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Arkady Gaidar

arkady gaidar, arkady gaidar books
Arkady Petrovich Golikov Russian: Арка́дий Петро́вич Го́ликов; 22 January  1904 – 26 October 1941, better known as Arkady Gaidar Арка́дий Гайда́р, was a Russian Soviet writer, whose stories were very popular among Soviet children, and a Red Army commander

Contents

  • 1 Biography
  • 2 Literary work
    • 21 Novels
    • 22 English translations
  • 3 Recognition and remembrance
  • 4 Pseudonym
  • 5 Family
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Biography

Gaidar was born in the town of Lgov, Kursk Governorate, Russian Empire now in Kursk Oblast, Russia, to a family of teachers of Russian aristocratic descent Through his noble mother, he was a descendant of Mikhail Lermontov In 1912, the family moved to Arzamas where in 1914 Arkady enrolled in a local secondary school In 1917, as an ardent 13-year-old Bolshevik follower, Gaidar started to distribute leaflets and patrol the streets During one such mission, he received his first wound, a stab in the chest

In 1918, Golikov applied for Communist Party membership and started working for the local newspaper Molot as a correspondent In August 1918, he became a party member and in December volunteered for the Red Army, having lied about his age In January 1919, Golikov went to the front as a Special Unit commander's adjutant, to fight what Soviet biographies referred to as the 'kulak gangs'

Fresh from the 7th Moscow Red Commanders' courses, Gaidar went to the Ukrainian later Polish front as a company commander In December 1919, injured and shell-shocked, he was demobilised, but in March 1920 returned to the Red Army, to the Caucasian Front's 9th Army, 37th Kuban Division, as a company commander again In summer 1920, Gaidar took part in operations against the units of generals Geyman and Zhitikov

In 1921, Gaidar participated in the suppression of several anti-communist uprisings, among them Antonovshchina In 1922, he was moved to the Mongolian border where the Red Army was fighting White Army units led by colonels Oliferov and Solovyov, but later that year he was hospitalised with traumatic neuroses He retired from the army in 1924 due to a contusion

As the Great Patriotic War broke out, Gaidar was sent to the front as a special correspondent for the newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda In the fall of 1941, Gaidar and other soldiers were surrounded by German troops He joined the partisans and became a machine gunner On 26 October, Gaidar was killed in combat near the village of Lyuplyava He was buried in the town of Kaniv

Literary work

In 1925, Gaidar's debut novel In the Days of Defeats and Victories was published, followed by Life For Nothing and The Mystery of a Mountain, a sci-fi novel and, most notably, RVS 1925 which formed a blueprint for his career as a children's writer, telling stories of front-line camaraderie and the romanticism of the revolutionary struggle In 1927, Gaidar moved to Moscow A year later, he went to Archangelsk to work for a local newspaper, Pravda Severa Back in Moscow, in 1930, he published the novel School originally titled "The Plain Biography" In the early 1930s, several articles on Gaidar's works appeared in the Soviet press, Konstantin Fedin being his major supporter and mentor In 1939, Gaidar was awarded the Order of the Badge of Honour Short stories "The Military Secret" 1935, "The Blue Cup" 1936 and the novel Blue Stars 1939 were followed by his most famous work, Timur and His Squad 1940, its hero named after, and partially based on the character of, the author's son A captivating account of an altruistic pioneer youth gave birth to the mass Timur movement among Young Pioneers and other children's organisations all over the Soviet Union

A number of films were made based on his stories Gaidar’s books have been translated into many languages

Novels

  • In the Days of Defeats and Victories ru:В дни поражений и побед, short version: 1925, full: 1926
  • RVS РВС the Russian abbreviation refers to "Revolutionary Military Council", 1925
  • Life for Nothing ru:Жизнь ни во что, 1926
  • Forest Brothers Лесные братья, 1927
  • School Школа, 1930
  • Distant Countries Дальние страны, 1932
  • Military Secret Военная тайна, 1935
    • The novel incorporates as a story within a story the earlier published fantasy tale skazka A Tale about a Military Secret, about Malchish-Kibalchish and His Firm Word ru:Сказка о Военной тайне, о Мальчише-Кибальчише и его твёрдом слове, 1933, where Malchish-Kibalchish has become a signature literary child hero in the Soviet Union
  • "The Blue Cup" ru:Голубая чашка, 1936
    • Moscow: Raduga Publishers, 1988 ISBN 5-05-002177-4
  • Drummer's Fate Судьба барабанщика, 1939
  • Blue Stars 1939
  • "Smoke in the Forest" Дым в лесу, 1939
  • Chuk and Gek Чук и Гек, 1939
  • Timur and His Squad Тимур и его команда, 1940

