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Bangalore

bangalore university, bangalore airport
Bangalore /bæŋɡəˈlɔːr/, officially known as Bengaluru , is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka It has a population of about 842 million and a metropolitan population of about 852 million, making it the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India Located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau, at a height of over 900 m 3,000 ft above sea level, Bangalore is known for its pleasant climate throughout the year Its elevation is the highest among the major cities of India

A succession of South Indian dynasties, the Western Gangas, the Cholas and the Hoysalas, ruled the present region of Bangalore until in 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bangalore In 1638, the Marāthās conquered and ruled Bangalore for almost 50 years, after which the Mughals captured and sold the city to the Mysore Kingdom of the Wadiyar dynasty It was captured by the British after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War 1799, who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, and a town grew up around it, which was governed as part of British India Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, and remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956 The two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949 The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006

Bangalore is sometimes referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" or "IT capital of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology IT exporter Indian technological organisations ISRO, Infosys, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India It is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science IISc, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore IIMB, National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bangalore, National Institute of Design, Bangalore NID R&D Campus, National Law School of India University NLSIU and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences NIMHANS Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city The city also houses the Kannada film industry With a gross domestic product GDP of $83 billion, Bangalore is ranked fourth in India by overall GDP contribution, after only Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata

Contents

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 History
    • 21 Early and medieval history
    • 22 Foundation and early modern history
    • 23 Later modern and contemporary history
  • 3 Geography
    • 31 Climate
  • 4 Demographics
  • 5 Civic administration
    • 51 Pollution control
    • 52 Slums
    • 53 Waste management
  • 6 Economy
  • 7 Transport
    • 71 Air
    • 72 Rail
    • 73 Road
  • 8 Culture
    • 81 Art and literature
    • 82 Theatre, music, and dance
  • 9 Education
  • 10 Media
  • 11 Sports
    • 111 City based clubs
  • 12 Location
  • 13 See also
  • 14 References
  • 15 Further reading
  • 16 External links

Etymology

The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name, "Bengalūru" ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu" ವೀರಗಲ್ಲು literally, "hero stone", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengalūrū" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE It states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada Old Kannada

An apocryphal story recounts that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans The grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru" literally, "town of boiled beans", which eventually evolved into "Bengalūru" Suryanath Kamath has put forward an explanation of a possible floral origin of the name, being derived from benga, the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium also known as the Indian Kino Tree, a species of dry and moist deciduous trees, that grew abundantly in the region

On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U R Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengalūru On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike BBMP passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change The government of Karnataka accepted the proposal, and it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1 November 2006 The Union government have approved along with other 12 cities this request in October 2014 and Bangalore was renamed to "Bengaluru" on 1 November 2014

History

Main article: History of Bangalore

Early and medieval history

The Begur Nageshwara Temple was built in Bangalore around c 860, during the reign of the Western Ganga Dynasty Someshwara Temple dates from the Chola era

A discovery of Stone Age artefacts during the 2001 census of India at Jalahalli, Sidhapura and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE Around 1,000 BCE Iron Age, burial grounds were established at Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus, Tiberius, and Claudius found at Yeswanthpur and HAL indicate that Bangalore was involved in trans-oceanic trade with ancient civilisations in 27 BCE

The region of modern-day Bangalore was part of several successive South Indian kingdoms Between the fourth and the tenth centuries, the Bangalore region was ruled by the Western Ganga Dynasty of Karnataka, the first dynasty to set up effective control over the region According to Edgar Thurston there were twenty eight kings who ruled Gangavadi from the start of the Christian era till its conquest by the Cholas These kings belonged to two distinct dynasties: the earlier line of the Solar race which had a succession of seven kings of the Ratti or Reddi tribe, and the later line of the Ganga race The Western Gangas ruled the region initially as a sovereign power 350 – 550, and later as feudatories of the Chalukyas of Badami, followed by the Rashtrakutas till the tenth century The Begur Nageshwara Temple was commissioned around 860, during the reign of the Western Ganga King Ereganga Nitimarga I and extended by his successor Nitimarga II Around 1004, during the reign of Raja Raja Chola I, the Cholas defeated the Western Gangas under the command of the crown prince Rajendra Chola I, and captured Bangalore During this period, the Bangalore region witnessed the migration of many groups — warriors, administrators, traders, artisans, pastorals, cultivators, and religious personnel from Tamil Nadu and other Kannada speaking regions The Chokkanathaswamy temple at Domlur, the Aigandapura complex near Hesaraghatta, Mukthi Natheshwara Temple at Binnamangala, Choleshwara Temple at Begur, Someshwara Temple at Madiwala, date from the Chola era

In 1117, the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana defeated the Cholas in the Battle of Talakad in south Karnataka, and extended its rule over the region Vishnuvardhana expelled the Cholas from all parts of Mysore state By the end of the 13th century, Bangalore became a source of contention between two warring cousins, the Hoysala ruler Veera Ballala III of Halebidu and Ramanatha, who administered from the Hoysala held territory in Tamil Nadu Veera Ballala III had appointed a civic head at Hudi now within Bangalore Municipal Corporation limits, thus promoting the village to the status of a town After Veera Ballala III's death in 1343, the next empire to rule the region was the Vijayanagara Empire, which itself saw the rise of four dynasties, the Sangamas 1336 – 1485, the Saluvas 1485 – 1491, the Tuluvas 1491 – 1565, and the Aravidu 1565 – 1646 During the reign of the Vijayanagara Empire, Achyuta Deva Raya of the Tuluva Dynasty raised the Shivasamudra Dam across the Arkavati river at Hesaraghatta, whose reservoir is the present city's supply of regular piped water

