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Arsenicum album

arsenicum album, arsenicum album homeopathic remedy
In homeopathy, arsenicum album Arsen alb is a solution prepared by diluting aqueous arsenic trioxide generally until there is little or no arsenic remaining in the solution It is used by homeopaths to treat a range of symptoms that include digestive disorders and, as an application of the homeopathic Law of Similars has been suggested by homeopaths as a treatment for arsenic poisoning Since the arsenic oxide in a homeopathic preparation is normally non-existent, it is considered generally safe, although cases of arsenic poisoning from poorly prepared homeopathic treatments sold in India have been reported When properly prepared, however, the extreme dilutions, typically to at least 1 in 1024, or 12C in homeopathic notation, mean that statistically it is extremely unlikely that any pill contains even a molecule of the original arsenic used While some small, unblinded studies have claimed an effect on reducing arsenic toxicity, they do not recommend its large-scale use, and studies of homeopathic remedies have been shown to generally have problems that prevent them from being considered unambiguous evidence There is no known mechanism for how arsenicum album could remove arsenic from a body, and there is insufficient evidence for it to be considered effective medicine for any condition by the scientific community

Use in homeopathy

According to a popular homeopathy guide, arsenicum album is one of the fifteen most important remedies in homeopathy In classical homeopathy, people are grouped by "constitutional type" named after the homeopathic remedy applied, on the argument that people with similar "body shapes and personalities" suffer from the same type of diseases "Arsen alb" types are "tense, restless ambitious individuals" with a tendency toward hypochondriasis, pessimism, need for reassurance, and a meticulous attention to neatness and detail

For homeopathic use, arsenicum album is prepared by separating arsenic from iron as in arsenopyrite, cobalt, or nickel by baking at high temperatures The powder is then ground and diluted with lactose In the final dilution, statistically most pills will contain zero molecules of the original arsenic used; some might contain a single molecule The final product is sold as tinctures liquid, tablets, pellets, or powder

Key homeopathic uses include treating anxiety and "fear caused by insecurity", digestive disorders and mucosal inflammation, and ailments characterized symptomatically by burning pain It was also used once for treatment of syphilis

Research studies

See also: Evidence-based medicine and Homeopathy § Medical and scientific analysis

Several studies have been done into Arsenicum album; however, homeopathic studies are known to have problems, such as evidence of bias, lack of rigour, and failure to blind the experimenters or subjects to which group is being analyzed that prevent them from being considered definitive evidence for any effect In addition, the ideas behind homeopathy are scientifically implausible and directly opposed to fundamental principles of natural science and modern medicine, which means that poorly conducted, small, or unblinded studies are not considered scientific proof of efficacy

The authors of one unblinded study of mice poisoned with arsenic and then given Arsenicum album, led by Anisur Khuda-Bukhsh, claimed statistically significant reductions were reported in biochemical markers of liver damage However, other scientists remain doubtful: Andreas Gescher, a biochemical toxicologist interviewed by New Scientist, said "This kind of study uses a dilution so high there is hardly anything there Is it really possible" and went on to say that he was "extremely sceptical"

References

  1. ^ Arsenikum album
  2. ^ a b c Lockie, Andrew & Geddes, Nicola 1995 Homeopathy: The Principles and Practice of Treatment Dorling Kindersley Publishing pp 52–53 ISBN 0-7894-0148-7 
  3. ^ Chakraborti, D; Mukherjee, SC; Saha, KC; Chowdhury, UK; et al 2003 "Arsenic Toxicity from Homeopathic Treatment" Clinical Toxicology 41 7: 963–967 doi:101081/CLT-120026518 PMID 14705842 
  4. ^ a b c Ernst E 2005 "Is homeopathy a clinically valuable approach" Trends Pharmacol Sci 26 11: 547–8 doi:101016/jtips200509003 PMID 16165225 
  5. ^ Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman; Pathak, Surajit; Guha, Bibhas; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Das, Jayanta Kumar; Banerjee, Pathikrit; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Mukherjee, Partha; et al 2005 "Can Homeopathic Arsenic Remedy Combat Arsenic Poisoning in Humans Exposed to Groundwater Arsenic Contamination: A Preliminary Report on First Human Trial" Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2 4: 537–48 doi:101093/ecam/neh124 PMC 1297497  PMID 16322812 
  6. ^ a b Mallick, P; Chakrabarti Mallick, J; Guha, B; Khuda-Bukhsh, AR 2003 "Ameliorating effect of microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album, on arsenic-induced toxicity in mice" BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3: 7 doi:101186/1472-6882-3-7 PMC 521186  PMID 14570596 
  7. ^ a b "The evidence of bias weakens the findings of our original meta-analysis Since we completed our literature search in 1995, a considerable number of new homeopathy trials have been published The fact that a number of the new high-quality trials eg have negative results, and a recent update of our review for the most “original” subtype of homeopathy classical or individualized homeopathy, seem to confirm the finding that more rigorous trials have less-promising results It seems, therefore, likely that our meta-analysis at least overestimated the effects of homeopathic treatments" Linde et al, Impact of Study Quality on Outcome in Placebo-Controlled Trials of Homeopathy, J Clin Epidemiol Vol 52, No 7, pp 631–636, 1999, doi:101016/S0895-43569900048-7
  8. ^ a b Ernst E 2002 "A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy" Br J Clin Pharmacol 54 6: 577–82 doi:101046/j1365-2125200201699x PMC 1874503  PMID 12492603 
  9. ^ Report 12 of the Council on Scientific Affairs A–97, American Medical Association, retrieved 2007-07-25 
    Linde K, Jonas WB, Melchart D, Willich S 2001 "The methodological quality of randomized controlled trials of homeopathy, herbal medicines and acupuncture" International Journal of Epidemiology 30 3: 526–531 doi:101093/ije/303526 PMID 11416076 
    Altunç U, Pittler MH, Ernst E 2007 "Homeopathy for childhood and adolescence ailments: systematic review of randomized clinical trials" Mayo Clin Proc 82 1: 69–75 doi:104065/82169 PMID 17285788 
  10. ^ a b Johnson T, Boon H; Boon, Heather 1 January 2007 "Where Does Homeopathy Fit in Pharmacy Practice" American journal of pharmaceutical education 71 1: 7 doi:105688/aj710107 PMC 1847554  PMID 17429507 
  11. ^ a b Shang A, Huwiler-Müntener K, Nartey L, et al 2005 "Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy" Lancet 366 9487: 726–732 doi:101016/S0140-67360567177-2 PMID 16125589 
  12. ^ Lockie, Andrew & Geddes, Nicola 1995 "The development of Homeopathy, The influence of Hering and Kent" Homeopathy: The Principles and Practice of Treatment Dorling Kindersley Publishing p 17 ISBN 0-7894-0148-7 
  13. ^ Report 12 of the Council on Scientific Affairs A–97, American Medical Association, retrieved 2007-07-25 
    Linde K, Jonas WB, Melchart D, Willich S 2001 "The methodological quality of randomized controlled trials of homeopathy, herbal medicines and acupuncture" International Journal of Epidemiology 30 3: 526–531 doi:101093/ije/303526 PMID 11416076 
    Altunç U, Pittler MH, Ernst E 2007 "Homeopathy for childhood and adolescence ailments: systematic review of randomized clinical trials" Mayo Clin Proc 82 1: 69–75 doi:104065/82169 PMID 17285788 
  14. ^ Bhattacharya, Shaoni 22 October 2003, "Homeopathy reduces arsenic poisoning in mice", New Scientist News Service 

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Arsenicum album


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    29.10.2014


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