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Artur Phleps

artur phleps, artur phleps nazis
Artur Gustav Martin Phleps 29 November 1881 – 21 September 1944 was an Austro-Hungarian, Romanian and German army officer who held the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS lieutenant general in the Waffen-SS during World War II An Austro-Hungarian Army officer before and during World War I, he specialised in mountain warfare and logistics, and had been promoted to Oberstleutnant lieutenant colonel by the end of the war During the interwar period he joined the Romanian Army, reaching the rank of General-locotenent major general, and also became an adviser to King Carol After he spoke out against the government, he was sidelined and asked to be dismissed from the army

In 1941 he left Romania and joined the Waffen-SS as a SS-Standartenführer colonel under his mother's maiden name of Stolz Seeing action on the Eastern Front as a regimental commander with the SS Motorised Division Wiking, he later raised and commanded the 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen, raised the 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar 1st Croatian, and commanded the V SS Mountain Corps Units under his command committed many crimes against the civilian population of the Independent State of Croatia, Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia and Italian governorate of Montenegro12 His final appointment was as plenipotentiary general in south Siebenbürgen and the Banat, during which he organised the evacuation of the Volksdeutsche ethnic Germans of Siebenbürgen to the Reich In addition to the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, Phleps was awarded the German Cross in Gold, and after he was killed in September 1944, he was awarded the Oak Leaves to his Knight's Cross

Contents

  • 1 Early life
  • 2 World War I
  • 3 Between the wars
  • 4 World War II
    • 41 SS Motorised Division Wiking
    • 42 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen
    • 43 V SS Mountain Corps
  • 5 Death and aftermath
  • 6 Accusations of war crimes
  • 7 Awards
  • 8 Notes
  • 9 Footnotes
  • 10 References
    • 101 Books
    • 102 Journals
    • 103 Websites
  • 11 External links

Early lifeedit

Phleps' birthplace of Birthälm in Siebenbürgen modern-day Transylvania

Phleps was born in Birthälm Biertan, near Hermannstadt in Siebenbürgen, then a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire modern-day Romania3 At the time, Siebenbürgen was densely populated by ethnic Germans commonly referred to as Transylvanian Saxons He was the third son of the surgeon Gustav Phleps and Sophie née Stolz, the daughter of a peasant Both families had lived in Siebenbürgen for centuries45 After finishing at the Lutheran Realschule school in Hermannstadt,4 Phleps entered the Imperial and Royal cadet school in Pressburg in modern-day Slovakia in 1900, and on 1 November 1901 was commissioned as a Leutnant lieutenant in the 3rd Regiment of the Tiroler Kaiserjäger mountain infantry36

In 1903, Phleps was transferred to the 11th Feldjäger rifle Battalion in Güns in modern-day Hungary,3 and in 1905 was accepted into the Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt He completed his studies in two years, and was endorsed as suitable for service in the General Staff Following promotion to Oberleutnant first lieutenant he transferred to the staff of the 13th Infantry Regiment at Esseg in Slavonia, and then the 6th Infantry Division in Graz This was followed by a promotion to Hauptmann captain in 1911 along with a position on the staff of the XV Army Corps in Sarajevo, where he specialised in mobilisation and communications in the difficult terrain of Bosnia and Herzegovina56

World War Iedit

At the outbreak of World War I, Phleps was serving with the staff of the 32nd Infantry Division in Budapest The division was involved in the early stages of the Serbian campaign, during which Phleps was transferred to the operations staff of the Second Army The Second Army was soon withdrawn from the Serbian front and deployed via the Carpathian Mountains to the Austro-Hungarian province of Galicia modern-day Poland and Ukraine to defend against a successful offensive by the Russian Empire The Second Army continued to fight the Russians in and around the Carpathians through the winter of 1914–1915 In 1915 Phleps was again transferred, this time to Armeegruppe Rohr commanded by General der Kavallerie General Franz Rohr von Denta, which was formed in the Austrian Alps in response to the Italian declaration of war in May 1915 Armeegruppe Rohr became the basis for the formation of the 10th Army, which was headquartered in Villach Phleps subsequently became the deputy quartermaster of the 10th Army, responsible for organising the supply of the troops fighting the Italians in the mountains67