Foundation and early modern history

Bangalore Fort in 1860 showing fortifications and barracks The fort was originally built by Kempe Gowda I as a mud fort in 1537 Bangalore Palace, built in 1887 in Tudor architectural style was modelled on the Windsor Castle in England

Modern Bangalore had its beginning in 1537 by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I, who aligned with the Vijayanagara empire to campaign against Gangaraja who he defeated and expelled to Kanchi, and who built a mud-brick fort for the people at the site that would become the central part of modern Bangalore Kempe Gowda was restricted by rules placed by Achuta Deva Raya who feared the potential power of Kempe Gowda and did not allow for a formidable stone fort Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandubhūmi" or "Land of Heroes" Within the fort, the town was divided into smaller divisions—each called a "pete" IPA:  The town had two main streets—Chikkapeté Street, which ran east-west, and Doddapeté Street, which ran north-south Their intersection formed the Doddapeté Square—the heart of Bangalore Kempe Gowda I's successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four towers that marked Bangalore's boundary During the Vijayanagara rule, many saints and poets referred to Bangalore as "Devarāyanagara" and "Kalyānapura" or "Kalyānapuri" "Auspicious City"

After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565 in the Battle of Talikota, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times Kempe Gowda declared independence, then in 1638, a large Adil Shahi Bijapur army led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by his second in command Shāhji Bhōnslé defeated Kempe Gowda III, and Bangalore was given to Shāhji as a jagir feudal estate In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan, under orders from Aurangzeb, defeated Ekoji I, son of Shāhji, and sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar 1673–1704, the then ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore Hyder Ali is credited with building the Delhi and Mysore gates at the northern and southern ends of the city in 1760 The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tipu Sultan Hyder and Tipu contributed towards the beautification of the city by building Lal Bagh Botanical Gardens in 1760 Under them, Bangalore developed into a commercial and military centre of strategic importance

The Bangalore fort was captured by the British armies under Lord Cornwallis on 21 March 1791 during the Third Anglo-Mysore War and formed a centre for British resistance against Tipu Sultan Following Tipu's death in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War 1799, the British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pētē" to the Maharaja of Mysore and was incorporated into the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj The old city "pētē" developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore The Residency of Mysore State was first established in Mysore City in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore in 1804 It was abolished in 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at Bangalore and to be closed down permanently in 1947, with Indian independence The British found Bangalore to be a pleasant and appropriate place to station their garrison and therefore moved their cantonment to Bangalore from Seringapatam in 1809 near Halsur, about 6 kilometres 4 mi north-east of the city A town grew up around the cantonment, by absorbing several villages in the area The new centre had its own municipal and administrative apparatus, though technically it was a British enclave within the territory of the Wodeyar Kings of the Princely State of Mysore Two important developments which contributed to the rapid growth of the city, include the introduction of telegraph connections to all major Indian cities in 1853 and a rail connection to Madras, in 1864

Later modern and contemporary history

A view of Bangalore Pete during the 1890s A view of Bangalore Cantonment c 1895 The Bangalore torpedo was invented in Bangalore in 1922

In the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city, with the "pētē", whose residents were predominantly Kannadigas and the cantonment created by the British Throughout the 19th century, the Cantonment gradually expanded and acquired a distinct cultural and political salience as it was governed directly by the British and was known as the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore While it remained in the princely territory of Mysore, Cantonment had a large military presence and a cosmopolitan civilian population that came from outside the princely state of Mysore, including British and Anglo-Indians army officers

Bangalore was hit by a plague epidemic in 1898 that claimed nearly 3,500 lives The crisis caused by the outbreak catalysed the city's sanitation process Telephone lines were laid to help co-ordinate anti-plague operations Regulations for building new houses with proper sanitation facilities came into effect A health officer was appointed and the city divided into four wards for better co-ordination Victoria Hospital was inaugurated in 1900 by Lord Curzon, the then Governor-General of British India New extensions in Malleswaram and Basavanagudi were developed in the north and south of the pētē In 1903, motor vehicles came to be introduced in Bangalore In 1906, Bangalore became one of the first cities in India to have electricity from hydro power, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra The Indian Institute of Science was established in 1909, which subsequently played a major role in developing the city as a science research hub In 1912, the Bangalore torpedo, a defensive explosive weapon widely used in World War I and World War II, was devised in Bangalore by British army officer Captain McClintock of the Madras Sappers and Miners

Bangalore's reputation as the "Garden City of India" began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to improve the city Bangalore played an important role during the Indian independence movement Mahatma Gandhi visited the city in 1927 and 1934 and addressed public meetings here In 1926, the labour unrest in Binny Mills due to demand by textile workers for payment of bonus resulted in lathi charging and police firing, resulting in the death of four workers, and several injuries In July 1928, there were notable communal disturbances in Bangalore, when a Ganesh idol was removed from a school compound in the Sultanpet area of Bangalore In 1940, the first flight between Bangalore and Bombay took off, which placed the city on India's urban map

After India's independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the newly carved Mysore State of which the Maharaja of Mysore was the Rajapramukh appointed governor The "City Improvement Trust" was formed in 1945, and in 1949, the "City" and the "Cantonment" merged to form the Bangalore City Corporation The Government of Karnataka later constituted the Bangalore Development Authority in 1976 to co-ordinate the activities of these two bodies Public sector employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas from the rest of the state to migrate to the city Bangalore experienced rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81, which saw the arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka By 1961, Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a population of 1,207,000 In the decades that followed, Bangalore's manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of private companies such as MICO Motor Industries Company, which set up its manufacturing plant in the city

