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Ballard Locks

ballard locks, ballard locks washington
The Hiram M Chittenden Locks, or Ballard Locks, is a complex of locks at the west end of Salmon Bay, in Seattle, Washington's Lake Washington Ship Canal, between the neighborhoods of Ballard to the north and Magnolia to the south2:234:6

The Ballard Locks carry more boat traffic than any other lock in the US, and the Locks, along with the fish ladder and the surrounding Carl S English Jr Botanical Gardens attract more than one million visitors annually, making it one of Seattle's top tourist attractions5:7–8 The construction of the locks profoundly reshaped the topography of Seattle and the surrounding area, lowering the water level of Lake Washington and Lake Union by 88 feet 27 m, adding miles of new waterfront land, reversing the flow of rivers, and leaving piers in the eastern half of Salmon Bay high and dry5 The Locks are listed on the National Register of Historic Places and the American Society of Civil Engineers Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks

Contents

  • 1 Prior to construction
  • 2 Construction
  • 3 Function
  • 4 Locks
  • 5 Spillway
  • 6 Salt water barrier
  • 7 Fish ladder
    • 71 Migratory fish
  • 8 Notes
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

Prior to constructionedit

All sections of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, fully completed in 1934 Main article: Lake Washington Ship Canal § Early efforts

As early as 1854, there was discussion of building a navigable connection between Lake Washington and Puget Sound for the purpose of transporting logs, milled lumber, and fishing vessels Thirteen years later, the United States Navy endorsed a canal project, which included a plan for building a naval shipyard on Lake Washington In 1891 the US Army Corps of Engineers started planning the project Some preliminary work was begun in 1906, and work began in earnest five years later under the command of Hiram M Chittenden The delays in canal planning and construction resulted in the US Navy building the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, Washington, which is located across the Sound from Seattle

Constructionedit

Construction plan of Locks complex, showing various cofferdams holding water back from locks under construction, cross section of locks, and location of surrounding buildings including Administration Building and Cavanaugh House

In early 1909, the Washington State Legislature appropriated $250,000, placed under the control of the Corps of Engineers, for excavation of the canal between Lake Union and Lake Washington6 In June 1910, the US Congress gave its approval for the lock, on the condition that the rest of the canals along the route be paid for locally6 Construction was then delayed by legal challenges, mainly by mill owners in Ballard who feared property damage and loss of waterfront in Salmon Bay, and by Lake Washington property owners6

Under Major James B Cavanaugh, Chittenden's replacement as Seattle District Commander, construction of the Ballard, or Government, Locks connecting Salmon Bay to Shilshole Bay began in 1911, proceeding without further controversy or legal entanglements6 In July 1912, the Locks gates were closed for the first time, turning Salmon Bay from saltwater to freshwater The first ship passed through the Locks on August 3, 1916 On August 25, 1916, the temporary dam at Montlake was breached7 During the following three months, Lake Washington drained, lowering the water level by 88 ft 27 m and drying up more than 1,000 acres 400 ha of wetlands, as well as drying up the Black River and cutting off the Cedar River salmon run7 The Locks officially opened for boat traffic on May 8, 1917 The total cost of the project to that point was $35 million, with $25 million having come from the Federal government and the rest from local governments6

To allow for the intended boat traffic, three bridges were removed along the ship canal route, at Latona Avenue, Fremont, Stone Way The Ballard and Fremont Bridges were completed in 1917, followed by the University Bridge in 1919, and Montlake Bridge in 1925 The University Bridge was improved in 1932, and in 1934 the Lake Washington Ship Canal project was declared complete

Functionedit

Ballard Locks and surrounding grounds

The locks and associated facilities serve three purposes:

  • To maintain the water level of the fresh water Lake Washington and Lake Union at 20–22 feet 61–67 m above sea level, or more specifically, 206 ft 63 m above Puget Sound's mean low tide2:235:8
  • To prevent the mixing of sea water from Puget Sound with the fresh water of the lakes saltwater intrusion2:2–3
  • To move boats from the water level of the lakes to the water level of Puget Sound, and vice versa2:3

The complex includes two locks, 30 ft × 150 ft 91 m × 457 m small and 80 ft × 825 ft 24 m × 251 m large2:8 The complex also includes a 235 ft 72 m spillway with six 32 ft × 12 ft 98 m × 37 m gates to assist in water-level control2:8 A fish ladder is integrated into the locks for migration of anadromous fish, notably salmon2:38

The grounds feature a visitors center,2:4 as well as the Carl S English Jr Botanical Gardens2:5