On 1 August 1916, Phleps was promoted to Major3 Later that month, King Ferdinand of Romania led the Kingdom of Romania in joining the Triple Entente, and subsequently invaded Phleps' homeland of Siebenbürgen On 27 August, Phleps became the chief of staff of the 72nd Infantry Division, which was involved in Austro-Hungarian operations to repel the Romanian invasion He remained in this theatre of operations for the next two years, ultimately serving as the chief quartermaster of the German 9th Army,7 and was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class on 27 January 19178 In 1918 he returned to the mountains when he was transferred to Armeegruppe Tirol, and ended the war as an Oberstleutnant lieutenant colonel and chief quartermaster for the entire Alpine Front67

Between the warsedit

After the war the Austro-Hungarian Empire was dissolved, and Phleps returned to his homeland, which had become part of Romania under the Treaty of Trianon He joined the Romanian Army and was appointed as commander of the Saxon National Guard, a militia formed from the German-speaking people of Siebenbürgen In this role he opposed the Hungarian communist revolutionary government of Béla Kun, which fought Romania in 1919 During a battle at the Tisza river against Kun's forces he disobeyed direct orders and was subsequently court-martialled The trial concluded that Phleps had saved the Romanian forces through his actions, and he was promoted to Oberst colonel9 He commanded the 84th Infantry Regiment, then joined the general staff and taught logistics at the War Academy in Bucharest He attended the V Army Corps staff college in Kronstadt, and published a book, Logistics: Basics of Organisation and Execution, in 1926 which became the standard work on logistics for the Romanian Army1011 Ironically, after the book was published, Phleps failed his first general's examination on the topic of logistics12 He commanded various Romanian units, including the 1st Brigade of the vânători de munte mountain troops and also acted as a military advisor to King Carol II in the 1930s1011 Phleps reached the rank of General-locotenent major general despite his reported disdain for the corruption, intrigue and hypocrisy of the royal court13 After criticising government policy14 and publicly calling King Carol a liar when another general tried to twist his words,15 he was transferred to the reserves in 1940 and dismissed from the service at his own request in 19416

World War IIedit

SS Motorised Division Wikingedit

In November 1940, with the support of the leader of the Volksgruppe in Rumänien ethnic Germans in Romania, Andreas Schmidt, Phleps had written to the key Waffen-SS recruiting officer SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen SS Brigadier Gottlob Berger offering his services to the Third Reich Phleps subsequently asked for permission to leave Romania to join the Wehrmacht, and this was approved by the recently installed Romanian Conducător dictator General Ion Antonescu15 Phleps volunteered for the Waffen-SS instead,16 enlisting under his mother's maiden name of Stolz6 According to the historian Hans Bergel, Phleps joined the Waffen-SS because Volksdeutsche were not permitted to join the Wehrmacht17 He was appointed as a SS-Standartenführer colonel by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and joined the SS Motorised Division Wiking,16 where he commanded Dutch, Flemish, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Finnish volunteers6 When Hilmar Wäckerle, the commander of SS-Regiment Westland, was killed in action near Lvov in late June 1941, Phleps took over command of that regiment Phleps distinguished himself in the fighting at Kremenchuk and Dnipropetrovsk in the Ukraine, commanded his own Kampfgruppe,6 became a confidant of Generalmajor Brigadier General Hans-Valentin Hube, commander of the 16th Panzer Division, and was subsequently promoted to SS-Oberführer senior colonel16 In July 1941 he was awarded the 1939 clasp to his Iron Cross 1914 2nd Class and then the Iron Cross 1939 1st Class8

