Anti-Hungarian sentimentanti sentiment definition, anti sentimental comedy
Anti-Hungarian sentiment also known as Hungarophobia,12 Anti-Hungarianism, Magyarophobia3 or Antimagyarism4 is dislike, distrust, racism, or xenophobia directed against the Hungarians It can involve hatred, grievance, distrust, intimidation, fear, and hostility towards the Hungarian people, language and culture Due to Hungarian background, especially about Atilla the Hun, it is confused with Anti-Turkism and Anti-Mongolianismcitation needed
- 1 Habsburgs
- 2 Modern
- 21 Czechoslovakia
- 22 Slovakia
- 23 Romania
- 24 Serbia
- 3 Derogatory terms
- 31 In English
- 32 In Romanian
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
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During the era of the Austro-Hungarian monarchs, the court in Vienna was influenced by Hungarophobia, but the Hungarian landowner nobles also showed signs of Germanophobia5 In the 18th century, after the end of Rákóczi's War of Independence, many immigrants came to the underpopulated southern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary: for instance, 800 new German villages were established6 The authorities preferred non-Hungarian settlers The Habsburgs regarded Hungarians as "politically unreliable" and so were not allowed to settle in the southern territories until the 1740s7 The organised resettlement was planned by the Habsburgs The resettlement policy was characterised as anti-Hungarian,89 as the Habsburgs feared an uprising of Protestant Hungarians10
The Habsburgs and their advisers skilfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and they induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government The Austrians had encoraged the Galician uprising to decimate Polish insurgent noblescitation needed
Thousands of Hungarians were massacred in Transylvania in 1848-49 now part of Romania in nine separate incidents during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Minorities in Czechoslovakia in 1918 to 1939 enjoyed personal freedoms and were properly recognised by the state There were three Hungarian and/or Hungarian-centric political parties:
- Hungarian-German Social Democratic Party
- Hungarian National Party
- Provincial Christian-Socialist Party
After World War II, Czechoslovakia became a communist state; during the transition to a communist one-party state, decrees permitting the forced11 expulsion of German and Hungarian minorities from ethnic enclaves in Czechoslovakia came into effect, and Hungarians were forcibly relocated to Sudetenland, on the borders of Czechoslovakia The Czechoslovak government deported more than 44,129 Hungarians from Slovakia to the Sudetenland for forced labour1213 between 1945 and 1948,13 and the Beneš decrees remain legally in effect in the Czech Republic14
SlovakiaeditJán Slota, the ex-chairman of Slovak National Party SNS, claimed that the Hungarian minority of Slovakia "is a tumour in the body of the Slovak nation"151617
In Slovakia, Hungarian and pro-Hungarian political parties are a stable part of the political system Anti-Hungarian sentiment had been cricicized particularly during the third government of Vladimír Mečiar In the past, so-called "Hungarian card" had been used mainly by the Slovak National Party SNS18 against the granting of a special status to the Hungarian minority; it argued for the complete assimilation of the Hungarian minority into Slovak societyverification needed It considers that Hungarians in Slovakia are actually overprivileged1819 After personal changes in the presidium, SNS abandoned similar rhetoric and formed a common government with pro-Hungarian Most-Híd in 2016