By the 1980s, it was clear that urbanisation had spilled over the current boundaries, and in 1986, the Bangalore Metropolitan Region Development Authority, was established to co-ordinate the development of the entire region as a single unit On 8 February 1981, a major fire broke out at Venus Circus in Bangalore, where more than 92 lives were lost, the majority of them being children Bangalore experienced a growth in its real estate market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore's large plots and colonial bungalows into multi-storied apartments In 1985, Texas Instruments became the first multinational corporation to set up base in Bangalore Other information technology companies followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had established itself as the Silicon Valley of India Today, Bangalore is India's third most populous city During the 21st century, Bangalore has suffered terrorist attacks in 2008, 2010, and 2013

Geography

Main article: Bangalore geography and environment The Hesaraghatta Lake in Bangalore

Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South Indian state of Karnataka It is in the heart of the Mysore Plateau a region of the larger Precambrian Deccan Plateau at an average elevation of 900 m 2,953 ft:8 It is located at 12°58′N 77°34′E / 1297°N 7756°E / 1297; 7756 and covers an area of 741 km2 286 sq mi The majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka and the surrounding rural areas are a part of the Bangalore Rural district The Government of Karnataka has carved out the new district of Ramanagara from the old Bangalore Rural district

The topology of Bangalore is generally flat, though the western parts of the city are hilly The highest point is Vidyaranyapura Doddabettahalli, which is 962 metres 3,156 feet and is situated to the north-west of the city No major rivers run through the city, although the Arkavathi and South Pennar cross paths at the Nandi Hills, 60 kilometres 37 miles to the north River Vrishabhavathi, a minor tributary of the Arkavathi, arises within the city at Basavanagudi and flows through the city The rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi together carry much of Bangalore's sewage A sewerage system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 km2 83 sq mi of the city and connects with five sewage treatment centres located in the periphery of Bangalore

In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I constructed many lakes to meet the town's water requirements The Kempambudhi Kere, since overrun by modern development, was prominent among those lakes In the earlier half of 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks was commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41 CE to provide a water supply to the city Currently, the river Kaveri provides around 80% of the total water supply to the city with the remaining 20% being obtained from the Thippagondanahalli and Hesaraghatta reservoirs of the Arkavathi river Bangalore receives 800 million litres 211 million US gallons of water a day, more than any other Indian city However, Bangalore sometimes does face water shortages, especially during summer- more so in the years of low rainfall A random sampling study of the Air Quality Index AQI of twenty stations within the city indicated scores that ranged from 76 to 314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution around areas of traffic concentration

Bangalore has a handful of freshwater lakes and water tanks, the largest of which are Madivala tank, Hebbal lake, Ulsoor lake, Yediyur Lake and Sankey Tank Groundwater occurs in silty to sandy layers of the alluvial sediments The Peninsular Gneissic Complex PGC is the most dominant rock unit in the area and includes granites, gneisses and migmatites, while the soils of Bangalore consist of red laterite and red, fine loamy to clayey soils

Vegetation in the city is primarily in the form of large deciduous canopy and minority coconut trees Though Bangalore has been classified as a part of the seismic zone II a stable zone, it has experienced quakes of magnitude as high as 45

Climate

Bangalore has a tropical savanna climate Köppen climate classification Aw with distinct wet and dry seasons Due to its high elevation, Bangalore usually enjoys a more moderate climate throughout the year, although occasional heat waves can make summer somewhat uncomfortable The coolest month is January with an average low temperature of 151 °C 592 °F and the hottest month is April with an average high temperature of 35 °C 95 °F The highest temperature ever recorded in Bangalore is 392 °C 103 °F recorded on 24 April 2016 as there was a strong El Nino in 2016 There were also unofficial records of 41 °C 106 °F on that day The lowest ever recorded is 78 °C 46 °F in January 1884 Winter temperatures rarely drop below 14 °C 57 °F, and summer temperatures seldom exceed 36 °C 97 °F Bangalore receives rainfall from both the northeast and the southwest monsoons and the wettest months are September, October and August, in that order The summer heat is moderated by fairly frequent thunderstorms, which occasionally cause power outages and local flooding Most of the rainfall occurs during late afternoon/evening or night and rain before noon is infrequent November 2015 2904 mm was recorded as one of the wettest months in Bangalore with heavy rains causing severe flooding in some areas, and closure of a number of organisations for over a couple of days The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 179 millimetres 7 in recorded on 1 October 1997

Climate data for Bangalore
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C °F 328
91
359
966
373
991
392
1026
389
102
381
1006
333
919
333
919
333
919
324
903
317
891
311
88
392
1026
Average high °C °F 279
822
307
873
331
916
340
932
333
919
296
853
283
829
278
82
286
835
282
828
272
81
265
797
296
853
Average low °C °F 158
604
175
635
200
68
220
716
217
711
204
687
199
678
198
676
198
676
196
673
180
644
162
612
192
666
Record low °C °F 78
46
94
489
111
52
144
579
167
621
167
621
161
61
144
579
150
59
132
558
96
493
89
48
78
46
Average rainfall mm inches 19
0075
54
0213
185
0728
415
1634
1074
4228
1065
4193
1129
4445
1470
5787
2128
8378
1683
6626
489
1925
157
0618
9868
3885
Average rainy days 02 04 11 31 67 62 72 99 98 83 38 14 581
Average relative humidity % 60 52 30 43 60 72 76 79 76 73 70 68 633
Mean monthly sunshine hours 2623 2476 2714 2570 2411 1368 1118 1143 1436 1731 1902 2117 2,3609
Source #1: Indian Meteorological Department
Source #2: NOAA humidity and sun: 1971–1990

Demographics

See also: Housing in Bangalore St Francis Xavier Cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bangalore
Population Growth 
Census Pop
1941 406,760
1951 778,977 915%
1961 1,207,000 549%
1971 1,654,000 370%
1981 2,922,000 767%
1991 4,130,000 413%
2001 5,101,000 235%
2011 8,425,970 652%
Source: Census of India
Religion in Bangalore
Percent
Hinduism    794%
Islam    134%
Christianity    58%
Jainism    11%
Others†    1%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikism <01%, Buddhists <01%