7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugenedit

On 30 December 1941, Generalfeldmarschall Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel advised Himmler that Adolf Hitler had authorised the raising of a seventh Waffen-SS division from the Volksdeutsche ethnic Germans of Yugoslavia18 In the meantime, Phleps reverted to his birth name from his mother's maiden name Two weeks later, SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen SS Phleps was selected to organise the new division16 On 1 March 1942, the division was officially designated the SS-Freiwilligen-Division "Prinz Eugen"18 Phleps was promoted to SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen SS major general on 20 April 1942 After recruitment, formation and training in the Banat in October 1942, the two regiments and supporting arms were deployed into the southwestern part of the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia as an anti-Partisan force Headquartered in Kraljevo, with its two mountain infantry regiments centred on Užice and Raška, the division continued to train Some artillery batteries, the anti-aircraft battalion and the motorcycle battalion and cavalry squadron continued to form in the Banat19 During his time with the 7th SS Division, Phleps was referred to as "Papa Phleps" by his troops20

From left: Italian General Ercole Roncaglia, Kurt Waldheim, Oberst Colonel Macholz and Phleps with briefcase at Podgorica airfield in Montenegro during Case Black, 22 May 1943 This photograph caused much controversy when it was published while Waldheim was running for the Austrian presidency in 1985–1986

In early October 1942, the division commenced Operation Kopaonik, targeting the Chetnik force of Major Dragutin Keserović in the Kopaonik Mountains, which ended with little success, as the Chetniks had forewarning of the operation and were able to avoid contact After a quiet winter, in January 1943 Phleps deployed the division to the Independent State of Croatia NDH to participate in Case White21 Between 13 February and 9 March 1943 he was responsible for the initial aspects of raising the 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar 1st Croatian in the NDH in addition to his duties commanding the 7th SS Division22 In his strongly apologetic divisional history of the division which he later commanded,23 Otto Kumm claims that the division captured Bihać and Bosanski Petrovac, killed over 2,000 Partisans and captured nearly 400 during Case White24 After a short rest and refit in April, the division was committed to Case Black in May and June 1943, during which it advanced from the Mostar area into the Italian governorate of Montenegro and killed, according to Kumm, 250 Partisans and captured over 50025 The historian Thomas Casagrande notes that all German units fighting partisans routinely counted the civilians they had murdered as partisans Therefore it can be assumed that the reported number of inflicted casualties included many civilians26 The division played a decisive role during the fighting Although Himmler had already planned to award Phleps with the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for his role in organising the 7th SS Division, it was for the achievements of his division during Case Black that Phleps received the award Phleps was also portrayed in the SS-magazine Das Schwarze Korps26 He received the Knight's Cross in July 1943,27 while he was also promoted to Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS lieutenant general,3 and placed in command of the V SS Mountain Corps28

In May 1943, Phleps became frustrated by the failure of his Italian allies to cooperate with German operations, which was demonstrated in his reputation for forthright speech During a meeting with his Italian counterpart in Podgorica, Montenegro, Phleps called the Italian corps commander General Ercole Roncaglia a "lazy macaroni"29 Phleps scolded his Wehrmacht interpreter, Leutnant Kurt Waldheim for toning down Phleps' language, saying, "Listen Waldheim, I know some Italian and you are not translating what I am telling this so-and-so"29 On another occasion, Phleps threatened to shoot Italian sentries who were delaying his passage through a checkpoint30 On 15 May 1943, Phleps handed over command of the division to SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen SS Karl von Oberkamp31

While under Phleps' command, the division committed many crimes against the civilian population of the NDH, especially during Case White and Case Black32 These included "burning villages, massacre of inhabitants, torture and murder of captured partisans", and the division thereby developed a distinctive reputation for cruelty20 These charges have been denied by Kumm, among others But the divisional orders routinely called for the annihilation of hostile civilian population and documents by the Waffen-SS themselves show that these orders were put into practice For example, Himmler's police representative in the NDH, SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Polizei Konstantin Kammerhofer, reported on 15 July 1943 that units of the 7th SS Division had shot the Muslim population of Kosutica, about 40 men, women, and children gathered in a "church" The division claimed that "bandits" in the village had opened fire, but the police could not discover any traces of combat Such incidents, which jeopardized the plan to raise a Muslim SS division, led to a dispute between Kammerhofer and Phleps' successor Oberkamp Himmler ordered Phleps to intervene and Phleps reported on 7 September 1943 that he could not discover anything wrong with the shootings in Kosutica and that Kammerhofer and Oberkamp had resolved their dispute33 The war crimes committed by the 7th SS Division became the subject of international controversy when Waldheim's service in the Balkans became public in the mid-1980s, during his successful bid for the Austrian presidency34

