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audiogram, audiogram graph
An audiogram is a graph that shows the audible threshold for standardized frequencies as measured by an audiometer The Y axis represents intensity measured in decibels and the X axis represents frequency measured in hertz1 The threshold of hearing is plotted relative to a standardised curve that represents 'normal' hearing, in dBHL They are not the same as equal-loudness contours, which are a set of curves representing equal loudness at different levels, as well as at the threshold of hearing, in absolute terms measured in dB SPL sound pressure level

Audiograms are set out with frequency in hertz Hz on the horizontal axis, most commonly on a logarithmic scale, and a linear dBHL scale on the vertical axis

For humans, normal hearing is between −10 dBHL and 15 dBHLcitation needed, although 0 dB from 250 Hz to 8 kHz is deemed to be 'average' normal hearing

Hearing thresholds of humans and other mammals can be found by using behavioural hearing tests or physiological tests An audiogram can be obtained using a behavioural hearing test called Audiometry For humans the test involves different tones being presented at a specific frequency pitch and intensity loudness When the person hears the sound they raise their hand or press a button so that the tester knows that they have heard it The lowest intensity sound they can hear is recorded The test varies for children, their response to the sound can be a head turn or using a toy The child learns what they can do when they hear the sound, for example they are taught that when they heard the sound they can put a toy man in a boat This is referred to as conditioned play audiometry Visual reinforcement audiometry is also used with children When the child hears the sound, they look in the direction the sound came from and are reinforced with a light and/or animated toy A similar technique can be used when testing some animals but instead of a toy, food can be used as a reward for responding to the sound Physiological tests do not need the patient to respond Katz 2002 For example when performing the brainstem auditory evoked potentials the patient’s brainstem responses are being measured when a sound is played into their ear, or otoacoustic emissions OAEs which are generated by a healthy inner ear either spontaneously or evoked by an outside stimulus In the US, the NIOSH recommends that people who are regularly exposed to hazardous noise have their hearing tested once a year, or every three years otherwise2


  • 1 Measurement
  • 2 Audiograms and diagnosing types of hearing loss
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 Further reading
  • 6 External links


Audiograms are produced using a piece of test equipment called an audiometer, and this allows different frequencies to be presented to the subject, usually over calibrated headphones, at any specified level The levels are, however, not absolute, but weighted with frequency relative to a standard graph known as the minimum audibility curve which is intended to represent a 'normal' hearing This is not the best threshold found for all subjects, under ideal test conditions, which is represented by around 0 Phon or the threshold of hearing on the equal-loudness contours, but is standardised in an ANSI standard to a level somewhat higher at 1 kHz 2 There are several definitions of the minimal audibility curve, defined in different international standards, and they differ significantly, giving rise to differences in audiograms according to the audiometer used The ASA-1951 standard for example used a level of 165 dBSPL at 1 kHz whereas the later ANSI-1969/ISO-1963 standard uses 65 dBSPL, and it is common to allow a 10 dB correction for the older standard

Audiograms and diagnosing types of hearing lossedit

Most commonly, "conventional" audiometry utilizing audiograms up to 8 kHz is used to measure hearing status3 For research purposes, or early diagnosis of age-related hearing loss, ultra-high frequency audiograms up to 20 kHz, requiring special audiometer calibration and headphones, can be measured4

Ideally the audiogram would show a straight line, but in practice everyone is slightly different, and small variations are considered normal Larger variations, especially below the norm, may indicate hearing impairment which occurs to some extent with increasing age, but may be exacerbated by prolonged exposure to fairly high noise levels such as by living close to an airport or busy road, work related exposure to high noise, or brief exposure to very high sound levels such as gunshot or music in either a loud band or clubs and pubs Hearing impairment may also be the result of certain diseases such as CMV or Ménière's disease and these can be diagnosed from the shape of the audiogram

An audiogram showing typical slight hearing variation

Otosclerosis results in an audiogram with significant loss at all frequencies, often of around 40 dBHL5 A deficiency particularly around 2 kHz termed a Carhart notch in the audiogram is characteristic of either otosclerosis or a congenital ossicular anomaly6

Ménière's disease results in a severe loss at low frequencies7

Noise induced deafness or sensorineural loss results in loss at high frequencies, especially around 4 kHz and above, depending on the nature of the exposure to loud noise8

Typical examples of audiograms showing conductive, noise induced and age-related hearing loss can be found here

See alsoedit

  • Hearing range
  • Equal-loudness contour
  • Minimum audibility curve
  • Articulation index
  • Pure tone audiometry
  • Hearing sense
  • Audiology
  • Audiometry
  • A-weighting


  1. ^ 1
  2. ^ Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention: Frequently Asked Questions Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine NIOSH Safety and Health Topic
  3. ^ Roland, Peter 2004 Ototoxicity BC Decker p 63 ISBN 978-1550092639 The most commonly employed measure of auditory status is conventional audiometry 05-8 kHz 
  4. ^ Conn, P Michael 2011 Handbook of Models for Human Aging Academic Press p 911 ISBN 978-0-12-369391-4 For research purposes, or early diagnosis of presbycusis, ultra-high frequency audiograms can be measured In such cases the test frequencies can go as high as 20 kHz and require special audiometer calibration and headphones 
  5. ^ pure tone audiometry in otosclerosis from General Practice Notebook Retrieved 2012
  6. ^ Kashio, A; Ito, K; Kakigi, A; Karino, S; Iwasaki, S -I; Sakamoto, T; Yasui, T; Suzuki, M; Yamasoba, T 2011 "Carhart Notch 2-kHz Bone Conduction Threshold Dip: A Nondefinitive Predictor of Stapes Fixation in Conductive Hearing Loss with Normal Tympanic Membrane" Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 137 3: 236–240 PMID 21422306 doi:101001/archoto201114 
  7. ^ pure tone audiometry in Meniere's disease from General Practice Notebook Retrieved 2012
  8. ^ pure tone audiometry in noise deafness from General Practice Notebook Retrieved 2012

Further readingedit

  • Gotfrit, M 1995 Range of human hearing online Available from http://wwwsfuca/sca/Manuals/ZAAPf/r/rangehtml Zen Audio Project 28th Feb 2007
  • Katz, J 20025th ed Clinical Audiology Lippen-Cott Williams and Wilkins
  • Rubel, E Popper, A Fay, R 1998 Development of the Auditory System New York: Springer-Verlag inc

External linksedit

  • Levels of hearing loss
  • Online Audiogram Hearing Test
  • Pure tone audiometry in glue-ear
  • Audiogram of Meniere's disease
  • Audiogram in nerve-deafness
  • Audiogram in Otosclerosis
  • Audiogram in Chronic otitis media
  • Audiogram - GP notebook
  • Behavioral Audiograms of Mammals in Table Form
  • Noise and hearing conservation
  • How to Read an Audiogram: Auditory Thresholds

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    Audiogram beatiful post thanks!


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Audiogram what, Audiogram who, Audiogram explanation

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