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Bar Harbor, Maine

bar harbor maine acadia national park, barharbormaine.com
Bar Harbor is a town on Mount Desert Island in Hancock County, Maine, United States As of the 2010 census, its population is 5,235 Bar Harbor is a popular tourist destination in the Down East region of Maine and home to the College of the Atlantic, Jackson Laboratory, and MDI Biological Laboratory Salisbury Cove village Prior to a catastrophic 1947 fire, the town was a famous summer colony for the super-affluent elite Bar Harbor is home to the largest parts of Acadia National Park, including Cadillac Mountain, the highest point within twenty-five miles 40 km of the coastline of the Eastern United States4 The town is served by the Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, which has flights on Cape Air and PenAir to Boston, as well as seasonal flights to Newark and Portland, ME on Elite Airways

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Mount Desert Island Fire
  • 2 Geography
    • 21 Climate
  • 3 Demographics
    • 31 2010 census
    • 32 2000 census
  • 4 Education
  • 5 Tourism
  • 6 In popular culture
  • 7 Notable people
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

Historyedit

The town of Bar Harbor was founded on the northeast shore of Mount Desert Island, which the Wabanaki Indians knew as Pemetic, meaning "range of mountains" or "mountains seen at a distance" The Wabanaki seasonally fished, hunted and gathered berries, clams, and other shellfish in the area They spoke of Bar Harbor as Man-es-ayd'ik "clam-gathering place" or Ah-bays'auk "clambake place", leaving great piles of shells as evidence of this abundance In early September 1604, French explorer Samuel de Champlain ran aground on a rock ledge believed to be just off Otter Cliffs, and when he came ashore to repair his boat he met local natives Champlain named the island Isles des Monts Deserts, meaning "island of barren mountains"—now called Mount Desert Island, the largest in Maine5

The community was first settled by Europeans in 1763 by Israel Higgins and John Thomas and incorporated on February 23, 1796 as Eden, after Sir Richard Eden, an English statesman Early industries included fishing, lumbering and shipbuilding With the best soil on Mount Desert Island, it also developed agriculture In the 1840s, its rugged maritime scenery attracted the Hudson River School and Luminism artists Thomas Cole, Frederic Edwin Church, William Hart and Fitz Henry Lane Inspired by their paintings, journalists, sportsmen and "rusticators" followed Agamont House, the first hotel in Eden, was established in 1855 by Tobias Roberts Birch Point, the first summer estate, was built in 1868 by Alpheus Hardy

By 1880, there were 30 hotels, including the Mira Monte Inn, a historic landmark that would later survive a massive fire, in 1947 Tourists were arriving by train and ferry to the Gilded Age resort that would rival Newport, Rhode Island The rich and famous tried to outdo each other with entertaining and estates, often hiring landscape gardener and landscape architect Beatrix Farrand, a resident at local Reef Point Estate, to design their gardens A glimpse of their lifestyles was available from the Shore Path, a walkway skirting waterfront lawns Yachting, garden parties at the Pot & Kettle Club, and carriage rides up Cadillac Mountain were popular diversions Others enjoyed horse-racing at Robin Hood Park-Morrell Park President William Howard Taft played golf in 1910 at the Kebo Valley Golf Club On March 3, 1918, Eden was renamed Bar Harbor, after the sand and gravel bar, visible at low tide, which leads across to Bar Island and forms the rear of the harbor The name would become synonymous with elite wealth It was the birthplace of vice-president Nelson Rockefeller on July 8, 1908

Bar Harbor was also used for naval practices during World War II More specifically, Bald Porcupine Island was used to fire live torpedoes In October 1944, the submarine USS Piper fired 12 live torpedoes at the island Of the 12 fired, one failed to explode on the first attempt but was later detonated by the 12th torpedo6 In 1996, the US Army Corps of Engineers surveyed all 30 acres of Bald Porcupine Island for unexploded ordnance Nine were found7

Many influential people have called Bar Harbor home for at least part of the year John D Rockefeller, Jr, son of John D Rockefeller of Standard Oil Co, donated about one-third of the land in Acadia National Park and built the carriage roads that are used for hiking and biking J P Morgan owned a house that is adjacent to Bar Harbor Cornelius Vanderbilt built cottages in Bar Harbor The Astor family owned hotels and cottages in Bar Harbor and the surrounding areas William Howard Taft used to enjoy games of golf in Bar Harbor The co-founder and CEO of Burt's Bees, Roxanne Quimby, has a home near Bar Harbor and is seen frequenting the downtown area The star and creator of the TV show Martha Stewart has also been known to frequent Mount Desert Island and been seen in Bar Harbor Architect Fred L Savage started out on Mount Desert Island, moved, and then returned to design houses for many wealthy people in Bar Harbor8

Mount Desert Island Fireedit

In mid-October 1947, Maine experienced a severe drought Sparks at a cranberry bog near Town Hill ignited a wildfire that would intensify over ten days, and not be declared out until mid-November; this was one of several wildfires in the state that year Nearly half the eastern side of Mount Desert Island burned, including 67 palatial summer houses on Millionaires' Row Five historic grand hotels and 170 permanent homes were destroyed Over 10,000 acres 4,000 ha of Acadia National Park were destroyed Fortunately, the town's business district was spared, including Mount Desert Street, where several former summer homes within a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places operate as inns

