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Anomodont

anomodontia, anomodonts
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Anomocephalus Otsheria Aulacocephalodon Kannemeyeria

Anomodontia is an extinct group of non-mammalian therapsids containing many species from the Permian and Triassic periods possibly continuing into the Early Cretaceous,[2] most of which were toothless, possibly endothermic[3][4][5] herbivores[6] Anomodonts were very diverse during the Middle Permian, including primitive forms like Anomocephalus and Patranomodon and groups like Venyukovioidea, Dromasauria, and Dicynodontia Of these, only the dicynodonts survived beyond the Middle Permian Dicynodonts became the most successful and abundant of all herbivores in the Late Permian and Triassic, filling ecological niches ranging from large browsers down to small burrowers Few dicynodont families survived the Permian–Triassic extinction event, but one lineage evolved into large, stocky forms that remained the dominant terrestrial herbivores right until the Late Triassic, when changing conditions caused them to decline

Contents

  • 1 Classification
    • 11 Taxonomy
    • 12 Phylogeny
  • 2 See also
  • 3 References

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Order Therapsida
  • Suborder Anomodontia
    • Biseridens
    • Patranomodon
    • clade Anomocephaloidea
      • Anomocephalus
      • Tiarajudens
    • Superfamily Venyukovioidea
      • Family Otsheridae
        • Otsheria
        • Suminia
      • Family Venyukoviidae
        • Ulemica
        • Venjukovia
    • Clade Chainosauria
      • Galechirus
      • Galeops
      • Galepus
      • Infraorder Dicynodontia

Phylogeny

Cladogram modified from Liu et al 2009:[2]

Therapsida 

unnamed


Biarmosuchia



Gorgonopsia



unnamed


Dinocephalia


 Anomodontia 


Biseridens


unnamed


Anomocephalus


unnamed

 Venyukovioidea 


Otsheria


unnamed


Ulemica



Suminia




 Chainosauria 


Patranomodon


unnamed


Galeops



Eodicynodon









Below is a cladogram from Kammerer et al 2013[7] The data matrix of Kammerer et al 2013, a list of characteristics that was used in the analysis, was based on that of Kammerer et al 2011, which followed a comprehensive taxonomic revision of Dicynodon[8] Because of this, many of the relationships found by Kammerer et al 2013 are the same as those found by Kammerer et al 2011 However, several taxa were added to the analysis, including Tiarajudens Eubrachiosaurus, Shaanbeikannemeyeria, Zambiasaurus and many "outgroup" taxa positioned outside Anomodontia, while other taxa were re-coded As in Kammerer et al 2011, the interrelationships of non-kannemeyeriiform dicynodontoids are weakly supported and thus vary between the analyses[7]


Biseridens





Anomocephalus



Tiarajudens





Patranomodon



 2 


Suminia




Otsheria



Ulemica




 3 



Galepus



Galechirus





Galeops


 4 


"Eodicynodon" oelofseni





Eodicynodon oosthuizeni



Colobodectes





Lanthanostegus




Chelydontops




Endothiodon




Pristerodon


 5 

 6 

 7 


Diictodon




Eosimops




Prosictodon



Robertia





 8 


Emydops


 9 

 10 


Dicynodontoides



Kombuisia





Myosaurus


 11 


Cistecephalus




Cistecephaloides



Kawingasaurus









 12 














1 Anomodontia, 2 Venyukovioidea, 3 Chainosauria, 4 Dicynodontia, 5 Therochelonia, 6 Diictodontia, 7 Pylaecephalidae, 8 Emydopoidea, 9 Kistecephalia, 10 Kingoriidae, 11 Cistecephalidae, 12 Bidentalia