With an estimated population of 85 million in 2011, Bangalore is the fifth most populous city in India and the 18th most populous city in the world Bangalore was the fastest-growing Indian metropolis after New Delhi between 1991 and 2001, with a growth rate of 38% during the decade Residents of Bangalore are referred to as "Bangaloreans" in English and Bengaloorinavaru or Bengaloorigaru in Kannada The cosmopolitan nature of the city has resulted in the migration of people from other states to Bangalore

According to the 2001 census of India, 794% of Bangalore's population is Hindu, roughly the same as the national average Muslims comprise 134% of the population Christians and Jains account for 58% and 11% of the population, respectively, double that of their national averages The city has a literacy rate of 89% Roughly 10% of Bangalore's population lives in slums—a relatively low proportion when compared to other cities in the developing world such as Mumbai 50% and Nairobi 60% The 2008 National Crime Records Bureau statistics indicate that Bangalore accounts for 85% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities in India which is a cascading increase in the crime rate when compared to the number of crimes fifteen years ago

Bangalore suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast-growing cities in developing countries: rapidly escalating social inequality, mass displacement and dispossession, proliferation of slum settlements, and epidemic public health crisis due to severe water shortage and sewage problems in poor and working-class neighbourhoods

The language that is spoken in Bangalore is its native language Kannada Other languages such as English, Telugu, Urdu, Tamil and Hindi are also spoken in a few places mostly by the migrants from northern India and neighbouring states The Kannada language spoken in Bangalore is a form of Kannada called as 'Old Mysuru Kannada' which is also used in most of the southern part of Karnataka state A vernacular dialect of this, known as Bangalore Kannada is spoken among the youth in Bangalore and the adjoining Mysore regions English, as an Indian dialect, is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the professional and business class

The major communities of Bangalore who share a long history in the city other than the Kannadigas are the Tamilians and Telugus, who migrated to Bangalore in search of a better livelihood Already in the 16th century, Bangalore had speakers of Tamil and Telugu, who spoke Kannada to carry out low profile jobs Telugu-speaking people initially came to Bangalore on invitation by the Mysore royalty a few of them have lineage dating back to Krishnadevaraya

Other native communities are the Tuluvas and the Konkanis of coastal Karnataka, the Kodavas of the Kodagu district of Karnataka The migrant communities are Maharashtrians, Punjabis, Rajasthanis, Gujaratis, Tamilians, Telugus, Sindhis, and Bengalis Bangalore once had a large Anglo-Indian population, the second largest after Calcutta Today, there are around 10,000 Anglo-Indians in Bangalore Christians form a sizeable section of Bangalorean society, with migrant Tamil Christians forming the majority of the Christian population, while Kannada Catholics, Mangalorean Catholics, Syro-Malabar Nasranis and others form the rest of the population Muslims form a very diverse population, consisting of Dakhini and Urdu-speaking Muslims, Kutchi Memons, Labbay and Mappilas

Civic administration

See also: Infrastructure in Bangalore
Bangalore City Important officials
Municipal Commissioner: G Kumar Nayak IAS
Principal Chief Commissioner of Income Tax: Nutan Wodeyar IRS
Mayor: Mrs SShantakumari
Police Commissioner: NS Megharik IPS
The Karnataka High Court is the supreme judicial body in Karnataka and is located in Bangalore The Vikasa Soudha, situated adjacent to the Vidhana Soudha, houses many state ministries A typical traffic speed interceptor used by the Bangalore City Traffic Police

The Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike BBMP, Greater Bangalore Municipal Corporation is in charge of the civic administration of the city It was formed in 2007 by merging 100 wards of the erstwhile Bangalore Mahanagara Palike, with seven neighbouring City Municipal Councils, one Town Municipal Council and 110 villages around Bangalore The number of wards increased to 198 in 2009 The BBMP is run by a city council composed of 250 members, including 198 corporators representing each of the wards of the city and 52 other elected representatives, consisting of members of Parliament and the state legislature Elections to the council are held once every five years, with results being decided by popular vote Members contesting elections to the council usually represent one or more of the state's political parties A mayor and deputy mayor are also elected from among the elected members of the council Elections to the BBMP were held on 28 March 2010, after a gap of three and a half years since the expiry of the previous elected body's term, and the Bharatiya Janata Party was voted into power – the first time it had ever won a civic poll in the city

Bangalore's rapid growth has created several problems relating to traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike has found challenging to address The unplanned nature of growth in the city resulted in massive traffic gridlocks that the municipality attempted to ease by constructing a flyover system and by imposing one-way traffic systems Some of the flyovers and one-ways mitigated the traffic situation moderately but were unable to adequately address the disproportionate growth of city traffic A 2003 Battelle Environmental Evaluation System BEES evaluation of Bangalore's physical, biological and socioeconomic parameters indicated that Bangalore's water quality and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were close to ideal, while the city's socioeconomic parameters traffic, quality of life aire quality and noise pollution scored poorly The BBMP works in conjunction with the Bangalore Development Authority BDA and the Agenda for Bangalore's Infrastructure and Development Task Force ABIDe to design and implement civic and infrastructural projects

The Bangalore City Police BCP has seven geographic zones, includes the Traffic Police, the City Armed Reserve, the Central Crime Branch and the City Crime Record Bureau and runs 86 police stations, including two all-women police stations As capital of the state of Karnataka, Bangalore houses important state government facilities such as the Karnataka High Court, the Vidhana Soudha the home of the Karnataka state legislature and Raj Bhavan the residence of the Governor of Karnataka Bangalore contributes four members to the lower house of the Indian Parliament, the Lok Sabha, from its four constituencies: Bangalore Rural, Bangalore Central, Bangalore North, and Bangalore South, and 28 members to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly

Electricity in Bangalore is regulated through the Bangalore Electricity Supply Company BESCOM, while water supply and sanitation facilities are provided by the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board BWSSB

The city has offices of the Consulate General of Germany, France, Japan Israel, British Deputy High Commission, along with honorary consulates of Ireland, Finland, Switzerland, Maldives, Mongolia, Sri Lanka and Peru It also has a trade office of Canada and a virtual Consulate of the United States

Pollution control

Bangalore generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are collected and sent to composting units such as the Karnataka Composting Development Corporation The remaining solid waste collected by the municipality is dumped in open spaces or on roadsides outside the city In 2008, Bangalore produced around 2,500 metric tonnes of solid waste, and increased to 5000 metric tonnes in 2012, which is transported from collection units located near Hesaraghatta Lake, to the garbage dumping sites The city suffers significantly with dust pollution, hazardous waste disposal, and disorganised, unscientific waste retrievals The IT hub, Whitefield region is the most polluted area in BangaloreRecently a study found that over 36% of diesel vehicles in the city exceed the national limit for emissions

Slums

According to a 2012 report submitted to the World Bank by Karnataka Slum Clearance Board, Bangalore has 862 slums from total of around 2000 slums in Karnataka The families living in the slum are not ready to move into the temporary shelters 42% of the households migrated from different parts of India like Chennai, Hyderabad and most of North India, and 43% of the households had remained in the slums for over 10 years The Karnataka Municipality, works to shift 300 families annually to newly constructed buildings One third of these slum clearance projects lack basic service connections, 60% of slum dwellers lack complete water supply lines and share BWSSB water supply

Waste management

Ιn 2012 Bangalore generated 21 million tonnes of Municipal Solid Waste 1954 kg/cap/yr The waste management scenario in the state of Karnataka is regulated by the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board KSPCB under the aegis of the Central Pollution Control Board CPCB which is a Central Government entity As part of their Waste Management Guidelines the Government of Karnataka through the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board KSPCB has authorised a few well-established companies to manage the bio-medical waste and hazardous waste in the state of Karnataka

Economy

Main article: Economy of Bangalore Bangalore city skyline showing UB City to the left and Richmond Town area to the right Aerospace: HAL: IJT prototype in its hangar Wonderla water park, Bangalore IT: The headquarters of Infosys, India's second largest IT company, is located in Bangalore

Bangalore's ₹523 billion US$78 billion economy 2006–07 Net District Income makes it one of the major economic centres in India, with the value of city's exports totalling ₹432 billion US$64 billion in 2004–05 With an economic growth of 103%, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India, and is also the country's fourth largest fast-moving consumer goods FMCG market Forbes considers Bangalore one of "The Next Decade's Fastest-Growing Cities" With a per capita income of ₹74,709 US$1,100 in 2006–07, the city is the third largest hub for high-net-worth individuals and is home to over 10,000-dollar millionaires and about 60,000 super-rich people who have an investment surplus of ₹45 million US$668,700 and ₹5 million US$74,300 respectively

The headquarters of several public sector undertakings such as Bharat Electronics Limited BEL, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited HAL, National Aerospace Laboratories NAL, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited BHEL, Bharat Earth Movers Limited BEML, Central Manufacturing Technology Institute CMTI and HMT formerly Hindustan Machine Tools are located in Bangalore In June 1972 the Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO was established under the Department of Space and headquartered in the city Bangalore also houses several research and development centres for many firms such as ABB, Airbus, Bosch, Boeing, GE, GM, Google, Microsoft, Mercedes-Benz, Nokia, Oracle, Philips, Shell, Toyota and Tyco

Bangalore is called as the Silicon Valley of India because of the large number of information technology companies located in the city which contributed 33% of India's ₹1,442 billion US$21 billion IT exports in 2006–07 Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main clusters – Software Technology Parks of India STPI; International Tech Park, Bangalore ITPB; and Electronics City UB City, the headquarters of the United Breweries Group, is a high-end commercial zone Infosys and Wipro, India's third and fourth largest software companies are headquartered in Bangalore, as are many of the global SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies

The growth of IT has presented the city with unique challenges Ideological clashes sometimes occur between the city's IT moguls, who demand an improvement in the city's infrastructure, and the state government, whose electoral base is primarily the people in rural Karnataka The encouragement of high-tech industry in Bangalore, for example, has not favoured local employment development, but has instead increased land values and forced out small enterprise The state has also resisted the massive investments required to reverse the rapid decline in city transport which has already begun to drive new and expanding businesses to other centres across India Bangalore is a hub for biotechnology related industry in India and in the year 2005, around 47% of the 265 biotechnology companies in India were located here; including Biocon, India's largest biotechnology company

Transport

Air

The new Kempegowda International Airport is located in Devanahalli

Bangalore is served by Kempegowda International Airport IATA: BLR, ICAO: VOBL, located at Devanahalli, about 40 kilometres 25 miles from the city centre It was formerly called Bengaluru International Airport The airport started operations from 24 May 2008 and is a private airport managed by a consortium led by the GVK Group The city was earlier served by the HAL Airport at Vimanapura, a residential locality in the eastern part of the city The airport is third busiest in India after Delhi and Mumbai in terms of passenger traffic and the number of air traffic movements ATMs Taxis and air conditioned Volvo buses operated by BMTC connect the airport with the city

Rail

A schematic map of Bangalore

A rapid transit system called the Namma Metro is built A 7 km 43 mi stretch from Bayappanahalli to MG Road was opened to public on 20 October 2011, while another 10 km 62 mi stretch from Malleswaram to Peenya was opened on 1 March 2014 Once completed, this will encompass a 423 km 263 mi elevated and underground rail network comprising 41 stations It is expected to connect central locations in Bangalore to the airport near Devanahalli as well as the Chikballapur regions This much delayed project is the city's primary response to the worsening city transport infrastructure which has become a major deterrent to continued business growth

