Wed . 19 Feb 2019

Ann Dunham

ann dunham, ann dunham pictures
Stanley Ann Dunham November 29, 1942 – November 7, 1995 was the mother of Barack Obama, the 44th President of the United States She was an American anthropologist who specialized in the economic anthropology and rural development of Indonesia1

Dunham was known as Stanley Ann Dunham through high school, then as Ann Dunham, Ann Obama, Ann Soetoro, Ann Sutoro after her second divorce, and finally as Ann Dunham2 Born in Wichita, Kansas, Dunham spent her childhood in California, Oklahoma, Texas and Kansas, her teenage years in Mercer Island, Washington, and most of her adult life in Hawaii and Indonesia3

Dunham studied at the East–West Center and at the University of Hawaii at Manoa in Honolulu, where she attained a bachelor's of anthropology4 and master's and PhD in anthropology5 She also attended University of Washington at Seattle in 1961–1962 Interested in craftsmanship, weaving and the role of women in cottage industries, Dunham's research focused on women's work on the island of Java and blacksmithing in Indonesia To address the problem of poverty in rural villages, she created microcredit programs while working as a consultant for the United States Agency for International Development Dunham was also employed by the Ford Foundation in Jakarta and she consulted with the Asian Development Bank in Gujranwala, Pakistan Towards the latter part of her life, she worked with Bank Rakyat Indonesia, where she helped apply her research to the largest microfinance program in the world5

After her son was elected President, interest renewed in Dunham's work: The University of Hawaii held a symposium about her research; an exhibition of Dunham's Indonesian batik textile collection toured the United States; and in December 2009, Duke University Press published Surviving against the Odds: Village Industry in Indonesia, a book based on Dunham's original 1992 dissertation Janny Scott, an author and former New York Times reporter, published a biography about Ann Dunham's life titled A Singular Woman in 2011 Posthumous interest has also led to the creation of The Ann Dunham Soetoro Endowment in the Anthropology Department at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, as well as the Ann Dunham Soetoro Graduate Fellowships, intended to fund students associated with the East–West Center EWC in Honolulu, Hawaii6

In an interview, Barack Obama referred to his mother as "the dominant figure in my formative years  The values she taught me continue to be my touchstone when it comes to how I go about the world of politics"7


  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Family life and marriages
    • 21 First marriage
    • 22 Second marriage
  • 3 Professional life
  • 4 Illness and death
  • 5 Posthumous interest
  • 6 Personal beliefs
  • 7 Publications
  • 8 Notes
  • 9 References
  • 10 Further reading

Early lifeedit

Stanley Ann Dunham was born on November 29, 1942 at Saint Francis Hospital in Wichita, Kansas,8 the only child of Madelyn Lee Payne and Stanley Armour Dunham9 She was of predominantly English ancestry, with some German, Swiss, Scottish, Irish, and Welsh ancestry10 Wild Bill Hickok is her sixth cousin, five times removed11 Ancestrycom announced on July 30, 2012, after using a combination of old documents and yDNA analysis, that Dunham's mother was descended from African John Punch, who was an indentured servant/slave in seventeenth-century colonial Virginia1213

Her parents were born in Kansas and met in Wichita, where they married on May 5, 194014 After the attack on Pearl Harbor, her father joined the United States Army and her mother worked at a Boeing plant in Wichita15 According to Dunham, she was named after her father because he wanted a son, though her relatives doubt this story and her maternal uncle recalled that her mother named Dunham after her favorite actress Bette Davis' character in the film In This Our Life because she thought Stanley, as a girl's name, sounded sophisticated16 As a child and teenager she was known as Stanley2 Other children teased her about her name but she used it through high school, "apologizing for it each time she introduced herself in a new town"17 By the time Dunham began attending college, she was known by her middle name, Ann, instead2 After World War II, Dunham's family moved from Wichita to California while her father attended the University of California, Berkeley In 1948, they moved to Ponca City, Oklahoma, and from there to Vernon, Texas, and then to El Dorado, Kansas18 In 1955, the family moved to Seattle, Washington, where her father was employed as a furniture salesman and her mother worked as vice president of a bank They lived in an apartment complex in the Wedgwood neighborhood where she attended Nathan Eckstein Junior High School19

In 1956, Dunham's family moved to Mercer Island, an Eastside suburb of Seattle Dunham's parents wanted their 13-year-old daughter to attend the newly opened Mercer Island High School7 At the school, teachers Val Foubert and Jim Wichterman taught the importance of challenging social norms and questioning authority to the young Dunham, and she took the lessons to heart: "She felt she didn't need to date or marry or have children" One classmate remembered her as "intellectually way more mature than we were and a little bit ahead of her time, in an off-center way",7 and a high school friend described her as knowledgeable and progressive: "If you were concerned about something going wrong in the world, Stanley would know about it first We were liberals before we knew what liberals were" Another called her "the original feminist"7

