Sun . 19 Jun 2019

Antimicrobial stewardship

antimicrobial stewardship, antimicrobial stewardship program
Antimicrobial stewardship AMS is the systematic effort to educate and persuade prescribers of antimicrobials to follow evidence-based prescribing, in order to stem antibiotic overuse, and thus antimicrobial resistance AMS has been an organized effort of specialists in infectious diseases, both in Internal Medicine and Pediatrics with their respective peer-organizations, hospital pharmacists, the public health community and their professional organizations since the late 1990s It has first been implemented in hospitals In the US, within the context of physicians' prescribing freedom choice of prescription drugs, AMS has largely been voluntary self-regulation in the form of policies and appeals to adhere to a prescribing self-discipline At hospitals, this may take the form of an antimicrobial stewardship program As of 2014, only the state of California has made this type of AMS mandatory by law Within the context of commercial and over-the-counter use of antimicrobials, legally mandated AMS has begun with FDA rules that triclosan be phased out of consumer-grade soaps due to lack of good evidence that such use improves public health

Contents

  • 1 Definition and goals
  • 2 History
  • 3 Locations
  • 4 Participants
  • 5 Program components
    • 51 Baseline assessment
    • 52 Goals of desirable antimicrobial use
    • 53 Interventions on antimicrobial prescribing
    • 54 Provide feedback, continuing education
  • 6 Interventions
  • 7 Outcomes to measure
  • 8 Controversies
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
  • 11 External links

Definition and goals

The 2007 definition by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America SHEA defines AMS as a "set of coordinated strategies to improve the use of antimicrobial medications with the goal to

  • enhance patient health outcomes,
  • reduce antibiotic resistance, and
  • decrease unnecessary costs"

Decreasing the overuse of antimicrobials is expected to serve the following goals:

  • improve patient outcomes, especially patient safety
  • decrease adverse drug reactions such as hypersensitivity reactions or kidney or heart damage eg, QT prolongation
  • decrease antibiotic-associated disease, such as Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea, other antibiotic-associated diarrheas, and invasive candidiasis
  • guard the patient's microbiome, including the gut flora, respiratory tract flora, urogenital tract flora, and skin flora this is closely related to the preceding goal of preventing antibiotic-associated disease
  • decrease wasted costs
  • slow the increase in antimicrobial resistance
  • prevent unforeseen environmental degradation, such as likely adverse effects of altering biotas and animal microbiotas by pervading the water cycle with antimicrobials in wastewater

History

Antimicrobial misuse was recognized as early as the 1940s, when Alexander Fleming remarked on penicillin's decreasing efficacy, because of its overuse

In 1966, the first systematic assessment of antibiotic use in the Winnipeg, Canada general hospital was published: Medical records were reviewed during two non-consecutive four-month periods medicine, psychiatry, urology, gynecology and surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, ear, nose and throat, and ophthalmology Information was coded on punched cards using 78 columns Others in 1968 estimated that 50% of antimicrobial use was either unnecessary or inappropriate This figure is likely the lower end of the estimate, and continues to be referenced as of 2015

In the 1970s the first clinical pharmacy services were established in North American hospitals The first formal evaluation of antibiotic use in children regarding antibiotic choice, dose and necessity of treatment was undertaken at The Children's Hospital of Winnipeg Researchers observed errors in therapy in 30% of medical orders and 63% of surgical orders The most frequent error was unnecessary treatment found in 13% of medical and 45% of surgical orders The authors stated "Many find it difficult to accept that there are standards against which therapy may be judged"

In the 1980s the antibiotic class of cephalosporins was introduced, further increasing bacterial resistance During this decade infection control programs began to be established in hospitals, which systematically recorded and investigated hospital-acquired infections Evidence-based treatment guidelines and regulation of antibiotic use surfaced Australian researchers published the first medical guideline outcomes research

The term AMS was coined in 1996 by two internists at Emory University School of Medicine, John McGowan and Dale Gerding, a specialist on C difficile They suggested "large-scale, well-controlled trials of antimicrobial use regulation employing sophisticated epidemiologic methods, molecular biological organism typing, and precise resistance mechanism analysis to determine the best methods to prevent and control this problem and ensure our optimal antimicrobial use stewardship" and that "the long-term effects of antimicrobial selection, dosage, and duration of treatment on resistance development should be a part of every antimicrobial treatment decision"