Bangalore is a divisional headquarters in the South Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways There are four major railway stations in the city: Krantiveer Sangolli Rayanna Railway Station, Bangalore Cantonment railway station, Yeshwantapur junction and Krishnarajapuram railway station, with railway lines towards Jolarpettai in the east, Chikballapur in the north-east, Guntakal in the north, Tumkur in the northwest, Nelamangala in the west, Mysore in the southwest and Salem in the south

The Rail Wheel Factory is Asia's second largest manufacturer of wheel and axle for railways and is headquartered in Yelahanka, Bangalore

Road

BMTC's Volvo buses are a popular mode of commuting within Bangalore

Buses operated by Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation BMTC are an important and reliable means of public transport available in the city While commuters can buy tickets on boarding these buses, BMTC also provides an option of a bus pass to frequent users BMTC runs air-conditioned luxury buses on major routes, and also operates shuttle services from various parts of the city to Kempegowda International Airport The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation operates 6,918 buses on 6,352 schedules, connecting Bangalore with other parts of Karnataka as well as other neighbouring states The main bus depots that KSRTC maintains are the Kempegowda Bus Station, locally known as "Majestic bus stand", where most of the out station buses ply from Some of the KSRTC buses to Tamil Nadu, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh ply from Shantinagar Bus Station, Satellite Bus Station at Mysore road and Baiyappanahalli satellite bus station BMTC and KSRTC were the first operators in India to introduce Volvo city buses and intracity coaches in India

Lalbagh Park- Lakeview

Three-wheeled, yellow and black or yellow and green auto-rickshaws, referred to as autos, are a popular form of transport They are metered and can accommodate up to three passengers Taxis, commonly called City Taxis, are usually available too, but they are only available on call or by online based services Taxis are metered and are generally more expensive than auto-rickshaws

There are currently 1,250 vehicles being registered daily on an average in Bangalore RTOs The total number of vehicles as on date are 44 lakh vehicles, with a road length of 11,000 kilometres 6,835 miles

Culture

Main article: Culture of Bangalore Bangalore Karaga, one of the oldest and most important festivals in Bangalore Yakshagana – a theatre art of coastal Karnataka is often played in town hall

Bangalore is known as the "Garden City of India" because of its gentle climate, broad streets, greenery and the presence of many public parks, such as Lal Bagh and Cubbon Park Bangalore is sometimes called as the "Pub Capital of India" and the "Rock/Metal Capital of India" because of its underground music scene and it is one of the premier places to hold international rock concerts In May 2012, Lonely Planet ranked Bangalore 3rd among the world's top 10 cities to visit

Bangalore is also home to many vegan-friendly restaurants and vegan activism groups due it which it has been named as India's most vegan-friendly city by PETA India

Biannual flower shows are held at the Lal Bagh Gardens during the week of Republic Day 26 January and Independence Day 15 August Bangalore Karaga or "Karaga Shaktyotsava" is one of the most important and oldest festivals of Bangalore dedicated to the Hindu Goddess Draupadi It is celebrated annually by the Thigala community, over a period of nine days in the month of March or April The Someshwara Car festival is an annual procession of the idol of the Halasuru Someshwara Temple Ulsoor led by the Vokkaligas, a farming community in southern Karnataka, occurring in April Karnataka Rajyotsava is widely celebrated on 1 November and is a public holiday in the city, to mark the formation of Karnataka state on 1 November 1956 Other popular festivals in Bangalore are Ugadi, Ram Navami, Eid ul-Fitr, Ganesh Chaturthi, St Mary's feast, Dasara, Deepawali and Christmas

The diversity of cuisine is reflective of the social and economic diversity of Bangalore Bangalore has a wide and varied mix of restaurant types and cuisines and Bangaloreans deem eating out as an intrinsic part of their culture Roadside vendors, tea stalls, and South Indian, North Indian, Chinese and Western fast food are all very popular in the city Udupi restaurants are very popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine

Art and literature

Bangalore did not have an effective contemporary art representation, as compared to Delhi and Mumbai, until recently during the 1990s, several art galleries sprang up, notable being the government established National Gallery of Modern Art Bangalore's international art festival, Art Bangalore, was established in 2010, and is South India's only art festival

Kannada literature appears to have flourished in Bangalore even before Kempe Gowda laid the foundations of the city During the 18th and 19th centuries, Kannada literature was enriched by the Vachanas a form of rhythmic writing composed by the heads of the Veerashaiva Mathas monastery in Bangalore As a cosmopolitan city, Bangalore has also encouraged the growth of Telugu, Urdu, and English literatures The headquarters of the Kannada Sahitya Parishat, a nonprofit organisation that promotes the Kannada language, is located in Bangalore The city has its own literary festival, known as the "Bangalore Literature Festival", which was inaugurated in 2012

Theatre, music, and dance

Bangalore is home to the Kannada film industry, which churns out about 80 Kannada movies each year Bangalore also has a very active and vibrant theatre culture with popular theatres being Ravindra Kalakshetra and the more recently opened Ranga Shankara The city has a vibrant English and foreign language theatre scene with places like Ranga Shankara and Chowdiah Memorial Hall leading the way in hosting performances leading to the establishment of the Amateur film industry Kannada theatre is very popular in Bangalore, and consists mostly of political satire and light comedy Plays are organised mostly by community organisations, but there are some amateur groups which stage plays in Kannada Drama companies touring India under the auspicies of the British Council and Max Müller Bhavan also stage performances in the city frequently The Alliance Française de Bangalore also hosts numerous plays through the year

