Attaque à outranceattaque a outrance
Attaque à outrance French: Attack to excess was the expression of a military philosophy common to many armies in the period before and during the earlier parts of World War I
This philosophy was a response to the increasing weight of defensive firepower that accrued to armies in the nineteenth century, as a result of several technological innovations, notably breech-loading rifled guns, machine guns, and light field artillery firing high-explosive shells It held that the victor would be the side with the strongest will, courage, and dash/energy élan, and that every attack must therefore be pushed to the limit The lethality of artillery, combined with the lack of mobility of infantry, as well as the subsequent development of trench warfare, rendered this tactic extremely costly and usually ineffective
The philosophy is particularly associated with the French, due to its adoption by Noël de Castelnau in the First Battle of Champagne 1914, and by Robert Nivelle in the Nivelle Offensive 1917 Joseph Joffre, French chief of general staff from 1911 on, had originally adopted the doctrine for the French military and purged the army of 'defensively-minded' commanders However, all sides launched large, costly and futile frontal offensives in this style: the British at the Battle of the Somme 1916, the Germans in the First Battle of Ypres 1914, the Russians in the Brusilov Offensive 1916, and so on
The origins of this doctrine are traced back to the increasingly militarized 'Warrior Culture' that most European nations developed during the 19th century, where the ideal citizen was the soldier in the employ of his homeland This predisposed officers and soldiers towards narrow ideals focusing on blind courage in the face of war's adversity
- 1 See also
- 2 Further reading
- 21 English
- 22 French
- 3 References
- Human wave attack
- Douglas Porch: The March to the Marne: The French Army 1871–1914 Cambridge University Press, 2003 mw-parser-output citecitationmw-parser-output citation qmw-parser-output id-lock-free a,mw-parser-output citation cs1-lock-free amw-parser-output id-lock-limited a,mw-parser-output id-lock-registration a,mw-parser-output citation cs1-lock-limited a,mw-parser-output citation cs1-lock-registration amw-parser-output id-lock-subscription a,mw-parser-output citation cs1-lock-subscription amw-parser-output cs1-subscription,mw-parser-output cs1-registrationmw-parser-output cs1-subscription span,mw-parser-output cs1-registration spanmw-parser-output cs1-ws-icon amw-parser-output codecs1-codemw-parser-output cs1-hidden-errormw-parser-output cs1-visible-errormw-parser-output cs1-maintmw-parser-output cs1-subscription,mw-parser-output cs1-registration,mw-parser-output cs1-formatmw-parser-output cs1-kern-left,mw-parser-output cs1-kern-wl-leftmw-parser-output cs1-kern-right,mw-parser-output cs1-kern-wl-rightmw-parser-output citation mw-selflinkISBN 0-521-54592-7
- Jack Snyder: The Ideology of the Offensive: Military Decision Making and the Disasters of 1914 Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1984 ISBN 0-8014-8244-5 Cornell Paperbacks 1989, ISBN 978-0801482441
- Dimitry Queloz 2006, De la manœuvre napoléonienne à l'offensive à outrance La tactique générale de l'armée française - 1871-1914 Paris, Éditions Économica, 2009 564 p, ISBN 978-2-7178-5685-9 dissertation, University of Neuchâtel
- Jean-Claude Delhez 2013, Douze mythes de l'année 1914, Paris, Economica, coll « Mystères de guerre » no 2, 2013, 140 p ISBN 978-2-7178-6594-3
- Jean-Marc Marril 2014, L’offensive à outrance : une doctrine unanimement partagée par les grandes puissances militaires en 1914 The all-out offensive: A doctrine shared unanimously by the great military powers in 1914, Revue historique des armées, no 274, 2014 online
- ^ The Philosophy of Trench Warfare on the Western Front in the Great War Archived 19 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine - Payne, David, from westernfrontcom, retrieved Monday 29 May 2006
- ^ First World War - Willmott, HP, Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 52
- ^ A History of Warfare - Keegan, John, Vintage, Thursday 1 November 1994
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