 978-1-59327-176-3 
  • Barnett, Cynthia September 2005 "Wiki mania" Florida Trend Trend Magazines 48 5: 62 Archived from the original on November 22, 2005 Retrieved October 4, 2014 
  • Bergstein, Brian March 26, 2007 "Wikipedia co-founder seeks to start all over again – this time with contributors' real names" The Sydney Morning Herald Associated Press Archived from the original on October 4, 2014 Retrieved September 30, 2014 
  • Bergstein, Brian April 2, 2007 "Citizendium founder Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia, but don't tell that to Jimmy Wales" Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Associated Press Archived from the original on September 30, 2014 Retrieved September 30, 2014 
  • Bernstein, Jon February 3, 2011 "Wikipedia's benevolent dictator" New Statesman New Statesman 140 5038: 34 Archived from the original on February 5, 2011 Retrieved October 4, 2014 
  • Beveridge, John April 26, 2007 "Looking up your own entry" Herald Sun Nationwide News Pty Limited p 68 – via LexisNexis 
  • Bhaskar, Michael 2013 The Content Machine: Towards a Theory of Publishing from the Printing Press to the Digital Network Anthem Press pp 158–159 ISBN 978-0-85728-111-1 
  • Blakely, Rhys December 20, 2005 "Wikipedia founder edits himself" The Times Archived from the original on February 21, 2007 Retrieved December 29, 2013 
  • "Silvia Saint Bomis T-shirt Gallery" Bomis Magazine Archived from the original on March 2, 2000 Retrieved January 22, 2014 
  • "Bomis T-shirt Gallery" Bomis Magazine Archived from the original on March 1, 2000 Retrieved January 22, 2014 Welcome to the Bomiscom T-shirt gallery! Please feel free to use any of these images on your own web site All we ask is that you include a link back to Bomiscom Thanks! 
  • "BomisCom Home Page" 2010 Archived from the original on February 24, 2010 Retrieved January 23, 2014 
  • "Welcome to the US Petabox" 2013 Archived from the original on August 15, 2013 Retrieved January 23, 2014 
  • Brooks, David August 4, 2004 "Online, interactive encyclopedia not just for geeks anymore" The Telegraph Nashua, New Hampshire – via NewsBank 
  • Buckland, Jason May 12, 2011 "The humble beginnings of CEO big shots: Jimmy Wales" MSN Money Microsoft p 1 Archived from the original on March 19, 2011 Retrieved January 19, 2014 
  • "Wikipedia Was Started With Revenue From Soft-Core Porn" Business Insider bullfaxcom June 28, 2013 Archived from the original on February 1, 2014 Retrieved January 19, 2014 
  • Cadenhead, Rogers December 20, 2005 "Bomis Denuded of Erotic Content" Workbench Archived from the original on October 3, 2008 
  • Chern, Kang Wan December 1, 2008 "Net Value: Building the Wiki brand" The Edge The Edge Communications Sdn Bhd – via LexisNexis 
  • Chozick, Amy June 29, 2013 "Jimmy Wales isn't a billionaire; He hasn't capitalized on Wikipedia, but still lives a jet-setter's life" International Herald Tribune p 9 – via LexisNexis 
  • Chozick, Amy June 30, 2013 "Jimmy Wales Is Not an Internet Billionaire" The New York Times Magazine p MM28 Archived from the original on June 30, 2013 Retrieved January 21, 2014 
  • Conway, Paul Fall 2010 "Week 5b: Lessons of Wikipedia" SI 410: Ethics and Information Technology PDF University of Michigan p 7 Archived from the original PDF on June 9, 2014 
  • Craig, Elise April 2013 "The Encyclopedic Mind of Jimmy Wales" Wired 21 4: 84 Archived from the original on April 9, 2014 Retrieved October 4, 2014 
  • Curley, Robert 2012 Issues in Cyberspace: From Privacy to Piracy Britannica Educational Publishing pp 35–38 ISBN 978-1-61530-738-8 
  • Daughn, Mark 2000 "Deanna Merryman 3" Bomiscom Archived from the original on October 2, 2014 Retrieved October 2, 2014 
  • DiBona, Chris; Mark Stone; Danese Cooper 2005 Open Sources 20: The Continuing Evolution O'Reilly Media pp 7, 310–334 ISBN 978-0-596-00802-4 
  • Doran, James December 23, 2006 "Curiosity filled the biggest textbook in the world; Factbox" The Times London, England: Times Newspapers Limited p 49 – via LexisNexis 