Anti-Hungarian rhetoric of some far-right organizations in Slovakia is based on historical stereotypes and conflicts in the common history as interpreted from nationalistic positions and recent events In such interpretations, the arrival of old Hungarian tribes is described as the occupation by barbarian tribes and contributed to the destruction of Great Moravia Other negative sentiments are related to the period of Magyarization, the policy of interwar Hungary, the collaboration of Hungarian-minority parties with the Hungarian government against Czechoslovakia, the First Vienna Award and the Slovak–Hungarian War20 Hungary is accused of being still trying to undermine the territorial integrity of Slovakia, and local minority politicians are accused of irredentism20 However, anti-Hungarian sentiment is not typical even for all far-right organisations, and the leader of the Slovak Brotherhood emphasised the need for collaboration with Hungarian far-right organisations against materialism and multiculturalism20
Women, Slovak or not, used to be required to affix the Slovak feminine marker -ová used for declension of feminine names at the end of their surname21
One incident of ethnically-motivated violence against Hungarians in Slovakia is the Hedvig Malina case The 23-year-old Hungarian student from Horné Mýto was allegedly beaten and robbed in Nitra after speaking Hungarian in public222324 A football match in Dunajská Streda also caused tensions between Slovakia and Hungary when Hungarian fans were badly beaten by the Slovak police25
The majority and the Hungarian minority describe their coexistence mostly as good For example, in a public survey in 2015, 852% of respondents characterized their coexistence as good 636% rather good, 216% very good and only 76% as bad 63% rather bad, 13% very bad26
In Romania, the Ceaușescu régime was obsessed with the ancient history of Transylvania and suffered from Magyarophobiaclarification needed27 The National Communism in Romania made28 the historical personalities of Hungary such as John Hunyadi or György Dózsa2829 go through Romanianization and become more central figures in Romanian history27
There is a bit of anti-Hungarian sentiment because of Serbia's past conflicts with Hungary, notably over Vojvodinacitation needed
- Bohunk – combination of "Bohemian" and "Hungarian" An immigrant of East-Central European origin A Laborer3031
- Hunky – derived from "Bohunk"
- Bozgor m, Bozgoroaică f, Bozgori pl – pseudo-Magyar term of possible Romanian/Slav origin An ethnic slur describing Hungarians32 A view is that it means "homeless","stateless""33 N Sándor Szilágyi hu speculated that the word is a combination of the Hungarian slur baszd meg "fuck you" and the Romanian word for Hungarian, namely ungur34
- ^ Viktor Karády, The Jews of Europe in the Modern Era: A Socio-Historical Outline, Central European University Press, 2004, p 223
- ^ András Bán, Hungarian-British Diplomacy, 1938-1941: The Attempt to Maintain Relations, Routledge, 2004, p 128
- ^ Boyer, John W 2009 Culture and Political Crisis in Vienna: Christian Socialism in Power, 1897-1918 University of Chicago Press, 1995 p 116 ISBN 9780226069609
- ^ Verdery, Katherine National Ideology Under Socialism: Identity and Cultural Politics in Ceauşescu's Romania University of California Press, 1995 p 317 ISBN 9780932088352
- ^ Michael Hochedlinger, Austria's Wars of Emergence: War, State and Society in the Habsburg Monarchy, 1683-1797, Pearson Education, 2003, p 25
- ^ Thomas Spira, German-Hungarian relations and the Swabian problem: from Károlyi to Gömbös, 1919-1936, East European quarterly, 1977, p 2
- ^ Károly Kocsis, Eszter Kocsisné Hodosi, Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minority on the Carpathian Basin, Simon Publications LLC, 1998, pp 140 -141
- ^ Hídfő könyvtár, Volume 8, Issue 1, p 48
- ^ Istvàn Sisa, Magyarságtükör: nemzet határok nélkül, Püski, 2001, p 99 Cited: "Magyarellenes betelepítési politika A felszabadulást követően a Habsburgok olyan betelepítési politikát alkalmaztak, mely még tovább gyengítette a magyarok helyzetét" Translation: "Section name Anti-Hungarian resettlement policy After the liberation, the policy employed by the Habsburgs weakened the situation of Hungarians more"
- ^ Tibor Iván Berend, Éva Ring, Helyünk Európában: nézetek és koncepciók a 20 századi Magyarországon, Volume 1, Magvető, 1986, p 144 Cited: "A Habsburg-család azonban a kálvinista magyarok lázadásától való félelmében az évszázados török háborúk által elpusztított területen magyarellenes telepítési politikát kezdeményezett" Translation: "The Habsburg family initiated an anti-Hungarian resettlement policy in the destroyed territories caused by hundreds of years of Turkish wars because of their fear of an uprising of Calvinist Hungarians"
