Aziz Ahmedaziz ahmed, aziz ahmed khan warsi
Aziz Ahmed, Urdu: عزیز احمد; born 1906 – died 1982, HPk, was a career Pakistani statesman and the diplomat during the Cold war, serving in the capacity as 12th Foreign Minister of Pakistan from 1973 until 1977 Prior to that, Ahmad served as the Pakistan Ambassador to the United States 1959–63 and eventually appointed as Foreign secretary 1960–67 by President Ayub Khan
He initially gained national prominence when he served as the Foreign secretary under then-Foreign Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and opted for retirement in the opposition of Tashkent Agreement, signed by Ayub Khan to maintain and hold ceasefire with India in 1965 After the general elections in 1970 and the subsequent war with India in 1971, Ahmad was appointed as the Foreign minister of Pakistan until being terminated by President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq after issuing criticism against the military coup d'état in 1977 Upon retirement from the Foreign Service, Ahmed lived a quiet life in Islamabad and died in 1982
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Career as civil servant
- 3 Indo-Pakistan war of 1965
- 4 Foreign Minister
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Early life and education
Aziz Ahmed was born in Tarn Taran district of Amritsar, British Indian Empire in 1906 in Arain family Ahmed received his education at Amritsar and moved to Lahore for his further studies and permanently settled there There, he attended the Government College in 1924, and graduated with a BSc in Political science in 1928 He proceeded his higher studies in United Kingdom where with a scholarship offered and awarded by the British government, Ahmad subsequently studied at the University of Cambridge in 1929 In 1933, Aziz gained MSc in Political science, followed by another MSc in Foreign policy Upon his return Ahmed passed the civil service exam and gained commissioned in Indian Civil Service
Career as civil servant
Aziz Ahmed was a senior member of the Indian Civil Service ICS and later Civil Service of Pakistan CSP In 1948, Ahmed served in East Bengal prior to independence in 1947 and was instrumental in getting the Debt Alleviation Act of 1935 passed into legislation Aziz Ahmed subsequently held several senior positions in successive administrations in newly independent Pakistan He was appointed as the first Chief Secretary of East-Pakistan at a time when General Muhammad Ayub Khan was the General Officer Commanding for East Pakistan The two developed a close friendship and when Ayub Khan declared martial law and assumed full powers in 1958, Aziz Ahmed was made the highest ranking civil servant in his government as Secretary General Cabinet Division and Deputy Martial Law Administrator
Subsequently he was sent as Pakistan Ambassador to the United States in 1959 and was instrumental in developing the strong ties between the two countries, that characterised both the Eisenhower and the Kennedy administrations of the early sixties He returned in 1963 to take up the post of Foreign Secretary at a time when Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was the Foreign Minister He gained further prominence at the national level in Pakistan, following the 1965 war with India He was opposed to the signing of the Tashkent Declaration by Ayub Khan as was Bhutto He retired from government service in 1966 and was assigned to head the National Press Trust
Indo-Pakistan war of 1965Main articles: Indo-Pakistani war of 1965 and Tashkent Agreement
Ahmed initially gained public prominence with Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1965 On 4 September 1965, following the amid skirmishes, Ahmed received a warning from the Pakistan Embassy to Turkey, that Indian Army was preparing and planning an offence attack on West-Pakistan, therefore the government decided to launch the counter-attack
Aziz and Bhutto played an important role in drafting the Gibraltar, and along with Bhutto, Aziz spurred on by pressing the Government to take advantage of the disturbed situation in the valley and direct the Army to send raiders into Indian held Kashmir for conducting guerrilla activities there and to help the locals organising a movement with a view to eventually starting an uprising against the occupying power Throughout this war, Ahmed assisted Bhutto on numerous occasions on the war and initially gained Bhutto's confidence, soon the pair became good friends During this war, Morrice James somehow convinced Ayub Khan to accept the cease-fire appeal from India, and that Pakistan may not be able fight with out weapons At the UNSC, Aziz joined Bhutto where Bhutto famously announced that, "Pakistan will fight, fight for a thousand years" Soon Aziz received a message from Khan to announce Pakistan's willingness for ceasefire Aziz and Bhutto disagreed with Khan's policy, though the pair did assist Khan in Tashkent to sign the Tashkent Agreement with India under the auspicious of Soviet Union Soon after this agreement, Ahmed took the retirement from the Foreign Service and expressed a strong opposition against the government of Ayub Khan
Soon after the East-Pakistan disaster, followed by 1971 Winter war, Bhutto was hastily made President on 20 December 1971 After he was made President, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto summoned Aziz Ahmed out of retirement and appointed him Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Subsequently, Aziz Ahmed was regarded as one of Bhutto's closest confidantes as Minister of State for Defence and Foreign Affairs and finally as Foreign Minister for a few months, before the government was toppled in the military coup of 1977 Aziz Ahmed assisted in negotiating the Simla Agreement between Pakistan and India in 1972 and organising the Islamic Summit in 1974, where he headed Pakistan's delegation As Minister of Defence, he played a key role in re-building Pakistan's defence capability after the 1971 war with India as well as the development of the country's nuclear programme Aziz convinced Richard Nixon to ensure the supply of weapons to Pakistan to counter the Indian hegemony
Aziz worked with Bhutto building ties with China, and the Arab world and also helped Bhutto to negotiate with Soviet Union for economical assistance His term as Foreign Minister cut short and was arrested by Military police after the successful commenced of Operation Fair Play in 1977 Aziz Ahmed remained a staunch opponent of martial law and the military government of General Zia-ul-Haq Aziz died in Oct 1982 and was buried in Karachi He was a recipient of Pakistan's highest civil award, Hilal-e-Pakistan On his death, he was survived by his wife Shereen Ahmed, two sons and two daughters
- Muhammad Ayub Khan
- Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
- Pakistan Ambassador to the United States
- ^ List of Foreign Secretaries of the Government of Pakistan Archived 2 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b c d Mehdi, Colonel Sherjiel Gaz "Operation Gibraltar" Defence Journal of Pakistan Colonel retired Sherjiel Gaz Mehdi, Commanding Officer of the 5th Alpha Airborne Regiment, Special Service Group SSG Archived from the original on 27 September 2011 Retrieved 17 November 2011
- ^ a b c d Malik, PAF, Colonel M Zaman "An Insiders' View" Pakistan Air Force's Directorate General for Air History Colonel M Zaman Malik, Directorate-General for the Air war history of Pakistan Air Force Archived from the original on 4 April 2012 Retrieved 17 November 2011
- ^ Ministers of State of Foreign Affairs, Government of Pakistan Archived 27 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Foreign Ministers of Pakistan
- ^ US Government "Momerundom of Conversation" PDF US Government Retrieved 17 November 2011
Muhammad Ali Bogra
|Pakistan Ambassador to the United States
|Foreign Secretary of Pakistan
|Minister of State for Foreign Affairs
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
|Foreign Minister of Pakistan
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