  • Du Bois, Grant June 12, 2000 "Ask Jeeves bids banner ads adieu, welcomes new method" eWeek QuinStreet Enterprise p 33 – via InfoTrac: General OneFile In addition to 1,800 advertisers in the Ask Jeeves distribution system, 900 of which are active, the company has five network partners-Askcom and DirectHitcom, both of which are part of Ask Jeeves; Microsoft Corp's MSN com Search; Bomis Inc's Bomiscom; and Monetize Media's SuperCyber Search 
  • Duval, Jared 2010 Next Generation Democracy: What the Open-Source Revolution Means for Power, Politics, and Change Bloomsbury pp 74–75, 80–81 ISBN 978-1-60819-066-9 
  • "Brain scan: The free-knowledge fundamentalist" The Economist The Economist Newspaper Limited; Technology Quarterly June 5, 2008 Archived from the original on December 3, 2010 Retrieved January 18, 2014 
  • Edemariam, Aida February 19, 2011 "Saturday: The Saturday interview: Master of the know-alls" The Guardian Guardian Newspapers Limited p 27 – via LexisNexis 
  • Elliott, Tim January 6, 2007 "The world according to Wiki; Digital Living" The Sydney Morning Herald Sydney: John Fairfax Publications Pty Ltd p 22; Section: Spectrum – via LexisNexis before in 1996 starting a dot-com called Bomis, whose products included soft porn sites The Babe Report and nekkidcom According to The New Yorker, Wales has repeatedly tried to edit out references to pornography in his own Wikipedia entry 
  • Finkelstein, Seth September 24, 2008 "Read me first: Wikipedia isn't about human potential, whatever Wales says" The Guardian London: Guardian News and Media Limited Archived from the original on September 27, 2008 Retrieved December 27, 2013 
  • Finkelstein, Seth December 18, 2008 "Technology: Read me first: Sting in the Scorpions tale is the exposure of Wiki's weakness" The Guardian Guardian Newspapers Limited p 2 Archived from the original on December 7, 2013 Retrieved September 30, 2014 
  • Forman, Bill November 19, 2010 "The Seven Faces of Wikipedia" Colorado Springs Independent Archived from the original on November 24, 2010 Retrieved January 27, 2014 
  • Frauenfelder, Mark November 27, 2000 "The New Encyclopedia Salesmen" The Industry Standard 3 49: 110 Archived from the original on January 23, 2001 Retrieved October 4, 2014 
  • Friedman, Thomas L 2007 The World Is Flat 30: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century Macmillan p 121 ISBN 978-0-312-42507-4 
  • Gillmor, Dan February 6, 1999 "Netizens raise a virtual barn called the 'Open Directory Project'" Mercury Center San Jose Archived from the original on April 22, 1999 Retrieved March 6, 2016 
  • The Globe and Mail 2012 The Lunch Booktango pp 89–91 ISBN 978-1-4689-0835-0 
  • Scott Glosserman, Nic Hill 2010 Truth in Numbers Documentary film United States: Underdog Pictures; GlenEcho Entertainment Event occurs at 34:30 
  • Gobillot, Emmanuel 2011 Leadershift: Reinventing Leadership for the Age of Mass Collaboration Kogan Page pp 84–86 ISBN 978-0-7494-6303-8 
  • Greenwald, Ted March 19, 2013 "How Jimmy Wales' Wikipedia Harnessed the Web as a Force for Good" Wired 214: 82 Archived from the original on April 9, 2014 Retrieved January 19, 2014 
  • "Wikipedia dilemma; Struggling free info site grapples with selling ad space" The Hamilton Spectator Torstar Syndication Services, a division of Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd Los Angeles Times March 15, 2008 p A14 – via Westlaw 
  • Hansen, Evan December 19, 2005 "Wikipedia Founder Edits Own Bio" Wired News Archived from the original on August 23, 2008 Retrieved December 20, 2013 
  • "Wechsel an der Wikimedia-Spitze" Heise Online in German Heise Zeitschriften Verlag October 28, 2006 Archived from the original on June 7, 2010 Retrieved February 15, 2014 
  • Hasan, Heather 2011 Wikipedia, 35 Million Articles & Counting Rosen Central pp 5–11 ISBN 978-1-4488-5557-5 
  • Henderson, Harry 2008 Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology Facts on File p 500 ISBN 1-4381-1003-0 
