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Antiganglioside antibodies

anti ganglioside antibodies, anti ganglioside antibodies symptoms
Mycoplasma pneumoniae Minor

Coeliac DiseaseRare

Isoform specific autoantibody characteristics Autoantigen
Isoform Ganglioside D3 GD3 Affected Organs Muscle Affected Cellss motor nerve terminal nodes of Ranvier Associated
Diseases Guillain–Barré syndrome Autoantibody class IgA Autoantigen
Isoform Ganglioside M1 GM1 Associated
Diseases prodromal diarrhea Autoantibody class IgG IgG Subclass IgG1, IgG3, IgG4 Autoantigen
Isoform Ganglioside Q1b GQ1b Affected Cellss Schwann cells Associated
Diseases Miller-Fisher Syndrome

Antiganglioside antibodies that react to self-gangliosides are found in autoimmune neuropathies These antibodies were first found to react with cerebellar cells These antibodies show highest association with certain forms of Guillain–Barré syndrome


  • 1 Antibodies to ganglioside subtypes
    • 11 Anti-GD3
    • 12 Anti-GM1
    • 13 Anti-GQ1b
  • 2 Triggering agents
    • 21 Campylobacter jejuni
    • 22 Coeliac disease
  • 3 Immunoglobin isotypes
  • 4 References

Antibodies to ganglioside subtypes

Autoantigenic gangliosides that are currently known are GD3, GM1, GQ3 and GT1


Anti-GD3 antibodies have been found in association with specific forms of Guillain–Barré syndrome In vivo studies of isolated anti-GM1 and GD3 antibodies indicate the antibodies can interfere with motor neuron function Anti-GD1a antibodies were highly associated acute motor axonal neuropathy while high titers of anti-GM1 were more frequent indicating that GD1a possibly targets the axolemma and nodes of Ranvier most of the Ab+ patients had C jejuni infections Patients with Anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibodies were less common but had more severe disease rapidly progressive, predominantly distal weakness


Levels of anti-GM1 are elevated in patients with various forms of dementia Antibodies levels correlate with more severe Guillain–Barré syndrome In Japan, levels to GM1 were elevated in patients with prodromal diarrhea Titers to GM1 in other diseases rheumatoid arthritis, primary Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus was also elevated additionally highly significant association was found with rheumatoid arthritis and peripheral neuropathies Conflicting evidence suggests no significant elevation in motor neuron neuropathy but marginally elevated IgA in sensory neuron neuropathies The autoimmune role of anti-GM1 is still unclear Multifocal Motor Neuropathy MMN with conduction block is closely related to CIDP chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy Anti- GM1 antibodies are positive in around 80% of cases MMN will present with asymmetrical motor neuropathy where reflexes are usually preserved or slightly elevated, affecting Upper limb more than Lower limb MMN is potentially treatable with immunomodulation


Anti-GQ1b are found in Miller-Fisher syndrome This presents with the classical triad of ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia Studies of these antibodies reveal large disruption of the Schwann cells Anti-GQ1b IgG levels were elevated in patients with ophthalmoplegia in Guillain–Barré syndrome

Triggering agents

Microbial agents include: Campylobacter jejuni and Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Campylobacter jejuni

Antibodies to a GM1 epitope as well as to one with the GT1a or GD3 epitope were found in different strains of Campylobacter jejuni and patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome have a high occurrence of C jejuni infection Many studies indicate that C jejuni may be causative for a subset of some forms of neuropathies

Coeliac disease

Antibodies to ganglioside are found to be elevated in coeliac disease Recent studies show that gliadin can cross-link to gangliosides in a transglutaminase independent manner, indicating that gliadin specific T-cell could present these antigens to the immune system

Immunoglobin isotypes

IgG In multiple sclerosis, antibodies to GM1 are dominated by the IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 Also anti-GM1 IgG has been identified in Guillain–Barré syndrome or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy while controlled studies failed to find any significant association with Motor neuron disease
IgA IgA to gangliosides have been observed in Guillain–Barré syndrome
IgM IgM antibodies have been detected in early work, but their significance in disease is controversial