- ^ Thum, Gregor 2006–2007 "Ethnic Cleansing in Eastern Europe after 1945" Contemporary European History 19 1: 75–81 doi:101017/S0960777309990257
- ^ Eleonore C M Breuning, Dr Jill Lewis, Gareth Pritchard, Power and the people: a social history of Central European politics, 1945-56, Manchester University Press, 2005, p 140
- ^ a b Anna Fenyvesi, Hungarian language contact outside Hungary: studies on Hungarian as a minority language, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2005, p 50
- ^ "Radio Prague - The "Benes decrees" - a historian's point of view" Retrieved 25 September 2015
- ^ "Separatist Movements Seek Inspiration in Kosovo" Der Spiegel 2008-02-22 Retrieved 2008-08-06
- ^ Jan Cienski "Slovakia and Hungary just won't get along" GlobalPost Retrieved 25 September 2015
- ^ SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg, Germany 25 August 2009 "The World from Berlin: Slovakia and Hungary 'Dangerously Close to Playing with Fire'" SPIEGEL ONLINE Retrieved 25 September 2015 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
- ^ a b Cohen, Shari J 2009 Politics Without a Past: The Absence of History in Postcommunist Nationalism Duke University Press, Nov 22, 1999 p 140 ISBN 0822323990
- ^ Hungarian Human Rights Foundation Archived 2011-01-05 at the Wayback Machine New Slovak Government Embraces Ultra-Nationalists, Excludes Hungarian Coalition Party
- ^ a b c Danilov, Sergej; Nociar, Tomáš, eds 2012 Milovaní a nenávidení: Podobnosti a rozdiely medzi slovenskou a maďarskou krajnou pravicou Loved and hated: Similarities and differences between Slovak and Hungarian far-right Bratislava: Inštitút pre medzikultúrny dialóg pp 12–13 ISBN 978-80-970915-0-7
- ^ Bernd, Rechel 2009 Minority rights in Central and Eastern Europe Taylor & Francis ISBN 0415590310
- ^ "Malina case bungled: Prosecutor" The Budapest Times Retrieved 2008-03-11
- ^ "Maligned Hungarian seeks higher justice" The Budapest Times 2007-12-10 Retrieved 2008-03-03
- ^ "Une étudiante met le feu aux poudres "A student sets fire to the powder"" in French lepetitjournalcom 2006-09-18 Retrieved 2008-04-01
- ^ "Football riot stokes tension" spectatorsmesk Retrieved 2014-04-04
- ^ "Prieskum: Vzťahy Slovenska a Maďarska sa za posledných 10 rokov zlepšili" Survey: Relationships between Slovakia and Hungary has improved over the last 10 years in Slovak Pravdask 2015-09-20 Retrieved 2016-08-23
- ^ a b Lucian Boia, History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness, Central European University Press, 2001, p 222 Citation:"Thanks to the trios of Gelu, Glad and Menumorut, and Horea, Cloşca and Crişan, the Transylvanian heroes are actually more numerous than those of Wallachia or Moldavia, illustrating the obsession with Transylvania and the Hungarophobia that became accentuated towards the end of the Ceauşescu era"
- ^ a b "Rethinking National Identity after National-Communism The case of Romania by Cristina Petrescu, University of Bucharest" wwweurhistxxde Retrieved 2014-04-03
- ^ The Hungarian national component of the movement led by Dózsa was de-emphasized, while its strong antifeudal character was highlighted: in Romanian Emanuel Copilaş, "Confiscarea lui Dumnezeu şi mecanismul inevitabilităţii istorice", Sfera Politicii 139, September 2009
- ^ "Bohunk - Definition of bohunk by Merriam-Webster" Retrieved 25 September 2015
- ^ "bohunk" in the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 2004
- ^ "The Racial Slur Database" Retrieved 25 September 2015
- ^ Vilmos Tánczos, Language Use, Attitudes, Strategies Linguistic Identity and Ethnicity in the Moldavian Csángó Villages, Editura ISPMN, 2012, p 130
- ^ http://adatbanktransindexro/html/alcim_pdf457pdf
Gerő, András; Patterson, James 1995 Modern Hungarian society in the making: the unfinished experience Central European University Press
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