English translations

  • Timur and his Gang, Charles Scribner's Sons, NY, 1943
  • School and Other Stories, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1967
  • The Blue Cup, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1981
  • Selected Stories, Raduga Publishers, Moscow, 1986
  • The Drummer Boy and Two Other Stories, Anchor Press Ltd, Great Britain
  • Chuk and Gek, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1973

Recognition and remembrance

Gaidar was awarded two orders and several medals

A monument honouring him was erected in Kaniv in 1953

Three biographical movies about Arkady Gaidar were released in the USSR: Serebryanye truby Russian: Silver Trumpets 1970, Konets imperatora taygi Russian: The Death of the Taiga Emperor 1978, and Ostayus s vami Russian: I'll Stay with You 1981 The latter was a story of Arkady Gaidar's last days

Pseudonym

Arkady's son, Timur Gaidar published two versions of the pseudonym's origin:

  1. This an abbreviation of French "Golikov Arkady d ' Arsamas", which means "Golikov, Arkady from Arzamas"
  2. Arkady took the name Gaidar from a Khakas language word meaning going first, the leader Another version is that the name comes from the Khakas word for "Where is" which is the question Gaidar would shout as he and his unit went from village to village in the Yenisei River region tracking down and eventually killing the Cossack hetman he was pursuing during the Civil War

Family

Arkady Gaidar's father, Pyotr Isidorovich Golikov, a teacher after the 1917 Revolution a Red Army commissar, came from a working class family His mother, Natalya Arkadyevna Golikova née Salkova, also a teacher after the Revolution a doctor, was a daughter of a Tsarist Army officer Arkady was the first of the couple's four children His three sisters were Natalya, Olga and Yekaterina

The Russian economist Yegor Gaidar was Arkady Gaidar's grandson Yegor Gaidar's father, Rear Admiral Timur Gaidar, was his son

Maria Gaidar born 1982, Russian activist, is a daughter of Yegor Gaidar

References

  1. ^ There are conflicting evidences as to the date of Gaidar's birth In a diary he cited it as 9 February 1904 old style, according to his sister Natalya's memoirs it was 9 January
  2. ^ a b c d e f Arkady Gaidar Biography Timeline Works by Arkady Gaidar in 4 volumes Detskaya Literatura Moscow, 1964 Vol 4 Pp 261–272
  3. ^ Kassil, Lev Biography Works by Arkady Gaidar in 4 volumes Detskaya Literatura Publishers Moscow, 1964 Vol 1 Pp 38
  4. ^ Gribanov, Vladimir "Аркадий Гайдар: романтика прицельного выстрела" "Arkady Gaidar: Romance of an Aimed Shot" Аргументы и факты Argumenty i Fakty 22 October 2002 Argumenty i Fakty Retrieved 26 February 2009 http://gazetaaifru/online/tv/119/tg15_01 in Russian
  5. ^ a b c d e "Arkady Gaidar" wwwgaydarnetua Archived from the original on 23 October 2013 Retrieved 2014-01-13 
  6. ^ Arkady Gaidar Biography Timeline Works by Arkady Gaidar in 4 volumes Detskaya Literatura Publishers Moscow, 1964 Vol 1 Pp 38
  7. ^ "МАЛЬЧИШ-КИБАЛЬЧИШ"
  8. ^ "Голиков Аркадий из Арзамаса", by Timur Gaidar
  9. ^ Petr Aven, Alfred Kokh 2015 Gaidar’s Revolution: The Inside Account of the Economic Transformation of Russia IBTauris ISBN 978-0-857-73958-2 

External links

  • Arkady Gaidar on IMDb
  • Gaidar, Arkady Petrovich at SovLitnet – Encyclopedia of Soviet Authors

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