V SS Mountain Corpsedit

The formations under the command of V SS Mountain Corps varied during Phlep's command In July 1944, it consisted of the 118th Jäger Division and 369th Croatian Infantry Division in addition to the 7th SS and 13th SS divisions Throughout Phlep's command, the corps was under the overall control of 2nd Panzer Army and conducted anti-Partisan operations throughout the NDH and Montenegro35 These operations included Operations Kugelblitz ball lightning and Schneesturm blizzard, which were part of a major offensive in eastern Bosnia in December 1943, but they were only a limited success36 Phleps had met personally with Hitler to discuss the planning for Operation Kugelblitz37

Due to the unreliable nature of the troops loyal to the NDH government, Phleps utilised Chetnik forces as auxiliaries, stating to a visiting officer that he could not disarm the Chetniks unless the NDH government provided him with the same strength in reliable troops38 In January 1944, due to fears that the Western Allies would invade along the Dalmatian coastline and islands, V SS Mountain Corps forced the mass evacuation of male civilians between the ages of 17 and 50 from that area Phleps was criticised by both NDH and German authorities for the harshness with which the evacuation was carried out39 During the first six months of 1944, elements of the V SS Mountain Corps were involved in Operation Waldrausch Forest Fever in central Bosnia,40 Operation Maibaum Maypole in eastern Bosnia,41 and Operation Rösselsprung Knight's Move, the attempt to capture or kill the Partisan leader Josip Broz Tito42

On 20 June 1944, Phleps was awarded the German Cross in Gold8 In September, he was appointed plenipotentiary general of German occupation troops in south Siebenbürgen and the Banat, organising the flight of the Volksdeutsche of north Siebenbürgen ahead of the advancing Soviet Red Army43

Death and aftermathedit

While en route to a meeting with Himmler in Berlin, Phleps and his entourage made a detour to reconnoitre the situation near Arad, Romania after receiving reports of Soviet advances in that area Accompanied only by his adjutant and his driver, and unaware of the presence of Red Army units in the vicinity, he entered Șimand, a village approximately 20 kilometres 12 mi north of Arad, on the afternoon of 21 September 1944 Soviet forces were already in the village, and Phleps and his men were captured and brought in for interrogation When the building in which they were held was attacked by German aircraft later that afternoon, the prisoners tried to escape and were shot by their guards44 Bergel suspects that Phleps had been set up by Hungarian army officers who had found out that Phleps knew of plans for Hungary to switch sides as Romania had done shortly before45 Phleps' personal effects, including his identity card, tags and decorations, were found by a Hungarian patrol and handed over to German authorities on 29 September 1944 Phleps had been listed as missing in action since 22 September 1944 when he did not show up for his meeting with Himmler, who had issued a warrant for Phleps' arrest46

Phleps was posthumously awarded the Oak Leaves to his Knight's Cross on 24 November 1944,47 which was presented to his son, SS-Obersturmführer First Lieutenant Drmed Reinhart Phleps,48 a battalion doctor serving in the 7th SS Division4950 Soon after his death, the 13th Gebirgsjäger Regiment of the 7th SS Division was given the cuff title Artur Phleps in his honour51 Phleps was married; his wife's name was Grete and in addition to their son Reinhart, they had a daughter, Irmingard52 One of Phleps' brothers became a doctor, and the other was a professor at the Danzig technical university, now Gdańsk University of Technology4

Accusations of war crimesedit

Phleps was accused by the Yugoslav authorities of war crimes in association with the atrocities committed by 7th SS Division in the area of Nikšić in Montenegro during Case Black At the Nuremberg trials on 6 August 1946, a document from the Yugoslav State Commission for Crimes of Occupiers and their Collaborators regarding the crimes of the 7th SS Division was quoted as follows:53