In 1997, SHEA and the Infectious Diseases Society of America published guidelines to prevent antimicrobial resistance arguing that "…appropriate antimicrobial stewardship, that includes optimal selection, dose, and duration of treatment, as well as control of antibiotic use, will prevent or slow the emergence of resistance among microorganisms"

Ten years later, in 2007, bacterial, antiviral and antifungal resistance had risen to such a degree that the CDC rang the alarm The same year, IDSA and SHEA published guidelines for developing an AMS program Also in 2007, the first pediatric publication used the term AMS

A survey of pediatric infectious disease consultants in 2008 by the Emerging Infectious Disease Network revealed that only 45 33% respondents had an AMS program, mostly from before 2000, and another 25 18% planned an ASP data unpublished

In 2012, the SHEA, IDSA and PIDS published a joint policy statement on AMS

The CDC's NHSN has been monitoring antimicrobial use and resistance in hospitals that volunteer to provide data

In 2014, the CDC recommended, that all US hospitals have an antibiotic stewardship program

The Joint Commission has approved regulations which go into effect January 1, 2017 detailing that hospitals should have an Antimicrobial Stewardship team consisting of Infection preventionists, Pharmacists, and a Practitioner to write protocols and develop projects focused on the appropriate use of antibiotics

Locations

AMS is needed wherever antimicrobials are prescribed in human medicine, namely in hospitals, outpatient clinics, and long term care institutions, including hospice

Guidelines for prudent or judicious use in veterinary medicine have been developed by the Canadian Veterinary Medicine Association in 2008 A particular problem is that veterinarians are both prescribers and dispensers Regulators and the veterinary community in the European Union have been discussing the separation of these activities

Participants

Antimicrobial stewardship focuses on prescribers, be it physician, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, on the prescription and the microorganism, if any At a hospital, AMS can be organized in the form of an AMS committee that meets monthly The day-to-day work is done by a core group, usually an infectious disease physician, who may or may not serve in hospital epidemiology and infection control, or/ and a pharmacist, ideally but rarely aided by an information technologist The entire committee may include physician representatives, who are top antimicrobial prescribers such as physicians in intensive care medicine, Hematology -Oncology, cystic fibrosis clinicians or hospitalists, a microbiologist, a quality improvement QI specialist, and a representative from hospital administration

For an AMS program to be established the institution has to recognize its value In the US it has become customary to present a business plan to the executive officers of the hospital administration

Program components

As of 2014, thirteen internet-based institutional ASP resources in US academic medical centers had been published An AMS program has the following tasks, in line with quality improvement theory:

Baseline assessment

Parts of the baseline assessment are to:

  • Measure baseline antimicrobial use, dosing, duration, costs and use patterns
  • Study type of microbial isolates, susceptibilities, and trends thereof
  • Identify clinician indications for prescriptions

In hospitals and clinics using electronic medical records, information technology resources are crucial to hone in on these questions As of 2015, commercial computer surveillance software programs for microbiology and antimicrobial administrations appear to outnumber "homegrown" institutional programs, and include, but are not limited to TREAT Steward, TheraDoc, Sentri7, and Vigilanz

Goals of desirable antimicrobial use

For the desired antimicrobial use, goals need to be formulated:

  • Define "appropriate", rational antimicrobial use for the institution, individual patient units, and define empiric treatment versus culture-directed antimicrobial treatment
  • Establish treatment guidelines for clinical syndromes These can be disseminated in the form of memos, in-services or grand rounds and may be most effective in the form of decision making tools at the point of ordering the prescription

Interventions on antimicrobial prescribing

The actual interventions on antimicrobial prescribing consist of numerous elements

Provide feedback, continuing education

  • Survey prescriber knowledge about antibiotics, antifungal or antiviral drugs
  • Provide targeted education about particular antibiotics, or one specific antimicrobial at a time, as well as empiric treatment for syndromes versus culture directed treatment
  • Assist in making duration more visible to prescribers Some institutions use automatic stop orders
  • Decreasing diagnostic uncertainty by appropriate testing, including rapid diagnostic methods The most effective strategy to decrease diagnostic uncertainty would be to align the focus with other safety projects, and QI measures eg blood management, adverse effects etc

Biomerieux has published case studies of countries that introduced AMS

Interventions

The day-to-day work of the core AMS members is to screen patients' medical records for some of the following questions, in order of importance:

  • Appropriate antimicrobial choice based on susceptibility, avoiding redundance 
  • Appropriate dose mg/kg dosing in children 
  • Appropriate dosing interval according to age, weight and renal function or drug-drug interaction
  • Appropriate deescalation of antimicrobials after culture results are final 
  • Appropriate administration route and feasibility of drug conversion from intravenous to by mouth PO

If the answer is no, the team needs to effectively communicate a recommendation, which may be in person or in the medical record

Further tasks are:

  • Automatic review of the medical record after 72h empiric use, culture results, other laboratory data
  • Advise on appropriate duration of antimicrobial therapy
  • Annual report to administration, calculation of cost savings if any

Outcomes to measure

Two pediatric infectious disease physicians have suggested to look at the following variables to judge the outcome of AMS interventions:

  • Annual pharmacy acquisition costs
  • Antibiotic days/1,000 patient days
  • Identifying "drug-bug mismatches"
  • IV to oral conversion
  • Optimal dosing
  • Stopping redundant therapy
  • Reducing adverse events
  • Overall compliance with ASP recommendations

When examining the relationship between an outcome and an intervention, the epidemiological method of time series analysis is preferred, because it accounts for the dependence between time points A recent global stewardship survey identified barriers to the initiation, development and implementation of stewardship programmes internationally

Controversies

  • At this time the optimal metrics to benchmark antimicrobial use are still controversial
  • To measure unit of antimicrobials consumed, one can use 'Days Of Therapy' DOT or Defined Daily Dose DDD The former is more commonly used in the US, the latter is more commonly used in Europe
  • Data source for the use: The electronic medication administration record eMAR is the most accurate correlate for doses given, but may be difficult to analyze, because of hold orders and patient refusal, as opposed to administrative or billing data, that may be easier to obtain
  • The question of "appropriateness of use" is probably the most controversial Appropriate use depends on the local antimicrobial resistance profile and therefore has different regional answers Merely the "amount" of antibiotics used is no straightforward metric for appropriateness
  • In regard to the most effective AMS intervention, the answer will depend on the size of the institution and the resources available: The system of "prior approval" of antimicrobials by infectious diseases has been used first historically It is very time- and labor-intensive, and prescribers do not like its restrictive character Increasingly "post-prescription review" is used
  • Although education consistently shows improvement in participants' knowledge and attitudes, the results do not always translate to better practice

It can be difficult to decide if a clinical syndrome or a particular drug should be targeted for interventions and education How to best modify prescriber behavior has been the subject of controversy and research At issue is how feedback is presented to prescribers, individually, in aggregate, with or without peer comparisons, and whether to reward or punish As long as the best quality metrics for an AMS program are unknown, a combination of antimicrobial consumption, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial and drug resistant organism related mortality are used