Geographyedit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 6311 square miles 16345 km2, of which 4224 square miles 10940 km2 is land and 2087 square miles 5405 km2 is water1 Bar Harbor is situated on Frenchman Bay

Frenchman Bay and islands and the area around the town of Bar Harbor viewed from Cadillac Mountain in Acadia National Park

Climateedit

This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot and often humid summers and cold sometimes severely cold winters According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Bar Harbor has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps9 Bar Harbor and Mount Desert Island are located near the coastline and surrounded by the North American continent to the northeast and southwest This location, combined with prevailing winds that are not from the Atlantic, gives Bar Harbor a continental climate with very cold winters for an island location at such a low latitude

Climate data for Bar Harbor, Maine
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F °C 63
17
57
14
78
26
83
28
92
33
97
36
96
36
98
37
96
36
89
32
70
21
66
19
98
37
Average high °F °C 314
−03
350
17
416
53
533
118
650
183
742
234
791
262
784
258
705
214
587
148
481
89
372
29
561
134
Daily mean °F °C 226
−52
261
−33
332
07
442
68
547
126
640
178
692
207
687
204
612
162
503
102
405
47
293
−15
471
84
Average low °F °C 137
−102
172
−82
248
−4
350
17
445
69
537
121
593
152
589
149
520
111
420
56
330
06
213
−59
387
37
Record low °F °C −20
−29
−21
−29
−9
−23
11
−12
22
−6
32
0
36
2
36
2
27
−3
20
−7
−3
−19
−21
−29
−21
−29
Average precipitation inches mm 49
124
44
112
54
137
48
122
46
117
41
104
35
89
33
84
45
114
53
135
65
165
56
142
567
1,440
Average snowfall inches cm 167
424
187
475
114
29
41
104
02
05
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
02
05
30
76
125
318
668
1697
Average precipitation days 11 9 10 10 10 10 9 8 9 9 10 10 115
Source: Weatherbase 10

Demographicsedit

Census
Historical population
Pop
1800 400
1810 657 643%
1820 764 163%
1830 957 253%
1840 1,054 101%
1850 1,127 69%
1860 1,247 106%
1870 1,195 −42%
1880 1,629 363%
1890 1,946 195%
1900 4,379 1250%
1910 4,441 14%
1920 3,622 −184%
1930 4,486 239%
1940 4,378 −24%
1950 3,864 −117%
1960 3,807 −15%
1970 3,716 −24%
1980 4,124 110%
1990 4,443 77%
2000 4,820 85%
2010 5,235 86%
Est 2014 5,308 14%
sources:12
See also: Bar Harbor CDP, Maine

2010 censusedit

As of the census2 of 2010, there were 5,235 people, 2,427 households, and 1,275 families residing in the town The population density was 1239 inhabitants per square mile 478/km2 There were 3,495 housing units at an average density of 827 per square mile 319/km2 The racial makeup of the town was 947% White, 08% African American, 02% Native American, 28% Asian, 04% from other races, and 12% from two or more races Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11% of the population

There were 2,427 households of which 220% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 428% were married couples living together, 68% had a female householder with no husband present, 30% had a male householder with no wife present, and 475% were non-families 360% of all households were made up of individuals and 146% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 208 and the average family size was 270

The median age in the town was 453 years 173% of residents were under the age of 18; 10% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 224% were from 25 to 44; 323% were from 45 to 64; and 181% were 65 years of age or older The gender makeup of the town was 463% male and 537% female

2000 censusedit

As of the census13 of 2000, there were 4,820 people, 2,142 households, and 1,163 families residing in or near the town The population density was 1142 people per square mile 441/km² There were 2,805 housing units at an average density of 665 per square mile 257/km² The racial makeup of the town was 9788% White, 015% Black or African American, 021% Native American, 089% Asian, 008% from other races, and 079% from two or more races Hispanic or Latino of any race were 062% of the population

There were 2,142 households out of which 245% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 445% were married couples living together, 64% had a female householder with no husband present, and 457% were non-families 347% of all households were made up of individuals and 133% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 216 and the average family size was 278

In and near the town, the population was spread out with 198% under the age of 18, 90% from 18 to 24, 286% from 25 to 44, 266% from 45 to 64, and 161% who were 65 years of age or older The median age was 41 years For every 100 females there were 875 males For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 827 males

The median income for a household in or near the town was $37,481, and the median income for a family was $51,989 Males had a median income of $31,085 versus $25,417 for females The per capita income for the area was $24,103 About 49% of families and 89% of the population were below the poverty line, including 67% of those under age 18 and 83% of those age 65 or over

Educationedit

Conners Emerson School

Conners Emerson School is located in Bar Harbor

Mount Desert Island High School MDIHS serves the four towns of the Island, plus the outlying islands of Swan's Island and the town of Cranberry Isles The school also serves students from towns such as Trenton, Hancock, Lamoine, and Mariaville on the mainland