At the end of May 1943 the division came to Montenegro to the area of Niksic in order to take part in the fifth enemy offensive in conjunction with the Italian troops The officers and men of the SS division Prinz Eugen committed crimes of an outrageous cruelty on this occasion The victims were shot, slaughtered and tortured, or burnt to death in burning houses It has been established from the investigations entered upon that 121 persons, mostly women, and including 30 persons aged 60–92 years and 29 children of ages ranging from 6 months to 14 years, were executed on this occasion in the horrible manner narrated above The villages and then follows the list of the villages were burnt down and razed to the ground For all of these most serious War Crimes those responsible besides the actual culprits--the members of the SS Division Prinz Eugen--are all superior and all subordinate commanders as the persons issuing and transmitting the orders for murder and devastation Among others the following war criminals are known: SS Gruppenfuehrer and Lieutenant General of the Waffen-SS Phleps; Divisional Commander, Major General of the Waffen-SS Karl von Oberkamp; Commander of the 13th Regiment, later Divisional Commander, Major General Gerhard Schmidhuber

Awardsedit

Phleps received the following awards during his service:

  • Austrian Military Merit Medal Signum Laudis
    • in Bronze with war decoration and swords on 13 October 191454
    • in Silver with war decoration on 15 March 191654
  • Austrian Military Merit Cross 3rd Class with war decoration and swords on 3 July 191554
  • Decoration for Services to the Red Cross 2nd Class with war decoration on 23 October 191554
  • Prussian Iron Cross 1914 2nd Class on 27 January 19178
  • Austrian Order of the Iron Crown 3rd Class with war decoration and swords on 24 April 191754
  • Officers cross of the Order of Franz Joseph with war decoration and swords on 23 July 191854
  • Order of the Star of Romania
    • Officers cross with swords on ribbon of military merit on 12 March 192054
    • Commanders cross on 28 February 193354
  • Czechoslovak War Cross on 1 March 192854
  • Order of the Yugoslav Crown 2nd Class in 193354
  • Bulgarian Order of Military Merit 2nd Class on 26 April 193454
  • Romanian Order of the Crown
    • Commander on 1 January 192754
    • Grand Cross on 10 May 193954
  • Clasp to the Iron Cross 1939 2nd Class on 10 July 19418
  • Iron Cross 1st Class on 26 July 19418
  • Infantry Assault Badge in Bronze on 7 November 194354
  • German Cross in Gold on 20 June 1944 as SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS in the V SS Mountain Corps55
  • Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves
    • Knight's Cross on 4 July 1943 as SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen SS and commander of SS-Division "Prinz Eugen"56Note 1
    • 670th Oak Leaves on 24 November 1944 posthumously as SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS, commanding general of the V SS Mountain Corps and Higher SS and Police Leader as well as commander-in-chief in Siebenbürgen5758

Notesedit

  1. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of SS-Volunteer-Mountain-Division "Prinz Eugen"57