Operated by the US Army Corps of Engineers,9 the locks were formally opened on July 4, 1917,10 although the first ship passed on August 3, 191611 They were named after US Army Major Hiram M Chittenden, the Seattle District Engineer for the Corps of Engineers from April 1906 to September 19082:4 They were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 19781

Vessels passing from the freshwater Lakes Washington and Union to Puget Sound enter the lock chamber through the open upper gates A in the accompanying diagram The lower gates B and the draining valve D are closed The vessel is assisted by the lockwall attendants who assure it is tied down and ready for the chamber to be drained2:2

Next, the upper gates A and the filling valve C are closed and the draining valve D is opened allowing water to drain via gravity out to Puget Sound2:2

When the water pressure is equal on both sides of the gate, the lower gates B are opened, allowing the vessels to leave the lock chamber2:2

The process is reversed for upstream locking2:2

Locksedit

The Chittenden Locks shortly after their construction The Carl P English Gardens had not yet been started The inset shows the nearby Fishermen's Terminal

The complex includes two locks2:8 Using the small lock when boat traffic is low conserves fresh water during summer, when the lakes receive less inflow Having two locks also allows one of the locks to be drained for maintenance without blocking all boat traffic The large lock is drained for approximately 2-weeks, usually in November, and the small lock is drained for about the same period, usually in March

A worker cleaning the small lock during annual maintenance Drying out the chambers allows inspection and repair After cleaning, the walls are painted12

The locks can elevate a 760-by-80-foot 232 m × 24 m vessel 26 ft 79 m, from the level of Puget Sound at a very low tide to the level of freshwater Salmon Bay, in 10–15 minutes The locks handle both pleasure boats and commercial vessels, ranging from kayaks to fishing boats returning from the Bering Sea to cargo ships Over 1 million tons of cargo, fuel, building materials, and seafood products pass through the locks each year4:6

Spillwayedit

Spillway

South of the small lock is a spillway dam with tainter gates used to regulate the freshwater levels of the ship canal and lakes The gates on the dam release or store water to maintain the lake within a 2 ft 061 m range of 20 to 22 ft 61 to 67 m above sea level Maintaining this lake level is necessary for floating bridges, mooring facilities, and vessel clearances under bridges2:2

The locks and the adjacent Commodore Park

"Smolt flumes" in the spillway help young salmon to pass safely downstream4:8 Higher water levels are maintained in the summer to accommodate recreation as well as to allow the lakes to act as a water storage basin in anticipation of drought conditions2:2

Salt water barrieredit

The salt water barrier during annual maintenance, with water pumped out of the large lock

If excessive salt water were allowed to migrate into Salmon Bay, the salt could eventually damage the freshwater ecosystem To prevent this, a basin was dredged just above east of the large lock The heavier salt water settles into the basin and drains through a pipe discharging downstream of the locks area In 1975, the saltwater drain was modified to divert some salt water from the basin to the fish ladder, where it is added via a diffuser to the fish ladder attraction water; see below2:2

To further restrict saltwater intrusion, in 1966, a hinged barrier was installed just upstream of the large lock This hollow metal barrier is filled with air to remain in the upright position, blocking the heavier salt water When necessary to accommodate deep-draft vessels, the barrier is flooded and sinks to the bottom of the chamber2:3

Fish ladderedit

Attraction water is visible in two places in this photo; the lower part of the fish ladder snakes around the diffuser well Fish ladder viewing room View from above of the part of the fish ladder over the viewing room

The fish ladder at the Chittenden locks is unusual—materials published by the federal government say "unique"—in being located where salt and fresh water meet Normally, fish ladders are located entirely within fresh water8:2

Pacific salmon are anadromous; they hatch in lakes, rivers, and streams—or, nowadays fish hatcheries—migrate to sea, and only at the end of their life return to fresh water to spawn When the Corps of Engineers first built the locks and dam, they changed the natural drainage route of Lake Washington The locks and dam blocked all salmon runs out of the Cedar River watershed To correct this problem, the Corps built a fish ladder as the locks were constructed to allow salmon to pass around the locks and dam8:2

The ladder was designed to use attraction water: fresh water flowing swiftly out the bottom of the fish ladder, in the direction opposite which anadromous fish migrate at the end of their lives However, the attraction water from this first ladder was not effective Instead, most salmon used the locks This made them an easy target for predators; also, many were injured by hitting the walls and gates of the locks, or by hitting boat propellers8:2

The Corps rebuilt the fish ladder in 1976 by increasing the flow of attraction water and adding more weirs: most weirs are now one foot higher than the previous one The old fish ladder had only 10 "steps"; the new one has 21 A diffuser well mixes salt water gradually into the last 10 weirs As a part of the rebuilding, the Corps also added an underground chamber with a viewing gallery4:88:2, 6