12 

 13 


Keyseria




Daqingshanodon



 14 


Oudenodon




Tropidostoma



Australobarbarus







Odontocyclops



Idelesaurus




 15 


Rhachiocephalus



Kitchinganomodon



 16 


Syops


 17 


Aulacocephalodon




Pelanomodon




Geikia elginensis



Geikia locusticeps











 18 



Interpresosaurus




Elph



Katumbia






Gordonia





Basilodon



Sintocephalus





Dicynodon lacerticeps




"Dicynodon" huenei





Delectosaurus



Vivaxosaurus






Daptocephalus




Dinanomodon



Peramodon






Jimusaria




Turfanodon



 19 


Euptychognathus




Lystrosaurus murrayi




"Lystrosaurus" declivus




"Lystrosaurus" curvatus




"Lystrosaurus" maccaigi




"Lystrosaurus" hedini




TSK 2



Kwazulusaurus










 20 












12 Bidentalia, 13 Cryptodontia, 14 Oudenodontidae, 15 Rhachiocephalidae, 16 Geikiidae, 17 Geikiinae, 18 Dicynodontoidea, 19 Lystrosauridae, 20 Kannemeyeriiformes

20 


Angonisaurus



 21 



Tetragonias



Vinceria





Shansiodon



Rhinodicynodon






Dinodontosaurus





Shaanbeikannemeyeria




Kannemeyeria lophorhinus



Kannemeyeria simocephalus







Parakannemeyeria



Xiyukannemeyeria






Dolichuranus




Rechnisaurus



Uralokannemeyeria






Rabidosaurus




Sinokannemeyeria





Rhadiodromus



Wadiasaurus



 22 

 23 


Zambiasaurus




Moghreberia



Placerias




 24 


Stahleckeria





Eubrachiosaurus



Sangusaurus





Jachaleria



Ischigualastia














20 Kannemeyeriiformes, 21 Shansiodontidae, 22 Stahleckeriidae, 23 Placeriinae, 24 Stahleckeriinae

See also

  • Theriodont
  • Dinocephalia
  • Biarmosuchians
  • Evolution of mammals

References

  1. ^ Thulborn, T; Turner, S 2003 "The last dicynodont: an Australian Cretaceous relict" Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 270: 985–993 doi:101098/rspb20022296 JSTOR 3558635 PMC 1691326  PMID 12803915 
  2. ^ a b Liu, J; Rubidge, B; Li, J 2009 "A new specimen of Biseridens qilianicus indicates its phylogenetic position as the most basal anomodont" Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277 1679: 285–292 doi:101098/rspb20090883 PMC 2842672  PMID 19640887 
  3. ^ Bakker 1975
  4. ^ BOTHA-BRINK, Jennifer; ANGIELCZYK, Kenneth D "Do extraordinarily high growth rates in Permo-Triassic dicynodonts Therapsida, Anomodontia explain their success before and after the end-Permian extinction" Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160 2: 341–365 doi:101111/j1096-3642200900601x 
  5. ^ "Microbiota and food residues including possible evidence of pre-mammalian hair in Upper Permian coprolites from Russia" Lethaia doi:101111/let12156 
  6. ^ Chinsamy-Turan, A 2011 Forerunners of Mammals: Radiation - Histology - Biology, p39 Indiana University Press, ISBN 0253356970 Retrieved May 2012
  7. ^ a b Kammerer, C F; Fröbisch, J R; Angielczyk, K D 2013 Farke, Andrew A, ed "On the Validity and Phylogenetic Position of Eubrachiosaurus browni, a Kannemeyeriiform Dicynodont Anomodontia from Triassic North America" PLoS ONE 8 5: e64203 doi:101371/journalpone0064203 PMC 3669350  PMID 23741307 
  8. ^ Kammerer, CF; Angielczyk, KD; Fröbisch, J 2011 "A comprehensive taxonomic revision of Dicynodon Therapsida, Anomodontia and its implications for dicynodont phylogeny, biogeography, and biostratigraphy" Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31 Suppl 1: 1–158 doi:101080/027246342011627074 

anomodont, anomodontia, anomodonts


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