Asen dynasty


The Asen dynasty Bulgarian: Асеневци, Asenevtsi founded and ruled a medieval Bulgarian state, called in modern historiography the Second Bulgarian Empire, between 1187 and 1256

The Asen dynasty rose as the leaders of Bulgaria after a rebellion against the Byzantine Empire at the turn of the year 1185/1186 caused by the increase in the Imperial taxes

Early rulers from the Asen dynasty particularly Kaloyan referred to themselves as "Emperors of Bulgarians and Vlachs" Later rulers, especially the successful Ivan Asen II, styled themselves "Tsars Emperors of Bulgarians and Greeks"

Some members of the Asen family entered Byzantine service in the thirteenth to fourteenth centuries The name also occurs as a family name in modern Greek, and could go back to the same name

The Sratsimir dynasty descends paternally from the Asen dynasty

Contents

  • 1 Origins
    • 11 Etymology
  • 2 Bulgarian Emperors from the Asen dynasty
  • 3 Byzantine branch
    • 31 Byzantine Asens elsewhere
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 References

Originsedit

Genealogy of the Asen dynasty

The origins of the dynasty, especially the ethnic background of the three Asen brothers Teodor I Peter IV, Ivan Asen I and Kaloyan are still a source of much controversy, debated between historians There are three main hypothesis regarding their origins:1

  1. Bulgarian origin, a view that is common among the Bulgarian historians who reckon that all native sources from the 13th century2 use predominantly the terms Bulgaria, Bulgarians and Bulgarian, that tsar Kaloyan claimed provenance from the rulers of the First Bulgarian Empire3
  2. Vlach origin,4567 a view supported mainly by Romanian and some foreign historians who base their claims on Byzantine sources, Western Crusade chronicles, and letters between Pope Innocent III and Kaloyan82
  3. Cuman origin,9101112 as some of the names in the dynasty, including Asen and Belgun nickname of Ivan Asen I are derived from Cuman language

In their own administrative documents and correspondence, the three rulers viewed themselves as descendants and successors of the Bulgarian Tsars Samuil, Peter I and Simeon I, and the state they founded as a continuation of the First Bulgarian Empire However, this could be just a way to proclaim their legitimacy for the throne of the Empire

In a correspondence, of 1199, the Pope talks about the "Roman descent" of Kaloyan However, considering the actual text says Nos autem audito quod de nobili urbis Romae prosapia progenitores tui originem traxerint "We heard that your forefathers come from a noble family from the city of Rome", it is usually dismissed as simply a hidden compliment of the Pope to Kaloyan

Pope Innocent III in his letter to the Bulgarian King Kaloyan Calojoannes in 1204 addressed him "King of Bulgarians and Vlachs" Bulgarorum and Blacorum rex; in answering the Pope, John called himself imperator omnium Bulgarorum et Blachorum "Emperor of all Bulgarians and Vlachs', but signed himself imperator Bulgariae Calojoannes "Emperor Kaloyan of Bulgaria"; besides, the archbishop of Veliko Tarnovo called himself totius Bulgariae et Blaciae Primas "Primate of all Bulgaria and Vlachia"

The Bulgarian historiography negate, while the Romanian highlight the role of the Vlachs in the uprising However, the scientific debate reflects the nationalistic rivality from the 19-20th century, which did not exist in the 12-13th century Vlachs and Bulgarian Slavs jointly inhabited Bulgaria, and both groups in sufferance were united against the common cause under a leader, regardless of the leader "race" The Asen brothers were associated with the Vlach population of the mountainous regions around Trnovo, Niketas Choniates recorded Vlach shamans during revolt exhibition, but nevertheless of their ethnicity, it was a joint venture of the Bulgarians, Vlachs and Cumans13

Etymologyedit

The name of the dynasty comes from one of the brothers, namely Asen I The etymology is most likely of Cuman Turkic origin, derived from "esen" which meant "safe, sound, healthy" and the Belgun nickname seems to be derived from Turkic "bilgün", which meant "wise" Further support to this connection can be found in the charters of the Great Lavra of Mt Athos from the end of the 12th century, which mention the monastery's problems with some of the Cuman stratiotes, where "Asen" is listed as the name of one of those Cumans14

Other study shows that the only name that makes sense is änish descent and the word can be found almost exclusively in the languages of the Kıpçak Turks15

Bulgarian Emperors from the Asen dynastyedit

Ivan Asen I Asen 1187 - 1196
Peter IV Teodor 1186 - 1197
Kaloyan Ioanitsa 1197 - 1207
Boril Boril Kaliman 1207 - 1218
Ivan Asen II 1218 - 1241
Kaliman I Asen Koloman 1241 - 1246
Michael II Asen 1246 - 1256
Kaliman II Asen Koloman 1256
Mitso Asen 1256 - 1257
Ivan Asen III 1279 - 1280