Bangalore is also a major centre of Indian classical music and dance The cultural scene is very diverse due to Bangalore's mixed ethnic groups, which is reflected in its music concerts, dance performances and plays Performances of Carnatic South Indian and Hindustani North Indian classical music, and dance forms like Bharat Natyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Kathak, and Odissi are very popular Yakshagana, a theatre art indigenous to coastal Karnataka is often played in town halls The two main music seasons in Bangalore are in April–May during the Ram Navami festival, and in September–October during the Dusshera festival, when music activities by cultural organisations are at their peak Though both classical and contemporary music are played in Bangalore, the dominant music genre in urban Bangalore is rock music Bangalore has its own subgenre of music, "Bangalore Rock", which is an amalgamation of classic rock, hard rock and heavy metal, with a bit of jazz and blues in it Notable bands from Bangalore include Raghu Dixit Project, Kryptos, Inner Sanctum, Agam, All the fat children, and Swaratma

Education

Main article: Education in Bangalore See also: List of educational institutions in Bangalore Indian Institute of Science – one of the premier institutes of science in India Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, one of the premier management institutes in India Christ University

Until the early 19th century, education in Bangalore was mainly run by religious leaders and restricted to students of that religion The western system of education was introduced during the rule of Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar Subsequently, the British Wesleyan Mission established the first English school in 1842, St Joseph's Indian Institutions The Bangalore High School was started by the Mysore Government in 1858 and Bishop Cotton Boys' School was started in 1865 In 1945 when World War II came to an end, King George Royal Indian Military Colleges was started at Bangalore by King George VI; the school is popularly known as Bangalore Military School

National Law School of India University,a premier law university known as 'Harvard of the East'

In post-independent India, schools for young children 16 months–5 years are called nursery, kindergarten or play school which are broadly based on Montessori or multiple intelligence methodology of education Primary and secondary education in Bangalore is offered by various schools which are affiliated to one of the boards of education, such as the Secondary School Leaving Certificate SSLC, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education ICSE, Central Board for Secondary Education CBSE, International Baccalaureate IB, International General Certificate of Secondary Education IGCSE and National Institute of Open Schooling NIOS Schools in Bangalore are either government run or are private both aided and un-aided by the government Bangalore has a significant number of international schools due to expats and IT crowd After completing their secondary education, students either attend Pre University PUC or continue High School in one of three streams – Arts, Commerce or Science Alternatively, students may also enroll in Diploma courses Upon completing the required coursework, students enroll in general or professional degrees in universities through lateral entry

Bangalore University, established in 1886, provides affiliation to over 500 colleges, with a total student enrolment exceeding 300,000 The university has two campuses within Bangalore – Jnanabharathi and Central College University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering was established in the year 1917, by Bharat Ratna Sir M Visvesvaraya, At present, the UVCE is the only engineering college under the Bangalore University Bangalore also has many private Engineering Colleges affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University

Christ University is a private 'Deemed to be University' in Bangalore founded in 1969 by the Syro-Malabar priests of Carmelites of Mary Immaculate congregation It is one of India's best private college for arts, commerce and law

Notable among them particularly for undergraduate degrees are RV College of Engineering, PES University, BMS College of Engineering, M S Ramaiah Institute of Technology and Bangalore Institute of Technology

Indian Institute of Science, which was established in 1909 in Bangalore, National Centre for Biological Sciences NCBS, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research JNCASR and the Raman Research Institute are the premier institutes for scientific research and study in India Nationally renowned professional institutes such as the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore UASB, National Institute of DesignNID, National Institute of Fashion Technology NIFT, National Law School of India University NLSIU

, the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore IIM-B, the ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology NIANP, the Indian Statistical Institute and International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore IIIT-B are located in Bangalore The city is also home to the premier mental health institution in India National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences NIMHANS Bangalore also has some of the best medical colleges in the country, like St John's Medical College SJMC and Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute BMCRI The M P Birla Institute of Fundamental Research has a branch located in Bangalore,

Media

The first printing press in Bangalore was established in 1840 in Kannada by the Wesleyan Christian Mission In 1859, Bangalore Herald became the first English bi-weekly newspaper to be published in Bangalore and in 1860, Mysore Vrittanta Bodhini became the first Kannada newspaper to be circulated in Bangalore Currently, Vijaya Karnataka and The Times of India are the most widely circulated Kannada and English newspapers in Bangalore respectively, closely followed by the Prajavani and Deccan Herald both owned by the Printers Mysore Limited – the largest print media house in Karnataka Other circulated newspapers are Vijayvani,Vishwavani,Kannadaprabha,Sanjevani, Bangalore Mirror,Udayavani provide localised news updates On the web, Explocity provides listings information in Bangalore

Bangalore got its first radio station when All India Radio, the official broadcaster for the Indian Government, started broadcasting from its Bangalore station on 2 November 1955 The radio transmission was AM, until in 2001, Radio City became the first private channel in India to start transmitting FM radio from Bangalore In recent years, a number of FM channels have started broadcasting from Bangalore The city probably has India's oldest Amateur Ham Radio Club – Bangalore Amateur Radio Club VU2ARC, which was established in 1959

Bangalore got its first look at television when Doordarshan established a relay centre here and started relaying programs from 1 November 1981 A production centre was established in the Doordarshan's Bangalore office in 1983, thereby allowing the introduction of a news program in Kannada on 19 November 1983 Doordarshan also launched a Kannada satellite channel on 15 August 1991 which is now named DD Chandana The advent of private satellite channels in Bangalore started in September 1991 when Star TV started to broadcast its channels Though the number of satellite TV channels available for viewing in Bangalore has grown over the years, the cable operators play a major role in the availability of these channels, which has led to occasional conflicts Direct To Home DTH services are also available in Bangalore now

