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Belle experiment

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The Belle experiment was a particle physics experiment conducted by the Belle Collaboration, an international collaboration of more than 400 physicists and engineers, at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation KEK in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan The experiment ran from 1999 to 2010

The Belle detector was located at the collision point of the asymmetric-energy electron-positron collider, KEKB Belle at KEKB together with the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II accelerator at SLAC were known as the B-factories as they collided electrons with positrons at the center-of-momentum energy equal to the mass of the
4S resonance which decays to pairs of B mesons

The Belle detector was a hermetic multilayer particle detector with large solid angle coverage, vertex location with precision on the order of tens of micrometres provided by a silicon vertex detector, good distinction between pions and kaons in the momenta range from 100 MeV/c to few GeV/c provided by a Cherenkov detector, and a few-percent precision electromagnetic calorimeter made of CsITl scintillating crystals

The Belle II experiment is an upgrade of Belle that was approved in June 2010 It is currently being commissioned, and is anticipated to start operation in 2018 Belle II is located at SuperKEKB an upgraded KEKB accelerator which is intended to provide a factor 40 larger integrated luminosity


  • 1 Results
  • 2 Data samples
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 External links


The retired central drift tracking chamber from Belle, now exhibited at the National Museum of Nature and Science

The experiment was motivated by the search for CP-violation However the experiment also performed extensive studies of rare decays, searches for exotic particles and precision measurements of the properties of D mesons, and tau particles The experiment has resulted in almost 300 publications in physics journals

Highlights of the Belle experiment include

  • an observation of large CP-violation in the neutral B meson system
  • measurement of the branching fraction of inclusive B → X s γ \gamma } decays
  • observation of the b → s l + l − l^} transition with B → K l + l − l^} and B → K ∗ l + l − l^l^}
  • measurement of ϕ 3 } using the B → D K , D → K S π + π − \pi ^\pi ^} Dalitz plot
  • measurement of the CKM quark mixing matrix elements | V u b | |} and | V c b | |}
  • observation of direct CP-violation in B 0 → π + π − \to \pi ^\pi ^} and B 0 → K − π + \to K^\pi ^}
  • observation of b → d transitions
  • evidence for B → τ ν
  • observations of a number of new particles including the X3872

Data samples

The KEKB accelerator was the world's highest luminosity machine at the time A large fraction of the data was collected at the
4S The instantaneous luminosity exceeded 7034210999999999999♠211×1034 cm−2·s−1 The integrated luminosity collected at the
4S mass was about 7002710000000000000♠710 fb−1 corresponding to 771 million

meson pairs About 10% of the data was recorded below the
4S resonance in order to study backgrounds In addition, KEKB carried out special runs at the
5S resonance to study
s mesons as well as on the
2S and
3S resonances to search for evidence of Dark Matter and the Higgs Boson The samples of
2S and
5S collected by Belle are the world largest samples available