The College of the Atlantic is located in Bar Harbor

The Abbe Museum, a Smithsonian Institution affiliate museum, is located in downtown Bar Harbor American Civil War monument in Bar Harbor recalls "the sons of Eden who were defenders of the Union" Eden is the former name of Bar Harbor

Tourismedit

Observational tours on humpback whales

Recreational activities abound in Bar Harbor The downtown is particularly alive in the summer and autumn months because Bar Harbor is home to many outdoor enthusiasts Acadia National Park is a couple of miles from the downtown area Outdoor activities in Acadia include hiking along trails or carriage roads, biking along the carriage roads, bird watching, and mountain climbing, in view of Cadillac Mountain, the highest point on the Atlantic seaboard

Those interested in the marine life surrounding Mount Desert Island can go to the marina at the end of Main Street and sign up for tours that feature puffins, whales, lobster, seals, pelagic seabirds, island lighthouses, or for an overall nature cruise

At low tide a sand bar from town to Bar Island is exposed and wide enough to drive a car across Although cars are not allowed on the sandbar, it provides a lot of entertainment for those looking to go shelling or just to see what is uncovered when the water retreats This exposed land also provides an excellent launch point for kayakers

The American Planning Association in 2012 named the Village Green as one of their top ten Great Places in America for Public Spaces14

Bar Harbor is a destination for tourists from all over the world Cruise ships are in the harbor from May through October most often in September, with 23 ships expected to make 135 visits in 201315 Bar Harbor also hosts many long-distance cyclists, as it is the eastern terminus of the Adventure Cycling Association's Northern Tier Bicycle Route which ends in Anacortes, Washington, and the northern terminus of its Atlantic Coast Bicycle Route which ends in Key West, Florida

In popular cultureedit

The Far Harbor add-on for the 2015 video game Fallout 4 is located on Mount Desert Island, with Bar Harbor being in a location on the island congruent with the main settlement in the game16

Notable peopleedit

  • Charles Bolster, judge
  • Les Brewer, founder of College of the Atlantic
  • Dennis Damon, state senator 2002–2010
  • Henry F Dimock, lawyer
  • William E Dodge, Jr, businessperson
  • Matthew Dunlap, Maine Secretary of State
  • Joseph T Edgar, Secretary of State of Maine and Speaker of the Maine House of Representatives
  • Jill Goldthwait, state senator 1994–2002
  • Brison D Gooch, historian
  • Carrie Jones, novelist
  • David E Kelley, television producer
  • Shirley Povich, sports columnist and reporter for The Washington Post
  • Esther Ralston, actress
  • Nelson Rockefeller, businessman, governor of New York 1959–1973, Vice President of the United States 1974–1977
  • Lynne Williams, lawyer, planning board member, and candidate for governor of Maine

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2012-12-16 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2012-12-16 
  3. ^ "Population Estimates" United States Census Bureau Archived from the original on June 17, 2013 Retrieved 2013-07-06 
  4. ^ "Cadillac Mountain" US National Park Service 2004-10-28 Archived from the original on 2006-02-07 Retrieved 2008-03-22 
  5. ^ For a freely accessible digital text on Wabanaki culture and history, see Asticou's Island Domain: Wabanaki Peoples at Mount Desert Island 1500-2000 Archived August 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, by Harald E L Prins and Bunny McBride National Park Service, 2007
  6. ^ "Piper SS-409 AGSS-409" NavSource History 
  7. ^ "Conclusions and Recommendations for the Former Naval Ordnance Facility Bald Porcupine Island, Bar Harbor, Maine" PDF US Army Corps of Engineers December 1996 Archived from the original on 2003-08-27 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown link
  8. ^ "The Influential, The Famous & The Celebrities of Downeast Maine - Bar Harbor Maine and the Acadia National Park Regions" downeastmaineonline Archived from the original on 2013-07-17 Retrieved 2012-12-01 
  9. ^ Climate Summary for Bar Harbor, Maine
  10. ^ "Bar Harbor - Maine United States climate normals" Weatherbase Retrieved 2016-08-03 
  11. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014" Retrieved June 4, 2015 
  12. ^ "Hancock and town Bar Harbor" wwwlibraryumaineedu Archived from the original on 2011-09-29 Retrieved 2016-05-10 , accessed March, 2010
  13. ^ "American FactFinder" United States Census Bureau Archived from the original on September 11, 2013 Retrieved 2008-01-31 
  14. ^ APA: Great Public Spaces
  15. ^ "Bar Harbor, Maine -- Tourism" PDF wwwbarharbormainegov Retrieved 2016-05-10 permanent dead link
  16. ^ Dave Thier Forbes, May 12, 2016 The Real Bar Harbor Couldn't Be Happier About Fallout 4's 'Far Harbor'

External linksedit

  • Town of Bar Harbor, Official website
  • Bar Harbor Chamber of Commerce
  • Bar Harbor travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Bar Harbour, Travel Guide by The New York Times
  •  "Bar Harbor" Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 
  •  "Bar Harbor" Encyclopedia Americana 1920 

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