Footnotesedit

  1. ^ Lopičić 2009, pp 26–30
  2. ^ Lopičić 2009, pp 112–113
  3. ^ a b c d e Glaise von Horstenau 1980, p 204
  4. ^ a b c Kaltenegger 2008, p 96
  5. ^ a b Kumm 1995, pp 8–9
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Bergel 1979, p 45
  7. ^ a b c Kumm 1995, p 9
  8. ^ a b c d e f Thomas 1998, p 154
  9. ^ Bergel 1972, p 87
  10. ^ a b Kumm 1995, pp 9–10
  11. ^ a b Lumans 2012, p 229
  12. ^ Bergel 1972, p 88
  13. ^ Kaltenegger 2008, pp 100–101
  14. ^ Bergel 1972, p 89
  15. ^ a b Kaltenegger 2008, p 101
  16. ^ a b c d Kumm 1995, p 10
  17. ^ Bergel 1972, p 92
  18. ^ a b Stein 1984, p 170
  19. ^ Kumm 1995, pp 19–21
  20. ^ a b Lumans 2012, p 231
  21. ^ Kumm 1995, pp 27–28
  22. ^ Lepre 1997, pp 20–24
  23. ^ Casagrande 2003, p 25
  24. ^ Kumm 1995, pp 30–40
  25. ^ Kumm 1995, pp 43–53
  26. ^ a b Casagrande 2003, p 255
  27. ^ Bishop & Williams 2003, p 186
  28. ^ Stein 1984, p 210
  29. ^ a b Lumans 2012, p 236
  30. ^ Lumans 2012, p 237
  31. ^ Kumm 1995, p 55
  32. ^ Wolff 2000, pp 154 & 161
  33. ^ Casagrande 2003, pp 258-260
  34. ^ Rosenbaum & Hoffer 1993, pp 32 & 79
  35. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp 71 & 147
  36. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p 398
  37. ^ Lumans 2012, p 238
  38. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p 310
  39. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp 319–320
  40. ^ Kaltenegger 2008, pp 181–189
  41. ^ Lepre 1997, p 187
  42. ^ Eyre 2006, p 373–376
  43. ^ Bergel 1979, p 46
  44. ^ Bergel 1972, p 106
  45. ^ Bergel 1972, p 104
  46. ^ Schulz & Zinke 2008, p 511
  47. ^ Williamson 2004, p 121
  48. ^ Kaltenegger 2008, p 105
  49. ^ Schulz & Zinke 2008, p 551
  50. ^ Kaltenegger 2008, p 15
  51. ^ Windrow 1992, p 14
  52. ^ Kaltenegger 2008, p 111
  53. ^ Nuremberg Trial proceedings
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Thomas & Wegmann 1994, p 149
  55. ^ Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p 351
  56. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, pp 338, 499
  57. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p 593
  58. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p 93