See also

  • B-factory

  • B



  1. ^ a b c d Bevan, A J; Golob, B; Mannel, Th; Prell, S; Yabsley, B D; Aihara, H; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Aushev, T 2014-11-01 "The Physics of the B Factories" The European Physical Journal C 74 11: 3026 arXiv:14066311  Bibcode:2014EPJC743026B doi:101140/epjc/s10052-014-3026-9 ISSN 1434-6044 
  2. ^ KEK press release
  3. ^ "Belle II" wwwbelle2org Retrieved 2017-04-28 
  4. ^ "SuperKEKB" www-superkekbkekjp Retrieved 2017-04-30 
  5. ^ Abe, T; Adachi, I; Adamczyk, K; Ahn, S; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Aloi, M; Andricek, L; Aoki, K 2010-11-01 "Belle II Technical Design Report" arXiv:10110352   
  6. ^ Cheng, M T; Chu, M L; Wang, C H; Chen, H S; Li, J; Zhu, Y C; Wang, T J; Yu, Z Q; Kawai, H 1994-01-01 "Letter of intent for a study of CP violation in B meson decays" 
  7. ^ Abe, K; Abe, K; Abe, R; Adachi, I; Ahn, Byoung Sup; Aihara, H; Akatsu, M; Alimonti, G; Asai, K 2001-08-14 "Observation of Large CP Violation in the Neutral B Meson System" Physical Review Letters 87 9: 091802 arXiv:hep-ex/0107061  Bibcode:2001PhRvL87i1802A doi:101103/PhysRevLett87091802 ISSN 0031-9007 PMID 11531561 
  8. ^ Abe, K; Abe, K; Adachi, I; Ahn, Byoung Sup; Aihara, H; Akatsu, M; Alimonti, G; Aoki, K; Asai, K 2001-07-05 "A measurement of the branching fraction for the inclusive B→Xsγ decays with the Belle detector" Physics Letters B 511 2–4: 151–158 arXiv:hep-ex/0103042  Bibcode:2001PhLB511151B doi:101016/S0370-26930100626-8 
  9. ^ Abe, K; Abe, K; Abe, R; Adachi, I; Ahn, Byoung Sup; Aihara, H; Akatsu, M; Asano, Y; Aso, T 2001-12-27 "Observation of the Decay B → K l + l −" Physical Review Letters 88 2: 021801 arXiv:hep-ex/0109026  Bibcode:2002PhRvL88b1801A doi:101103/PhysRevLett88021801 ISSN 0031-9007 PMID 11801003 
  10. ^ Ishikawa, A; Abe, K; Abe, K; Abe, T; Adachi, I; Ahn, Byoung Sup; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Akatsu, M 2003-12-24 "Observation of B → K ℓ + ℓ −" Physical Review Letters 91 26: 261601 arXiv:hep-ex/0308044  Bibcode:2003PhRvL91z1601I doi:101103/PhysRevLett91261601 ISSN 0031-9007 
  11. ^ Abe, K; Abe, K; Abe, N; Abe, T; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Akatsu, M; Akemoto, M 2004-07-06 "Observation of Large C P Violation and Evidence for Direct C P Violation in B 0 → π + π − Decays" Physical Review Letters 93 2: 021601 arXiv:hep-ex/0401029  Bibcode:2004PhRvL93b1601A doi:101103/PhysRevLett93021601 ISSN 0031-9007 PMID 15323897 
  12. ^ Chao, Y; Chang, P; Abe, K; Abe, K; Abe, N; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Akatsu, M 2004-11-05 "Evidence for Direct C P Violation in B 0 → K + π − Decays" Physical Review Letters 93 19: 191802 arXiv:hep-ex/0408100  Bibcode:2004PhRvL93s1802C doi:101103/PhysRevLett93191802 ISSN 0031-9007 PMID 15600826 
  13. ^ Mohapatra, D; Nakao, M; Nishida, S; Abe, K; Abe, K; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Anipko, D; Arinstein, K 2006-06-09 "Observation of b → d γ and Determination of | V t d / V t s" Physical Review Letters 96 22: 221601 arXiv:hep-ex/0506079  Bibcode:2006PhRvL96v1601M doi:101103/PhysRevLett96221601 ISSN 0031-9007 PMID 16803300 
  14. ^ Ikado, K; Abe, K; Abe, K; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Akemoto, M; Anipko, D; Arinstein, K 2006-12-22 "Evidence of the Purely Leptonic Decay B − → τ − ν ¯ τ" Physical Review Letters 97 25: 251802 arXiv:hep-ex/0604018  Bibcode:2006PhRvL97y1802I doi:101103/PhysRevLett97251802 ISSN 0031-9007 PMID 17280341 
  15. ^ Choi, S-K; Olsen, S L; Abe, K; Abe, T; Adachi, I; Ahn, Byoung Sup; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Akatsu, M 2003-12-23 "Observation of a Narrow Charmoniumlike State in Exclusive B ± → K ± π + π − J / ψ Decays" Physical Review Letters 91 26: 262001 arXiv:hep-ex/0309032  Bibcode:2003PhRvL91z2001C doi:101103/PhysRevLett91262001 ISSN 0031-9007 

External links

  • Official Belle Website
  • Belle II Collaboration Website
  • Belle II Public Website

Coordinates: 36°09′28″N 140°04′31″E / 3615778°N 14007528°E / 3615778; 14007528

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Belle experiment

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