The fish approaching the ladder smell the attraction water, recognizing the scent of Lake Washington and its tributaries They enter the ladder, and either jump over each of the 21 weirs or swim though tunnel-like openings They exit the ladder into the fresh water of Salmon Bay They continue following the waterway to the lake, river, or stream where they were born Once there, the females lay eggs, which the males fertilize Most salmon die shortly after spawning8:2–3

The offspring remain in the fresh water until they are ready to migrate to the ocean as smolts In a few years, the surviving adults return, climb the fish ladder, and reach their spawning ground to continue the life cycle8:3 Of the millions of young fish born, only a relative few survive to adulthood Causes of death include natural predators, commercial and sport fishing, disease, low stream flows, poor water quality, flooding, and concentrated developments along streams and lakes8:4

Visitors to the locks can observe the salmon through windows as they progress along their route Although the viewing area is open year-round, the "peak" viewing time is during spawning season, from about the beginning of July through mid-August A public art work, commissioned by the Seattle Arts Commission, provides literary interpretation of the experience through recordings of Seattle poet Judith Roche's "Salmon Suite," a sequence of five poems tied to the annual migratory sequence of the fish

The fish ladder in profile The actual fish ladder makes several right angle turns, which are not reflected in this diagram The pamphlet shows the height of each weir The last three weirs are adjustable to the level of Salmon Bay Salt water is mixed with fresh water by the diffuser well in weirs indicated here by a darker gray The longest weir in the ladder is for the viewing window8:6

Migratory fishedit

Among the species of salmonids migrating routinely through the ladder at the Chittenden Locks are Chinook king salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Coho silver salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, Sockeye red salmon Oncorhynchus nerka, and steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss2:5–6

Notesedit

The cover of the US government pamphlet "Lake Washington Ship Canal Fish Ladder" depicts the fish ladder at the locks
  1. ^ a b National Park Service January 23, 2007 "National Register Information System" National Register of Historic Places National Park Service 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Lake Washington Ship Canal and Hiram M Chittenden Locks Pamphlet US Government Printing Office 1999-791-887  As work of the Federal Government, this document is in the public domain, and some of the wording in this article is almost verbatim from the pamphlet
  3. ^ a b "Ballard Locks" CityOfSeattlenet Retrieved September 21, 2007 
  4. ^ a b c d Lake Washington Ship Canal: Hiram M Chittenden Locks Pamphlet US Army Corps of Engineers 2006  As work of the Federal Government, this document is in the public domain, and some of the wording in this article is almost verbatim from the pamphlet
  5. ^ a b c Woog, Adam 2008 The Ballard Locks Images of America Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing ISBN 9780738559179 
  6. ^ a b c d e Ficken, Robert E January 1986 "Seattle's 'Ditch': The Corps of Engineers and the Lake Washington Ship Canal" Pacific Northwest Quarterly 77 1: 11–20 
  7. ^ a b Eastside Heritage Center 2006 Lake Washington: The East Side San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing ISBN 9780738531069 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i The Lake Washington Ship Canal Fish Ladder Pamphlet US Government Printing Office 1996-792-501  As work of the Federal Government, this document is in the public domain, and some of the wording in this article is almost verbatim from the pamphlet
  9. ^ Mausshardt, Sherrill; Singleton, Glen July–August 1995 "Mitigating Salt-Water Intrusion through Hiram M Chittenden Locks" Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering 121 4: 224–227 doi:101061/ASCE0733-950X1995121:4224  Abstract on site of American Society of Civil Engineers mentions that the locks are operated by the Corps
  10. ^ Crowley, Walt July 3, 2001 "Turning Point 11: Borne on 4 July: The Saga of the Lake Washington Ship Canal" HistoryLinkorg Essay 3425 Retrieved September 21, 2007 
  11. ^ Holt, Gordy August 15, 2007 "Short Trips: Fascinating history sets the stage for a Ballard Locks outing" Seattle Post-Intelligencer Retrieved September 21, 2007 
  12. ^ "Chittenden Locks small chamber closing 12 days for annual maintenance press release" Press release US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District March 9, 2012 Retrieved March 16, 2012 

Referencesedit

  • Chapman, David January 12, 2013 "Stoney Gate Valves: Are Their Days Numbered" PDF US Army Corps of Engineers 

External linksedit

  • US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District: Lake Washington Ship Canal and Hiram M Chittenden Locks

Coordinates: 47°39′5568″N 122°23′4956″W / 476654667°N 1223971000°W / 476654667; -1223971000

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