Referencesedit

Booksedit

  • Bergel, Hans 1972 Würfelspiele des Lebens: vier Porträts bedeutender Siebenbürger: Conrad Haas, Johann Martin Honigberger, Paul Richter, Artur Phleps The Dice of Life: Four portraits of Important Transylvanians, Conrad Haas, Johann Martin Honigberger, Paul Richter, Artur Phleps in German Munich: H Meschendörfer ISBN 978-3-87538-011-8 
  • Bergel, H 1979 "Phleps Stolz Artur, General" Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950 Austrian Biographical Encyclopedia in German 8 Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press pp 45–46 ISBN 978-3-7001-3213-4 
  • Bishop, Chris; Williams, Michael 2003 SS: Hell on the Western Front St Paul: MBI Publishing ISBN 978-0-7603-1402-9 
  • Casagrande, Thomas 2003 Die volksdeutsche SS-Division "Prinz Eugen": Die Banater Schwaben und die nationalsozialistischen Kriegsverbrechen The volksdeutsche SS-Division "Prinz Eugen": The Banater Swabians and the National Socialist War Crimes in German Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag ISBN 978-3-593-37234-1 Retrieved 11 November 2016 
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer 2000 Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches in German Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6 
  • Glaise von Horstenau, Edmund 1980 Broucek, Peter, ed Ein General im Zwielicht: Kuk Generalstabsoffizier und Historiker in German Vienna: Böhlau Verlag Wien ISBN 978-3-205-08740-3 
  • Kaltenegger, Roland 2008 Totenkopf und Edelweiss: General Artur Phleps und die südosteuropäischen Gebirgsverbände der Waffen-SS im Partisanenkampf auf dem Balkan 1942–1945 Skull and Edelweiss :General Artur Phleps and the Southeastern European Mountain Units of the Waffen-SS in the Partisan Struggle in the Balkans 1942–1945 in German Graz: Ares Verlag ISBN 978-3-902475-57-2 
  • Kumm, Otto 1995 Prinz Eugen: The History of the 7 SS-Mountain Division "Prinz Eugen" Winnipeg: JJ Fedorowicz ISBN 978-0-921991-29-8 
  • Lepre, George 1997 Himmler's Bosnian Division: The Waffen-SS Handschar Division 1943–1945 Atglen, Philadelphia: Schiffer Publishing ISBN 978-0-7643-0134-6 
  • Lopičić, Đorđe 2009 Nemački Ratni Zločini 1941–1945, presude jugoslovenskih vojnih sudova German War Crimes 1941–1945, the judgements of the Yugoslav Military Courts Belgrade: Muzej žrtava genocida Museum of Genocide Victims ISBN 978-86-906329-8-5 
  • Lumans, Valdis O 2012 "The Ethnic Germans of the Waffen-SS in Combat: Dregs or Gems" In Marble, Sanders Scraping the Barrel: The Military Use of Sub-Standard Manpower 1860–1960 New York: Fordham University Press pp 225–253 ISBN 978-0-8232-3977-1 
  • Patzwall, Klaus D; Scherzer, Veit 2001 Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2 in German Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D Patzwall ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8 
  • Rosenbaum, Eli M; Hoffer, William 1993 Betrayal: The Untold Story of the Kurt Waldheim Investigation and Cover-Up New York: St Martin's Press ISBN 978-0-312-08219-2 
  • Scherzer, Veit 2007 Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives in German Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2 
  • Schulz, Andreas; Zinke, Dieter 2008 Die Generale der Waffen-SS und der Polizei : 1933–1945 : die militärischen Werdegänge der Generale, sowie der Ärzte, Veterinäre, Intendanten, Richter und Ministerialbeamten im Generalsrang / 3 Lammerding – Plesch Germany's Generals and Admirals – Part V: The Generals of the Waffen-SS and the Police 1933–1945 Bissendorf: Biblio-Verlag ISBN 978-3-7648-2375-7 
  • Stein, George H 1984 The Waffen SS: Hitler's Elite Guard at War, 1939–45 Ithaca, New York: Cornell UP ISBN 978-0-8014-9275-4 
  • Thomas, Franz; Wegmann, Günter 1994 Die Ritterkreuzträger der Deutschen Wehrmacht 1939–1945 Teil VI: Die Gebirgstruppe Band 2: L–Z The Knight's Cross Bearers of the German Wehrmacht 1939–1945 Part VI: The Mountain Troops Volume 2: L–Z in German Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag ISBN 978-3-7648-2430-3 
  • Thomas, Franz 1998 Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2: L–Z The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2: L–Z in German Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag ISBN 978-3-7648-2300-9 
  • Tomasevich, Jozo 1975 War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: The Chetniks 1 San Francisco: Stanford University Press ISBN 978-0-8047-0857-9 
  • Tomasevich, Jozo 2001 War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration 2 San Francisco: Stanford University Press ISBN 978-0-8047-3615-2 
  • Williamson, Gordon 2004 The SS: Hitler's Instrument of Terror St Paul, Minnesota: Zenith Press ISBN 978-0-7603-1933-8 
  • Windrow, Martin 1992 The Waffen-SS Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey Publishing ISBN 978-0-7603-1933-8 
  • Wolff, Stefan 2000 German Minorities in Europe: Ethnic Identity and Cultural Belonging New York: Berghahn Books ISBN 978-1-57181-738-9 

Journalsedit

  • Eyre, Wayne LtCol Canadian Army 2006 "Operation RÖSSELSPRUNG and The Elimination of Tito, May 25, 1944: A Failure in Planning and Intelligence Support" The Journal of Slavic Military Studies Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group 19 2: 343–376 doi:101080/13518040600697969 

Websitesedit

  • "Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Volume 20" Yale Law School 2015 Archived from the original on November 21, 2015 Retrieved 21 November 2015 

External linksedit

  • Artur Phleps in the German National Library catalogue
Military offices
Preceded by
New formation
Commander of 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen
30 January 1942 – 15 May 1943
Succeeded by
SS-Brigadeführer Karl Reichsritter von Oberkamp
Preceded by
New formation
Commander of V SS Mountain Corps
8 July 1943 – 21 September 1944
Succeeded by
SS-Brigadeführer Karl Reichsritter von Oberkamp

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    29.10.2014


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