  • Hickman, Martin; GeneviAve Roberts February 13, 2006 "Wikipedia under the microscope over accuracy" The Independent London, England: Independent Print Ltd p 12 Archived from the original on February 5, 2009 Retrieved January 18, 2014 
  • Howe, Jeff 2008 Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd Is Driving the Future of Business Crown Business pp 58–60 ISBN 0-307-44932-7 
  • Hutcheon, Stephen April 22, 2007 "Facts and friction" The Sydney Morning Herald Archived from the original on April 25, 2007 Retrieved January 27, 2014 
  • Isaacson, Walter October 19, 2014 "You Can Look It Up: The Wikipedia Story" The Daily Beast Archived from the original on October 20, 2014 Retrieved October 25, 2014 
  • Jeffreys, Sheila 2005 Beauty and Misogyny: Harmful Cultural Practices in the West Routledge pp 60, 181 ISBN 978-0-415-35182-9 
  • Jensen, Brennen June 29, 2006 "Access for All" The Chronicle of Philanthropy Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc 18 18 Archived from the original on September 30, 2014 Retrieved September 30, 2014 subscription required help 
  • Kleinz, Torsten 2004 "Qualitätsoffensive: Freie Online-Enzyklopädie Wikipedia stellt die Weichen für die Zukunft" C't in German Heinz Heise 14: 38 Archived from the original on March 9, 2011 Retrieved February 15, 2014 
  • "It's a Wiki World – 5 Jahre Wikipedia" Heise Online in German Heise Zeitschriften Verlag January 15, 2006 Archived from the original on October 22, 2009 Retrieved February 15, 2014 
  • Kleinz, Torsten January 15, 2011 "Zehn Jahre Wikipedia" C't in German Heinz Heise Archived from the original on January 17, 2011 Retrieved February 15, 2014 
  • Koerner, Brendan I 2006 The Best of Technology Writing 2006 University of Michigan Press pp 115–117 ISBN 978-0-472-03195-5 
  • Keen, Andrew 2008 The Cult of the Amateur Random House pp 41–42 ISBN 0-385-52081-6 
  • Kleeman, Jenny March 2, 2007 "You couldn't make it up" The Times London, England: Times Newspapers Limited p 4; Section: Features, Times2 – via LexisNexis 
  • Kopytoff, Verne July 19, 2007 "You could look it up" San Francisco Chronicle p C1 Archived from the original on October 21, 2012 Retrieved October 1, 2014 
  • Krueger, Curtis November 8, 2004 "There's no end to it" St Petersburg Times St Petersburg, Florida p 1E Archived from the original on December 20, 2004 Retrieved September 30, 2014 
  • Kuchinskas, Susan March 26, 2009 "Jimmy Wales: Why the recession will not kill digital media" iMedia Connection Archived from the original on March 30, 2009 Retrieved October 14, 2012 
  • LaPointe, Kirk June 10, 1998 "How to find spicy stuff on the Web" The Gazette Montreal, Quebec, Canada: CanWest Interactive, a division of CanWest Global Communications Corp Hamilton Spectator p F10; Section: The Web Page – via LexisNexis 
  • Lee, Jyh-An 2013 Nonprofit Organizations and the Intellectual Commons Edward Elgar Publishing p 91 ISBN 978-1-78100-157-8 
  • Lewis, John P Fall 2013 "Wikipedia: Is it the Library of Babel" PDF The Torch Magazine International Association of Torch Clubs; North Carolina Sociological Association 87 1 ISSN 2330-9261 Archived from the original PDF on February 1, 2014 Retrieved January 19, 2014 
  • Lessig, Lawrence 2009 Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy Penguin Books pp 156–157 ISBN 0-14-311613-4 
  • "Nupedia Launches Open-Content Model" School Library Journal Library Journals, LLC A wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc 46 8: S6 August 2000 – via InfoTrac: General OneFile 
  • Lievrouw, Leah 2011 Alternative and Activist New Media Polity pp 202–205 ISBN 978-0-7456-4183-6 
  • Lih, Andrew 2009 The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia Hyperion pp 6, 18–20, 28–32, 38–42, 63, 69, 76, 78–79 ISBN 1-4013-0371-4 
  • Long, Camilla January 22, 2012 "Hi, I'm the guy who blacked out the world" The Sunday Times London, England: Times Newspapers Limited p 5 – via LexisNexis 
  • Mahadevan, Jeremy March 5, 2006 "Not everything on Wikipedia is fact" New Straits Times Malaysia: New Straits Times Press Malaysia Berhad p 15 – via LexisNexis 