Family life and marriagesedit

For more details on this topic, see Family of Barack Obama Stanley Armour Dunham, Ann Dunham, Maya Soetoro and Barack Obama, mid-1970s l to r

On August 21, 1959, Hawaii became the 50th state to be admitted into the Union Dunham's parents sought business opportunities in the new state, and after graduating from high school in 1960, Dunham and her family moved to Honolulu Dunham soon enrolled at the University of Hawaii at Mānoa

First marriageedit

While attending a Russian language class, Dunham met Barack Obama Sr, the school's first African student2021 At the age of 23, Obama Sr had come to Hawaii to pursue his education, leaving behind a pregnant wife and infant son in his home town of Nyang'oma Kogelo in Kenya Dunham and Obama Sr were married on the Hawaiian island of Maui on February 2, 1961, despite parental opposition from both families722 Dunham was three months pregnant717 Obama Sr eventually informed Dunham about his first marriage in Kenya but claimed he was divorced Years later, she would discover this was false21 Obama Sr's first wife, Kezia, later said she had granted her consent for him to marry a second wife, in keeping with Luo customs23

On August 4, 1961, at the age of 18, Dunham gave birth to her first child, Barack Obama II24 Friends in the state of Washington recall her visiting with her month-old baby in 19612526272829 She took classes at the University of Washington from September 1961 to June 1962, and lived as a single mother in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle with her son while her husband continued his studies in Hawaii1926303132 When Obama Sr graduated from the University of Hawaii in June 1962, he was offered a scholarship to study in New York City,33 but declined it, preferring to attend the more prestigious Harvard University22 He left for Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he would begin graduate study at Harvard in the fall of 196221 Dunham returned to Honolulu and resumed her undergraduate education at the University of Hawaii with the spring semester in January 1963 During this time, her parents helped her raise the young Obama Dunham filed for divorce in January 1964, which Obama Sr did not contest17 In December 1964, Obama Sr married Ruth Baker, a Jewish American of Lithuanian heritage; they were separated in 1971 and divorced in 1973 after having two sons In 1965, Obama Sr received a MA in economics from Harvard34 In 1971, he came to Hawaii for a month and visited his son Barack, then 10 years old; it was the last time he would see his son, and their only major personal interaction In 1982, Obama Sr was killed in a car accident

Second marriageedit

It was at the East–West Center that Dunham met Lolo Soetoro,35 a Javanese5 surveyor who had come to Honolulu in September 1962 on an East–West Center grant to study geography at the University of Hawaii Soetoro graduated from the University of Hawaii with an MA in geography in June 1964 In 1965, Soetoro and Dunham were married in Hawaii, and in 1966, Soetoro returned to Indonesia Dunham graduated from the University of Hawaii with a BA in anthropology on August 6, 1967, and moved in October the same year with her six-year-old son to Jakarta, Indonesia, to rejoin her husband36

In Indonesia, Soetoro worked first as a low-paid topographical surveyor for the Indonesian government, and later in the government relations office of Union Oil Company2137 The family first lived at 16 Kyai Haji Ramli Tengah Street in a newly built neighborhood in the Menteng Dalam administrative village of the Tebet subdistrict in South Jakarta for two and a half years, with her son attending the nearby Indonesian-language Santo Fransiskus Asisi St Francis of Assisi Catholic School for 1st, 2nd, and part of 3rd grade, then in 1970 moved two miles north to 22 Taman Amir Hamzah Street in the Matraman Dalam neighborhood in the Pegangsaan administrative village of the Menteng subdistrict in Central Jakarta, with her son attending the Indonesian-language government-run Besuki School one and half miles east in the exclusive Menteng administrative village of the Menteng subdistrict for part of 3rd grade and for 4th grade3839 On August 15, 1970, Soetoro and Dunham had a daughter, Maya Kassandra Soetoro14

In Indonesia, Dunham enriched her son's education with correspondence courses in English, recordings of Mahalia Jackson, and speeches by Martin Luther King Jr In 1971, she sent the young Obama back to Hawaii to attend Punahou School starting in 5th grade rather than having him stay in Indonesia with her36 Madelyn Dunham's job at the Bank of Hawaii, where she had worked her way up over a decade from clerk to becoming one of its first two female vice presidents in 1970, helped pay the steep tuition,40 with some assistance from a scholarship41

A year later, in August 1972, Dunham and her daughter moved back to Hawaii to rejoin her son and begin graduate study in anthropology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa Dunham's graduate work was supported by an Asia Foundation grant from August 1972 to July 1973 and by an East–West Center Technology and Development Institute grant from August 1973 to December 197842

