Bombing of Singapore (1941)


Empire of Japan

  • Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
Units involved Malaya Command Mihoro Air Group Strength Various number of anti-aircraft guns
1 battleship
1 battlecruiser 17 aircraft1 Casualties and losses 61 killed
700 wounded N/A

The bombing of Singapore was an attack on 8 December 1941 by seventeen G3M Nell bombers of Mihoro Air Group Mihoro Kaigun Kōkūtai,2 Imperial Japanese Navy, flying from Thu Dau Mot in southern Indochina The attack began at around 0430, shortly after Japanese forces landed on Kota Bharu, Malaya3 It was the first knowledge the Singapore population had that war had broken out in the Far East3

Contents

  • 1 Background
    • 11 The Attack
    • 12 Aftermath
  • 2 See also
  • 3 References
    • 31 Citations
    • 32 Bibliography
  • 4 External links

Backgroundedit

The attack on Singapore was assigned to 34 bombers of Genzan Air Group Genzan Kaigun Kōkūtai and 31 bombers of Mihoro Air Group4 Their targets were RAF Tengah, RAF Seletar, Sembawang Naval Base and Keppel Harbour5

Six squadrons from both air groups took off from southern Indochina on the night of 7 December 1941 However, bad weather conditions were encountered while over the South China Sea4 Thick clouds offered poor visibility for the pilots, while rough winds caused most of the formations to become separated After several attempts to regroup failed, Lieutenant Commander Niichi Nakanishi, Wing Commander of Genzan Air Group, ordered them to abort mission and return to base,2 thereby reducing the impact of a much heavier raid4 Only seventeen G3M bombers of Mihoro Air Group reached Singapore on schedule, unobstructed by bad weather2

The Attackedit

The Japanese formation was detected by a radar station in Mersing, Malaya, almost an hour before they reached Singapore Three Brewster Buffalo fighters of No 453 Squadron RAAF were on standby at RAF Sembawang However, Flight Lieutenant Tim Vigors' request to scramble and intercept the Japanese bombers was denied6 Air Chief Marshal Robert Brooke-Popham feared that the anti-aircraft batteries would fire on the friendly fighters, despite Vigors being an experienced night fighter in the Battle of Britain He was supplemented by the belief that the Buffalo fighter was only suited for daylight fighting and could not be used at night Paradoxically, there were 12 Bristol Blenheim Mark IF night fighters of No 27 Squadron RAF stationed in Sungai Petani, Malaya, but were being used as ground-attack aircraft7

The streets were still brightly lit despite air raid sirens going off at 0400, allowing pilot navigators to locate their targets without difficulty Air Raid Precautions ARP Headquarters was not even manned, and there was no blackout as police and power station officials could not find the employee who had the key to the switch only two practice blackouts were conducted in September 1941 before the raid3 When the bombers began their attack at 0430, Allied anti-aircraft guns immediately opened fire The battleship Prince of Wales and battlecruiser Repulse also responded, but no aircraft was shot down A formation of nine bombers flew over without releasing their bombs to draw the searchlights and anti-aircraft guns away from the other group They were flying at 12,000 feet, while the second formation was at 4,000 feet3

Aftermathedit

Mitsubishi G3M Nell of Mihoro Air Group, carrying bombs externally Civilians hiding in an air raid shelter at Tiong Bahru Estate during a Japanese bombing raid in December 1941 Two women grieving over a child killed in an air raid at Jinrikisha Station on 3 February 1942

The 'Raiders Passed' signal was sent out at 05003 The bombers succeeded in bombing the airfields at Seletar and Tengah, damaging three Bristol Blenheim bombers of No 34 Squadron RAF4 A number of bombs also fell on Raffles Place 61 people were killed and more than 700 were injured Most of the casualties were troops of the 2/2nd Gurkha Rifles, 11th Indian Infantry Division The Japanese bombers all returned safely to Thu Dau Mot8

Though the bombing caused only minor damage to the airfields, it stunned the British Far East Command Despite intelligence reports of Japanese aircraft performance in the Second Sino-Japanese War, the command did not believe Japan's air forces were capable of striking Singapore from airfields more than 600 miles away in Indochina The raid came as a surprise to Lieutenant General Arthur Percival, who "hardly expected the Japanese to have any very long-range aircraft"4

Singapore had respite from further air raids while the Japanese focussed their attacks on Allied positions in northern Malaya The next raid occurred on the night of 16/17 December 1941 This was minor attack on RAF Tengah by two Japanese Ki-21s The next serious raid on Singapore City was on the night of 29/30 December The Japanese launched their first daylight raid on 12 January 1942, a day after their capture of Kuala Lumpur allowed them to shift aircraft of the IJAAF to southern Malaya

See alsoedit

  • Battle of Singapore
  • Bombing of Singapore 1944–45

Referencesedit

Citationsedit

  1. ^ First bomb raid on Singapore, Chua, Alvin, 25 November 2014 
  2. ^ a b c Full text of "ZERO!", E P Dutton & Co r Inc, retrieved 20 January 2010 
  3. ^ a b c d e Owen 2001, page 36
  4. ^ a b c d e Burton 2006, page 96
  5. ^ Imperial Japanese Navy Air Assault of Singapore, Mike Yeo, retrieved 20 January 2010 
  6. ^ Stenman and Thomas, page 45
  7. ^ Burton 2006, page 97
  8. ^ First bomb raid on Singapore, Chua, Jeanne, 29 September 1997 
  9. ^ The RAAF in Malaya, ww2australiagovau, retrieved 15 January 2010 

Bibliographyedit

  • Lee, G B 1992 Syonan: Singapore under the Japanese 1942–1945 pp 18, 24 Singapore: Singapore Heritage Society
  • Singapore: An illustrated history 1941 – 1984 p 16 1984 Singapore: Information Division, Ministry of Culture
  • Tan, B L 1996 The Japanese Occupation 1942 – 1945: A pictorial record of Singapore during the war pp 16, 26–27 Singapore: Times Editions
  • Stenman, Kari and Andrew Thomas Brewster F2A Buffalo Aces of World War 2 Aircraft of the Aces Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2010 ISBN 978-1-84603-481-7
  • Owen, Frank The Fall of Singapore Penguin Books, 2001 ISBN 0-14-139133-2
  • Burton, John Fortnight of infamy: the collapse of Allied airpower west of Pearl Harbor Naval Institute Press, 2006 ISBN 1-59114-096-X

External linksedit

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Bombing of Singapore 1941
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