  • Mangu-Ward, Katherine June 2007 "Wikipedia and Beyond: Jimmy Wales' sprawling vision" Reason Reason Foundation Archived from the original on October 6, 2009 Retrieved January 17, 2014 
  • McNichol, Tom March 1, 2007 "Building a Wiki World" Business 20 CNN Archived from the original on March 2, 2007 Retrieved January 21, 2014 
  • Mehegan, David February 12, 2006 "Bias, Sabotage haunt Wikipedia's Free World" Boston Globe Boston, Massachusetts Archived from the original on February 15, 2006 Retrieved December 27, 2013 
  • Jackson, Kathy Merlock Winter 2000 "Playing It Again and Again: Casablanca's Impact on American Mass Media and Popular Culture" Journal of Popular Film and Television Taylor & Francis Ltd 27 4: 33 doi:101080/01956050009602813 
  • Meyer, Susan 2012 Jimmy Wales and Wikipedia Rosen Pub Group pp 29–35, 56–58, 84–86 ISBN 978-1-4488-6912-1 
  • Meyers, Peter September 20, 2001 "Fact-driven Collegial This site wants you" The New York Times p D2 Archived from the original on April 15, 2009 Retrieved January 21, 2014 
  • Middleton, Chris January 13, 2009 "Feature – The world of wikinomics" Computer Weekly 203 TechTarget Archived from the original on November 27, 2012 Retrieved October 1, 2014 
  • Miller, Nick April 25, 2007 "The wisdom of one" The Age Fairfax Media Publications Pty Limited p 17 Archived from the original on May 9, 2007 Retrieved September 30, 2014 
  • Mitchell, Dan December 24, 2005 "What's Online: Insider Editing at Wikipedia" The New York Times Archived from the original on September 30, 2014 Retrieved January 19, 2014 
  • Moody, Glyn July 13, 2006 "Technology: Inside IT: This time, it'll be a Wikipedia written by experts" The Guardian London, England: Guardian Newspapers Limited p 5 Archived from the original on December 14, 2013 
  • Myers, Ken S Fall 2006 "Wikimmunity: fitting the Communications Decency Act to Wikipedia" PDF Harvard Journal of Law & Technology Harvard Law School 20 1: 163 Archived from the original PDF on February 21, 2007 Retrieved October 4, 2014 
  • Neate, Rupert October 7, 2008 "Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales goes bananas" The Daily Telegraph Archived from the original on November 10, 2008 Retrieved October 1, 2013 
  • "This is Nekkidinfo" Nekkidinfo January 14, 2002 Archived from the original on January 14, 2002 Retrieved September 30, 2014 
  • "Truth in Numbers: The World According to Wikipedia – Summary" Paley Center for Media paleycenterorg 2014 Archived from the original on September 30, 2014 Retrieved January 19, 2014 
  • "People Who've Shaped The Internet" PC Quest Athena Information Solutions Pvt Ltd January 3, 2012 – via Westlaw 
  • Pink, Daniel H March 2005 "The Book Stops Here" Wired News Condé Nast Digital 13 03 Archived from the original on March 4, 2005 Retrieved January 21, 2014 
  • Peterson, Kim May 6, 2002 "Encyclopedias go digital Educational tomes shrink in size, but grow in number" U-T San Diego Union-Tribune Publishing Co p C1 – via NewsBank 
  • Poe, Marshall September 2006 "The Hive" The Atlantic Monthly The Atlantic Monthly Group Archived from the original on October 26, 2012 Retrieved December 27, 2013 
  • QNP November 19, 1998 "Buffy slays 'em" Courier Mail Queensland, Australia: Nationwide News Pty Limited p 17; Section: What's on – via LexisNexis 
  • Chester R July 23, 1998 "Synthetic high" Courier Mail Queensland, Australia: Nationwide News Pty Limited p 25; Section: What's on – via LexisNexis 
  • Chester R October 1, 1998 "More like snake oil" Courier Mail Queensland, Australia: Nationwide News Pty Limited p 21; Section: What's on – via LexisNexis 
  • Reagle, Joseph Michael 2010 Good Faith Collaboration: The Culture of Wikipedia The MIT Press pp 35–36, 41, 120 ISBN 978-0-262-01447-2 
  • Reisman, Judith December 14, 2012 "Who's afraid of Bradlee Dean" WorldNetDaily Archived from the original on December 18, 2012 Retrieved October 3, 2014 
  • Richardson, Joanne 2004 Anarchitexts: A Subsol Anthology Autonomedia p 339 ISBN 978-1-57027-142-7 