  1. ^ Gregson NA, Pytharas M, Leibowitz S 1977 "The reactivity of anti-ganglioside antiserum with isolated cerebellar cells" Biochem Soc Trans 5 1: 174–5 PMID 70385 
  2. ^ Willison HJ, O'Hanlon G, Paterson G, et al 1997 "Mechanisms of action of anti-GM1 and anti-GQ1b ganglioside antibodies in Guillain–Barré syndrome" J Infect Dis 176 Suppl 2: S144–9 doi:101086/513799 PMID 9396699 
  3. ^ Ho TW, Willison HJ, Nachamkin I, et al 1999 "Anti-GD1a antibody is associated with axonal but not demyelinating forms of Guillain–Barré syndrome" Ann Neurol 45 2: 168–73 doi:101002/1531-824919990245:2<168::AID-ANA6>30CO;2-6 PMID 9989618 
  4. ^ Ang CW, Yuki N, Jacobs BC, et al 1999 "Rapidly progressive, predominantly motor Guillain–Barré syndrome with anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibodies" Neurology 53 9: 2122–7 doi:101212/wnl5392122 PMID 10599792 
  5. ^ Chapman J, Sela BA, Wertman E, Michaelson DM 1988 "Antibodies to ganglioside GM1 in patients with Alzheimer's disease" Neurosci Lett 86 2: 235–40 doi:101016/0304-39408890577-0 PMID 3368123 
  6. ^ Gregson NA, Koblar S, Hughes RA 1993 "Antibodies to gangliosides in Guillain–Barré syndrome: specificity and relationship to clinical features" Q J Med 86 2: 111–7 PMID 8464986 
  7. ^ a b Irie S, Saito T, Kanazawa N, et al 1997 "Relationships between anti-ganglioside antibodies and clinical characteristics of Guillain–Barré syndrome" Intern Med 36 9: 607–12 doi:102169/internalmedicine36607 PMID 9313102 
  8. ^ Bansal AS, Abdul-Karim B, Malik RA, et al 1994 "IgM ganglioside GM1 antibodies in patients with autoimmune disease or neuropathy, and controls" J Clin Pathol 47 4: 300–2 doi:101136/jcp474300 PMC 501930  PMID 8027366 
  9. ^ Salih AM, Nixon NB, Gagan RM, et al 1996 "Anti-ganglioside antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis complicated by peripheral neuropathy" Br J Rheumatol 35 8: 725–31 doi:101093/rheumatology/358725 PMID 8761183 
  10. ^ García Guijo C, García-Merino A, Rubio G 1995 "Presence and isotype of anti-ganglioside antibodies in healthy persons, motor neuron disease, peripheral neuropathy, and other diseases of the nervous system" J Neuroimmunol 56 1: 27–33 doi:101016/0165-57289400129-C PMID 7822479 
  11. ^ O'Hanlon GM, Plomp JJ, Chakrabarti M, et al 2001 "Anti-GQ1b ganglioside antibodies mediate complement-dependent destruction of the motor nerve terminal" Brain 124 Pt 5: 893–906 doi:101093/brain/1245893 PMID 11335692 
  12. ^ Sinha S, Prasad KN, Jain D, Pandey CM, Jha S, Pradhan S 2007 "Preceding infections and anti-ganglioside antibodies in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome: a single centre prospective case-control study" Clin Microbiol Infect 13 3: 334–7 doi:101111/j1469-0691200601636x PMID 17391394 
  13. ^ Yuki N, Handa S, Tai T, et al 1995 "Ganglioside-like epitopes of lipopolysaccharides from Campylobacter jejuni PEN 19 in three isolates from patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome" J Neurol Sci 130 1: 112–6 doi:101016/0022-510X9500045-4 PMID 7544402 
  14. ^ Rees JH, Gregson NA, Hughes RA 1995 "Anti-ganglioside GM1 antibodies in Guillain–Barré syndrome and their relationship to Campylobacter jejuni infection" Ann Neurol 38 5: 809–16 doi:101002/ana410380516 PMID 7486873 
  15. ^ Volta U, De Giorgio R, Granito A, et al 2006 "Anti-ganglioside antibodies in coeliac disease with neurological disorders" Digestive and Liver Disease 38 3: 183–7 doi:101016/jdld200511013 PMID 16458087 
  16. ^ Alaedini A, Latov N 2006 "Transglutaminase-independent binding of gliadin to intestinal brush border membrane and GM1 ganglioside" J Neuroimmunol 177 1–2: 167–72 doi:101016/jjneuroim200604022 PMID 16766047 
  17. ^ Mathiesen T, von Holst H, Fredrikson S, et al 1989 "Total, anti-viral, and anti-myelin IgG subclass reactivity in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system" J Neurol 236 4: 238–42 doi:101007/BF00314506 PMID 2760636 
  18. ^ McCombe PA, Wilson R, Prentice RL 1992 "Anti-ganglioside antibodies in peripheral neuropathy" Clinical and experimental neurology 29: 182–8 PMID 1343861 
  19. ^ Willison HJ, Chancellor AM, Paterson G, et al 1993 "Antiglycolipid antibodies, immunoglobulins and paraproteins in motor neuron disease: a population based case-control study" J Neurol Sci 114 2: 209–15 doi:101016/0022-510X9390300-N PMID 8445403 

anti ganglioside antibodies, anti ganglioside antibodies symptoms

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Antiganglioside antibodies

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