Anti-cardiolipin antibodiesanti-cardiolipin antibodies, anti-cardiolipin antibodies symptoms
Anti-cardiolipin antibodies ACA are antibodies often directed against cardiolipin and found in several diseases, including syphilis, antiphospholipid syndrome, livedoid vasculitis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Behçet's syndrome, idiopathic spontaneous abortion, and systemic lupus erythematosus SLE They are a form of anti-mitochondrial antibody In SLE, anti-DNA antibodies and anti-cardiolipin antibodies may be present individually or together; the two types of antibodies act independently This is in contrast to rheumatoid arthritis with systemic sclerosis scleroderma because anti-cardiolipin antibodies are present in both conditions, and therefore may tie the two conditions together
Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can be classified in two ways:
- As IgM, IgG or IgA
- As β2-glycoprotein dependent or independent
- In autoimmune disease ACA are beta-2 glycoprotein dependent
- syphilis ACA are beta-2 glycoprotein independent and can be assayed using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test
Apolipoprotein H involvement
β2-glycoprotein I has been identified as Apolipoprotein H and is required for the recognition of ACA in autoimmune disease Only a subset of autoimmune anti-cardiolipin antibodies bind Apo-H, these anti-apolipoprotein antibodies are associated with increased thrombosis
- ^ a b Tringali GR, Julian AJ, Halbert WM 1969 "Effect of 2-mercaptoethanol treatment on anticardiolipin reactivity in sera from syphilitics and false positive reactors" The British journal of venereal diseases 45 3: 202–4 doi:101136/sti453202 PMC 1048465 PMID 5346419
- ^ Hull RG, Harris EN, Gharavi AE, et al 1984 "Anticardiolipin antibodies: occurrence in Behçet's syndrome" Ann Rheum Dis 43 5: 746–748 doi:101136/ard435746 PMC 1001520 PMID 6497467
- ^ Petri M, Golbus M, Anderson R, Whiting-O'Keefe Q, Corash L, Hellmann D 1987 "Antinuclear antibody, lupus anticoagulant, and anticardiolipin antibody in women with idiopathic habitual abortion A controlled, prospective study of forty-four women" Arthritis Rheum 30 6: 601–606 doi:101002/art1780300601 PMID 3111489
- ^ Harris EN, Gharavi AE, Boey ML, et al 1983 "Anticardiolipin antibodies: detection by radioimmunoassay and association with thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus" Lancet 2 8361: 1211–1214 doi:101016/S0140-67368391267-9 PMID 6139567
- ^ Harris EN, Gharavi AE, Loizou S, et al 1985 "Crossreactivity of antiphospholipid antibodies" Journal of clinical & laboratory immunology 16 1: 1–6 PMID 3981615
- ^ Keane A, Woods R, Dowding V, Roden D, Barry C 1987 "Anticardiolipin antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis" Br J Rheumatol 26 5: 346–350 doi:101093/rheumatology/265346 PMID 3664159
- ^ Malia RG, Greaves M, Rowlands LM, et al 1988 "Anticardiolipin antibodies in systemic sclerosis: immunological and clinical associations" Clin Exp Immunol 73 3: 456–60 PMC 1541778 PMID 2974767
- ^ McNeil HP, Simpson RJ, Chesterman CN, Krilis SA 1990 "Anti-phospholipid antibodies are directed against a complex antigen that includes a lipid-binding inhibitor of coagulation: beta 2-glycoprotein I apolipoprotein H" Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87 11: 4120–4124 doi:101073/pnas87114120 PMC 54059 PMID 2349221
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