See also

  • antibiotic resistance

References

  1. ^ Dellit TH; et al 1 January 2007 "Guidelines for Developing an Institutional Program to Enhance Antimicrobial Stewardship" SHEA Archived from the original on 25 May 2014 Retrieved 9 November 2013 
  2. ^ "Fleming, Alexander: The Penicillin Finder Assays its Future" The New York Times 25 June 1945 p 21 
  3. ^ Ruedy, J 1966 "A method of determining patterns of use of antibacterial drugs" Can Med Assoc J 95 16: :807–12 PMC 1935763  PMID 5928520 
  4. ^ Reimann; D’Ambola 1968 "Cost of antimicrobial drugs in a hospital" JAMA 205: 537 doi:101001/jama2057537 PMID 5695313 
  5. ^ Schollenberg, E; Albritton WL 1980 "Antibiotic misuse in a pediatric teaching hospital" Can Med Assoc J 122 1: 49–52 PMC 1801611  PMID 7363195 
  6. ^ McGowan, JE Jr,; Gerding August 1996 "Does antibiotic restriction prevent resistance" Check |url= value help New Horizon 4 3: 370–6 PMID 8856755 
  7. ^ Shlaes, D; et al April 1997 "Guidelines for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals" Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 18: 275–91 PMID 9131374 
  8. ^ Dellit, TH; Owens, RC; McGowan, JE Jr; Gerding, DN; Weinstein, RA; Burke, JP; Huskins, WC; Paterson, DL; Fishman, NO; Carpenter, CF; Brennan, PJ; Billeter, M; Hooton, TM 2007 "Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines for developing an institutional program to enhance antimicrobial stewardship" Clin Infect Dis 44: 159–177 doi:101086/510393 PMID 17173212 
  9. ^ Patel, SJ; Larson EL; Kubin CJ; Saiman L June 2007 "A review of antimicrobial control strategies in hospitalized and ambulatory pediatric populations" Pediatr Infect Dis J 26 6: 531–7 doi:101097/inf0b013e3180593170 PMID 17529873 
  10. ^ Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America; Infectious Diseases Society of America; Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society April 2012 "Policy statement on antimicrobial stewardship by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America IDSA, and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society PIDS" Infect Ctrl Hosp Epidemiol 33: 322–7 doi:101086/665010 PMID 22418625 
  11. ^ HICPAC March 2013 "Updates on NHSN Monitoring of Antimicrobial Use and Resistance" PDF Retrieved 1 June 2014 
  12. ^ Loria A Pollack, Arjun Srinivasan 2014 "Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention" Clin Infect Dis 59 suppl 3: S97–S100 doi:101093/cid/ciu542 Retrieved 9 March 2015 
  13. ^ https://wwwjointcommissionorg/assets/1/6/New_Antimicrobial_Stewardship_Standardpdf
  14. ^ CVMA 2008 "CVMA Prudent Use Guidelines 2008 for beef cattle, dairy cattle, poultry, and swine" 
  15. ^ "Federation of Veterinarians of Europe FVE concerned about separating antimicrobial prescribing and supply" Vet Rec 15 17124: 609 December 2012 doi:101136/vre8348 
  16. ^ Timothy P Gauthier; Evan Lantz; Alexander Heyliger; Sarah M Francis; Laura Smith 2014 "Internet-Based Institutional Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Resources in Leading US Academic Medical Centers" Clinical Infectious Diseases 58 3: 445–446 doi:101093/cid/cit705 PMID 24170198 
  17. ^ Jason G Newland; Jeffrey S Gerber; Scott J Weissman; Samir S Shah; Chelsea Turgeon; Erin B Hedican; Cary Thurm; Matt Hall; Joshua Courter; Thomas V Brogan; Holly Maples; Brian R Lee; Adam L Hersh March 2014 "Prevalence and Characteristics of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs at Freestanding Children's Hospitals in the United States" Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 35 3: 265–271 doi:101086/675277 PMID 24521592 
  18. ^ Be SMART with Resistance, Biomerieux, Intern Newsletter October 2013, 8 pp
  19. ^ Newland, Jason; Adam Hersh 2010 "Purpose and design of antimicrobial stewardship programs in pediatrics" Pediatr Infect Dis J 29: 862–863 doi:101097/INF0b013e3181ef2507 PMID 20720473 
  20. ^ Howard P et al, ESCMID Study Group for Antimicrobial Policies ESGAP & ISC Group on Antimicrobial Stewardship ECCMID 2013, Berlin Presentation Nr 24
  21. ^ Yeung, Eugene Y H; Alexander, Megan "Use of junior doctor-led peer education to improve antibiotic stewardship" British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology: n/a–n/a doi:101111/bcp13375 ISSN 1365-2125 
  22. ^ MacDougall, Conan; Schwartz, Brian S; Kim, Lisa; Nanamori, Mari; Shekarchian, Sharmin; Chin-Hong, Peter V 2017-01-01 "An Interprofessional Curriculum on Antimicrobial Stewardship Improves Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Appropriate Antimicrobial Use and Collaboration" Open Forum Infectious Diseases 4 1 doi:101093/ofid/ofw225 
  23. ^ Morris, Brener S, S 2012 "Use of a structured panel process to define quality metrics for antimicrobial stewardship programs" Infect Ctrl Hosp Epidemiol 33: 500–6 doi:101086/665324 PMID 22476277 

External links

  • Antimicrobial Stewardship: Implementation Tools & Resources Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America SHEA
  • Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs CDC
  • Antimicrobial Stewardship Project, at the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy CIDRAP, University of Minnesota
  • Promoting Antimicrobial Stewardship in Human Medicine Infectious Diseases Society of America IDSA
  • Surveillance of antimicrobial use WHO
    • Commitments to Responsible Use of Antimicrobials in Humans WHO 13–14 November 2014
  • Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics APUA, Tufts University Boston, MA
  • Protect Antibiotics Toolkit Health Care Without Harm
  • Global Resource Action Center for the Environment GRACE
  • Center for Science in the Public Interest
  • Antibiotics in Groundwater Change Bacterial Ecology US Geological Survey, Toxic Substances Hydrology Program]
  • Treat Systems Example of a software tool supporting Antimicrobial Stewardship

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