The first Internet service provider in Bangalore was STPI, Bangalore which started offering internet services in early 1990s This Internet service was, however, restricted to corporates until VSNL started offering dial-up internet services to the general public at the end of 1995 Currently, Bangalore has the largest number of broadband Internet connections in India

Namma Wifi is a free municipal wireless network in Bangalore, the first free Wifi in India It began operation on 24 January 2014 Service is available at MG Road, Brigade Road, and other locations The service is operated by D-VoiS and is paid for by the State Government Bangalore was the first city in India to have the 4th Generation Network 4G for Mobile

Sports

M Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore

Bangalore's pleasant climate makes it a suitable place for a variety of outdoor sports

Cricket is by far the most popular sport Bangalore has many parks and gardens that provide excellent pitches for impromptu games A significant number of national cricketers have come from Bangalore, including former captains Rahul Dravid and Anil Kumble Some of the other notable players from the city who have represented India include Gundappa Vishwanath, Syed Kirmani, E A S Prasanna, B S Chandrasekhar, Roger Binny, Javagal Srinath, Venkatesh Prasad, Sunil Joshi, Robin Uthappa and Vinay Kumar Bangalore's international cricket stadium is the M Chinnaswamy Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 55,000 and has hosted matches during the 1987 Cricket World Cup, 1996 Cricket World Cup and the 2011 Cricket World Cup The Chinnaswamy Stadium is the home of India's National Cricket Academy

The Indian Premier League franchise Royal Challengers Bangalore and the I League club Bengaluru FC are based in the city The city hosts the Women's Tennis Association WTA Bangalore Open tournament annually Beginning September 2008, Bangalore has also been hosting the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open ATP tournament annually

The city is home to the Bangalore rugby football club BRFC Bangalore has a number of elite clubs, like Century Club, The Bangalore Golf Club, the Bowring Institute and the exclusive Bangalore Club, which counts among its previous members Winston Churchill and the Maharaja of Mysore The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited SC is based in Bangalore

India's Davis Cup team members, Mahesh Bhupathi and Rohan Bopanna reside in Bangalore Other sports personalities from Bangalore include national swimming champion Nisha Millet, world snooker champion Pankaj Advani and former All England Open badminton champion Prakash Padukone

City based clubs

Club Sport League Stadium Span
Royal Challengers Bangalore Cricket IPL M Chinnaswamy Stadium 2008 –
Bangalore Hi-fliers Field hockey PHL Bangalore Hockey Stadium 2005–2008
Karnataka Lions Field hockey WSH Bangalore Hockey Stadium 2011 –
Karnataka Bulls Volleyball IVL Kanteerava Indoor Stadium 2011 –
HAL Bangalore Football I-League Bangalore Football Stadium N/A
Bengaluru FC Football I-League Sree Kanteerava Stadium 2013 –
Banga Beats Badminton IBL Kanteerava Indoor Stadium 2013 –
Bengaluru Bulls Kabaddi PKL Kanteerava Indoor Stadium 2014 –
Karnataka Bulldozers Cricket CCL M Chinnaswamy Stadium 2011 –
Provident Bangalore Cricket KPL M Chinnaswamy Stadium 2009 –2011
Bangalore Brigadiers Cricket KPL M Chinnaswamy Stadium 2009 –2011

Location

Areas of Bangalore

See also

  • India portal
  • Karnataka portal
  • Bangalore portal
  • Bannerghatta National Park
  • Institute of Wood Science and Technology
  • Lal Bagh
  • List of Chola Temples in Bangalore
  • List of people from Bangalore
  • List of tallest buildings in Bangalore
  • List of tourist attractions in Bangalore
  • List of twin towns and sister cities in India
  • Nandi Hills, India
  • National Military Memorial
  • Outline of India
  • UB City

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Further reading

  • De, Aditi 2008 Multiple city: writings on Bangalore Penguin Books India ISBN 978-0-14-310025-6 
  • Sarma, IK 1992 Temples of the Gangas of Karnataka Archaeological Survey of India ISBN 0-19-560686-8 
  • Srinivas, Smriti 2004 Landscapes of Urban Memory: The Sacred and the Civic in India's High-tech City revised ed Orient Blackswan ISBN 9788125022541 
  • Government of Karnataka 1990 Karnataka State Gazetteer: Bangalore District 
  • Raman, A 1994 Bangalore — Mysore illustrated ed Orient Blackswan ISBN 978-0-86311-431-1 
  • C Hayavadana Rao 1929 The Mysore State Gazetteer 
  • Nair, Janaki 2005 The Promise of the Metropolis: Bangalore's Twentieth Century illustrated ed Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-566725-7 
  • Pinto, Jerry; Srivastava, Rahul 2008 Talk of the Town Penguin Books India ISBN 978-0-14-333013-4 
  • Rangachari, Edgar Thurston, K 1993 Castes and tribes of southern India New Delhi: Asian Educational Services ISBN 9788120602885 
  • Rice, B Lewis 2001 Mysore : a gazetteer compiled for government New Delhi: Asian Educational Services ISBN 8120609778 
  • Stein, Burton 1989 The New Cambridge History of India Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press ISBN 978-0-521-26693-2 
  • Hasan, Fazlul Bangalore Through The Centuries Bangalore: Historical Publications, 1970
  • Plunkett, Richard South India Lonely Planet, 2001 ISBN 1-86450-161-8
  • Vagale, Uday Kumar ""Public Space in Bangalore: Present and Future Projections"" PDF  773 KB Digital Libraries and Archives 2006 Virginia Tech 27 April 2004
  • Hunter, Cotton, Burn, Meyer "The Imperial Gazetteer of India", 2006 Oxford, Clarendon Press 1909
  • "Bangalore" Encyclopædia Britannica 1911 ed

External links

  • Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike – Municipal government
  • Official website of Bangalore Development Authority
  • Bangalore at DMOZ

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