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Ateji PX is an object-oriented programming language extension for Java It is intended to facilliate parallel computing on multi-core processors, GPU, Grid and Cloud
Ateji PX can be integrated with the Eclipse IDE, requires minimal learning of the additional parallel constructs and does not alter the development process
- 1 Code examples
- 11 Hello World
- 12 Data parallelism
- 13 Task parallelism
- 14 Message-passing
- 15 Data-flow
- 2 External links
Hello Worldeditpublic class HelloWorld
Each || symbol introduces a parallel branch Running this program will print eitherHello World
depending on how the parallel branches happen to be scheduled
Data parallelismedit|| int i : arraylength arrayi++;
The quantification int i : N creates one parallel branch for each value of i The effect of this code is to increment all elements of array in parallel This code is equivalent to|| array0++; || array1++; || arrayarraylength-1++;
More complex quantifications are possible The following example quantifies over the upper left triangle of a square matrix:|| int i:N, int j:N, if i+j<N matrixij++;
Code that performs a similar and typically small operation on a large collection of elements is called data parallel, and appears often in high-performance scientific applications A typical representative of data-parallel languages for the C/C++ or Fortran ecosystems is OpenMP
Data parallelism features can also be implemented by libraries using dedicated data structures, such as parallel arrays
The term task parallelism is used when work can conceptually be decomposed into a number of logical tasks In this example, tasks are created recursively:int fibint n
Task parallelism is implemented in languages such as Cilk, and in libraries similar to the fork/join pair of Unix system calls
Parallel branches have two ways of communicating; either by concurrently reading and writing shared variables, or by sending explicit messages The operators ! and respectively send and receive a message on a channel
In this example, two parallel branches communicate via explicit message passing:Chan<String> chan = new Chan<String>; // branch 1 sends a value over the channel || chan ! "Hello"; // branch 2 receives a value from the channel and prints it || chan s; Systemoutprintlns;
A program is said to be data-flow when computation is initiated and synchronized by the availability of data in a flow A typical example is an adder: it has two inputs, one output, and whenever the two inputs are ready, it sends their sum on the outputvoid adderChan<Integer> in1, Chan<Integer> in2, Chan<Integer> out
Note the parallel read in1 value1; || in2 value2; It means that the two input values can come in any order Without it, the code may deadlock if values were coming in the wrong order This shows that parallel primitives in a programming language are not only about performance, but also about the behavior of programs
The adder by itself doesn't do anything, since it reacts on input data It needs to be put in a context where other parts feed input values and read output values The way to express this is to compose all pieces in a large parallel block:|| sourcec1; // generates values on c1 || sourcec2; // generates values on c2 || adderc1, c2, c3; || sinkc3; // read values from c3
Anything that can be thought of as a combination of logical gates or electrical circuits can readily be expressed in this way as a data-flow program
- The Ateji PX white-paper A gentle introduction to the language features
- The Ateji PX language manual
- Think Parallel, Think Java article at Dr Dobbs
- French Firm Brews Parallel Java Offering
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