  • Rollins, Deborah May 15, 2000 "Nupedia" Booklist American Library Association 96 18: 1786 
  • Romero, Frances January 13, 2011 "Top 10 Wikipedia Moments – World Wide Wiki: Who Founded Wikipedia" Time Archived from the original on November 10, 2013 Retrieved January 19, 2014 
  • Rosenzweig, Roy June 2006 "Can History Be Open Source" The Journal of American History 93 1: 117–146 doi:102307/4486062 Archived from the original on April 25, 2010 Retrieved January 17, 2014 
  • Rosenzweig, Roy 2013 Clio Wired: The Future of the Past in the Digital Age Columbia University Press pp 54, 81, 258–261 ISBN 0-231-52171-5 
  • Schiff, Stacy July 31, 2006 "Annals of Information: Know It All – Can Wikipedia conquer expertise" The New Yorker Archived from the original on September 30, 2014 Retrieved January 19, 2014 Four years later, he moved to San Diego, where he used his savings to found an Internet portal Its audience was mostly men; pornography—videos and blogs—accounted for about a tenth of its revenues 
  • Schilling, Chelsea December 17, 2012 "Here's your correction, Wikipedia founder" WorldNetDaily WorldNetDailycom, Inc Archived from the original on December 6, 2013 Retrieved January 24, 2014 
  • Seitz, Patrick June 15, 2011 "The Wizard of Wikipedia Click: Jimmy Wales sparked the go-to information site" Investor's Business Daily Investor's Business Daily, Inc p A3 – via LexisNexis 
  • Semuels, Alana March 17, 2008 "Wikipedia experiences growing pains – Business plan "unsophisticated" Many wonder if site can avoid selling ads" The Seattle Times Los Angeles Times p E4 – via NewsBank 
  • Seybold, Patricia B 2006 Outside Innovation: How Your Customers Will Co-Design Your Company's Future HarperBusiness p 250 ISBN 978-0-06-113590-3 
  • Shirky, Clay 2009 "Chapter 5: Personal Motivation Meets Collaborative Production" Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations Penguin Books ISBN 978-0-14-311494-9 
  • Slater, Joanna January 15, 2011 "The man with all the answers" The Globe and Mail Toronto, Canada: The Globe and Mail Inc p B3 – via LexisNexis 
  • Soriano, Csar G February 26, 1999 "The faithful have a galaxy of Web sites to visit" USA Today Gannett Company, Inc p 2E – via LexisNexis 
  • Spirrison, Brad December 4, 2006 "For the record, Wikipedia has some roots in Chicago" Chicago Sun-Times Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Sun-Times, Inc p 62 – via NewsBank 
  • Stöcker, Christian August 31, 2010 "Eine Weltmacht im Netz" Der Spiegel in German Archived from the original on September 10, 2010 Retrieved October 14, 2012 
  • "Spotlight : Lawrence Mark "Larry" Sanger" The Star Amman, Jordan: Al Bawaba Middle East Ltd April 2, 2007 Retrieved September 30, 2014 
  • "Mr Know-It-All is giving up billions" The Sunday Times January 16, 2011 p 23 Retrieved September 30, 2014 subscription required help 
  • Tai, Elizabeth June 19, 2013 "Features: The encyclopaedia salesman" The Star Star Publications Retrieved January 19, 2014 
  • Twose, Helen November 10, 2007 "Mr Wikipedia's knowledge quest" The New Zealand Herald Auckland, New Zealand: APN Newspapers Pty Ltd p 5 – via WestLaw 
  • Ward, Cotton September 9, 2000 "Living in the '70s; R2 The '70s Reviews" The Sydney Morning Herald Sydney: John Fairfax Publications Pty Ltd p 8; Section: Computers, Icon – via LexisNexis 
  • Szpilma, Daniel W September 1, 2014 "Ich will kein Diktator sein" Basler Zeitung in German Basel, Switzerland: Basler Zeitung Medien OCLC 183307820 Archived from the original on September 5, 2014 Retrieved September 27, 2014 
  • Waters, John K 2010 The Everything Guide to Social Media Adams Media pp 179–180 ISBN 978-1-4405-0631-4 
  • Weinberger, David 2008 Everything Is Miscellaneous: The Power of the New Digital Disorder Holt p 138 ISBN 978-0-8050-8811-3 
  • Wright, Robert April 8, 1999 "'Webbies' honour best of the Internet" Toronto Star Toronto Star Newspapers, Ltd – via LexisNexis 
  • Zittrain, Jonathan 2008 The Future of the Internet—And How to Stop It Yale University Press p 133 ISBN 0-300-14534-9 