Byzantine branchedit

The Asens in Byzantium largely descend from Ivan Asen III, who ruled briefly as Emperor of Bulgaria before fleeing to Constantinople as Ivaylo's uprising was gaining momentum in 1280 A despotes under Michael VIII Palaiologos, Ivan Asen III had already been married to the Byzantine Emperor's eldest daughter, Irene Palaiologina The couple's five sons and two daughters were the progenitors of one of the highest-regarded Byzantine noble families of their time, along with the Palaiologoi Among the Byzantine Asens, three bore the title of despotes, three that of sebastokrator, two panhypersebastos, one was a megas doux and two were titled megas primikerios16 In Greek, the male form of the family name is rendered as Ἀσάνης Asanis and the female as Ασανίνα Asanina

A smaller branch descends from Elena Asenina of Bulgaria, wife of Nicaean Emperor Theodore II Laskaris17

The Asens of Byzantium intermarried with other prominent noble dynasties, including the Kantakouzenos, Doukas, Laskaris, Tornikios and Raoul families Notable members of the Asen family in the Byzantine Empire include:

  • Andronikos Asen, epitropos of the Morea 1316-1322
  • Irene Asanina, Empress Consort of John VI Kantakouzenos 1347-1354
  • Matthew Asen Kantakouzenos, Co-Emperor of Byzantium 1353-1357
  • Matthew Palaiologos Asen, Lord of Corinth 1454-1458

Byzantine Asens elsewhereedit

From Byzantium, the Asens spread as far as Frankish Greece, the Principality of Theodoro, the Principality of Moldavia, the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Aragon16

  • Eudoxia Laskarina Asanina 1248-1311, Nicaean princess, Countess of Ventimiglia and Tende and nun in Aragon
  • Helena Asanina Kantakouzene, Dowager Countess of Salona 1380-1394
  • Andronikos Asen Zaccaria, Prince of Achaea before 1386-1401
  • Thomas Asen Palaiologos, exile in Naples and ktetor
  • Maria Asanina Palaiologina, Princess Consort of Moldavia 1472-1477

See alsoedit

  • History of Bulgaria
  • List of Bulgarian monarchs

Notesedit

  1. ^ Humanitas 2008: 4
  2. ^ a b Fine 1994, p 12
  3. ^ Entangled Histories of the Balkans - Volume Three: Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies Balkan Studies Library, Roumen Daskalov, Alexander Vezenkov, Publisher BRILL, 2015, ISBN 9004290362, pp 289-316
  4. ^ Steven Runciman A History of the Crusades page 13
  5. ^ Paul Stephenson, Byzantium's Balkan Frontier: A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900-1204, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0521027564
  6. ^ Boldur Alexandru, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Frunza, Bucuresti, 1990, p 95
  7. ^ Madgearu, Alexandru 2014 Asăneștii Istoria politico-militara a statului dinastiei Asan 1185-1280 Târgoviște: Cetatea de Scaun ISBN 9786065372276
  8. ^ Wolff 1949, p 178, 180, 185, 190, 198
  9. ^ István Vásáry 2005 Cumans and Tatars, Cambridge University Press, p 2
  10. ^ The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Volume 1, Denis Sinor, pg 279
  11. ^ Ion Grumeza, The Roots of Balkanization: Eastern Europe CE 500-1500 2010, p51
  12. ^ Bulgarian Folk Customs, Mercia MacDermott, pg 27
  13. ^ Fine 1994, p 12–13
  14. ^ Plamen Pavlov - "Scythian chieftains in the fields of Bulgaria, 11th-12th century in Bulgarian
  15. ^ Dimitri Korobeinikov, A broken mirror: the Kipçak world in the thirteenth century In the volume: The other Europe from the Middle Ages, Edited by Florin Curta, Brill 2008, p 400
  16. ^ a b Božilov, pp 20-22
  17. ^ Božilov, pp 102-103

Referencesedit

  • Božilov, Ivan 1985 Familijata na Asenevci 1186–1460 in Bulgarian Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences OCLC 14378091 
  • Vasary, Istvan 2005 "Cumans and Tatars", Cambridge University Press: pp 34–42
  • Stephenson, Paul 2000 "Byzantium's Balkan Frontier — A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900–1204" pp 289–300
  • History of the Byzantine Empire, A A Vasiliev 1935
  • Djuvara, Neagu 2008 O scurta istorie a romanilor povestita celor tineri Humanitas ISBN 978-973-50-2591-5 
  • Stelian Brezeanu, Istoria Imperiului Bizantin, Bucuresti, MERONIA, 2007
  • Boldur, Alexandru 1990 Istoria Basarabiei in Romanian Bucuresti: Editura Frunza 
  • Wolff, Robert Lee April 1949 The Second Bulgarian Empire Its Origin and History to 1204 Speculum 24 The University of Chicago Press pp 167–199 
  • Fine, John 1994 The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest University of Michigan Press ISBN 9780472082605 


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