Further reading

Primary sources
  • "BomisCom Browser Kills Pop-Up Advertising!" San Diego, California: PR Newswire Association LLC PR Newswire March 8, 1999 p 9941 Retrieved January 17, 2014 
  • "Upstart Open Content Encyclopedia Threatens to Displace Britannica, Encarta" San Diego, California: PR Newswire Association LLC PR Newswire November 9, 2000 Retrieved January 18, 2014 
  • "Bomis What's New" Archived from the original on January 18, 2010 Retrieved July 14, 2008 
  • "Bomis FAQ" Bomis Archived from the original on July 24, 2008 Retrieved October 14, 2012 
  • "Freedom's Nest" Archived from the original on March 23, 2006 Retrieved October 23, 2011 
  • "Nekkidinfo" nekkidinfo Internet Archive January 14, 2002 Retrieved December 27, 2013 
  • Wales, Jimmy October 28, 2001 "A question" Wikipedia-l Retrieved December 30, 2013 
  • Wales, Jimmy June 20, 2003 "Announcing Wikimedia Foundation" Wikipedia-l Retrieved December 30, 2013 

External links

  • Bomis at the Internet Archive
  • Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees, at Wikipedia:Meta
  • Former Board of Trustees members, at Wikimedia Foundation
  • Companies portal
  • Computing portal
  • Florida portal
  • Internet portal
  • Nudity portal
  • Pornography portal
  • Sexuality portal
  • United States portal

bomis, bomis babe music feature audio, bomis babe news, bomis babe of the month, bomis nighty dress, bomis ring lily morris, bomis video, bomis webring, bomisch, bomist zrenjanin


Bomis Information about

Bomis


  • user icon

    Bomis beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


Bomis
Bomis
Bomis viewing the topic.
Bomis what, Bomis who, Bomis explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts

B♭ (musical note)

B♭ (musical note)

B♭ B-flat; also called si bémol is the eleventh step of the Western chromatic scale starting from C ...
Fourth dimension in art

Fourth dimension in art

New possibilities opened up by the concept of four-dimensional space and difficulties involved in tr...
Holt Renfrew

Holt Renfrew

Holt, Renfrew & Co, Limited, commonly known as Holt Renfrew or Holt's,1 is a chain of high-end C...
Later Silla

Later Silla

Later Silla 668–935, Hangul: 후신라; Hanja: 後新羅; RR: Hushila, Korean pronunciation: ...