Dunham completed her coursework at the University of Hawaii for an MA in anthropology in December 1974,5 and after having spent three years in Hawaii, Dunham, accompanied by her daughter Maya, returned to Indonesia in 1975 to do anthropological field work4243 Her son chose not to go with them back to Indonesia, preferring to finish high school at Punahou School in Honolulu while living with his grandparents44 Lolo Soetoro and Dunham divorced on November 5, 1980; Lolo Soetoro married Erna Kustina in 1980 and had two children, a son, Yusuf Aji Soetoro born 1981, and daughter, Rahayu Nurmaida Soetoro born 1987 Lolo Soetoro died, age 52, on March 2, 1987, due to liver failure45

Dunham was not estranged from either ex-husband and encouraged her children to feel connected to their fathers46

Professional lifeedit

From January 1968 to December 1969, Dunham taught English and was an assistant director of the Lembaga Persahabatan Indonesia Amerika LIA–the Indonesia-America Friendship Institute at 9 Teuku Umar Street in the Gondangdia administrative village of the Menteng subdistrict in Central Jakarta–which was subsidized by the United States government42 From January 1970 to August 1972, Dunham taught English and was a department head and a director of the Lembaga Pendidikan dan Pengembangan Manajemen LPPM–the Institute of Management Education and Development at 9 Menteng Raya Street in the Kebon Sirih administrative village of the Menteng subdistrict in Central Jakarta42

From 1968 to 1972, Dunham was a co-founder and active member of the Ganesha Volunteers Indonesian Heritage Society at the National Museum in Jakarta4247 From 1972 to 1975, Dunham was crafts instructor in weaving, batik, and dye at the Bishop Museum in Honolulu42

Dunham then had a career in rural development, championing women's work and microcredit for the world's poor and worked with leaders from organizations supporting Indonesian human rights, women's rights, and grass-roots development36

In March 1977, Dunham, under the supervision of agricultural economics professor Leon A Mears, developed and taught a short lecture course at the Faculty of Economics of the University of Indonesia FEUI in Jakarta for staff members of BAPPENAS Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional—the Indonesian National Development Planning Agency42

From June 1977 through September 1978, Dunham carried out research on village industries in the Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta DIY—the Yogyakarta Special Region within Central Java in Indonesia under a student grant from the East–West Center48 As a weaver herself, Dunham was interested in village industries, and moved to Yogyakarta City, the center of Javanese handicrafts4349

In May and June 1978, Dunham was a short-term consultant in the office of the International Labour Organization ILO in Jakarta, writing recommendations on village industries and other non-agricultural enterprises for the Indonesian government's third five-year development plan REPELITA III4248

From October 1978 to December 1980, Dunham was a rural industries consultant in Central Java on the Indonesian Ministry of Industry's Provincial Development Program PDP I, funded by USAID in Jakarta and implemented through Development Alternatives, Inc DAI4248

From January 1981 to November 1984, Dunham was the program officer for women and employment in the Ford Foundation's Southeast Asia regional office in Jakarta4248 While at the Ford Foundation, she developed a model of microfinance which is now the standard in Indonesia, a country that is a world leader in micro-credit systems50 Peter Geithner, father of Tim Geithner who later became US Secretary of the Treasury in her son's administration, was head of the foundation's Asia grant-making at that time51

From May to November 1986 and from August to November 1987, Dunham was a cottage industries development consultant for the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan ADBP under the Gujranwala Integrated Rural Development Project GADP4248 The credit component of the project was implemented in the Gujranwala district of the Punjab province of Pakistan with funding from the Asian Development Bank and IFAD, with the credit component implemented through Louis Berger International, Inc4248 Dunham worked closely with the Lahore office of the Punjab Small Industries Corporation PSIC4248

From January 1988 to 1995, Dunham was a consultant and research coordinator for Indonesia's oldest bank, Bank Rakyat Indonesia BRI in Jakarta, with her work funded by USAID and the World Bank4248 In March 1993, Dunham was a research and policy coordinator for Women's World Banking WWB in New York42 She helped WWB manage the Expert Group Meeting on Women and Finance in New York in January 1994, and helped the WWB take prominent roles in the UN's Fourth World Conference on Women held September 4–15, 1995 in Beijing, and in the UN regional conferences and NGO forums that preceded it42

On August 9, 1992, she was awarded PhD in anthropology from the University of Hawaii, under the supervision of Prof Alice G Dewey, with a 1,043-page dissertation52 titled Peasant blacksmithing in Indonesia: surviving and thriving against all odds53 Anthropologist Michael Dove described the dissertation as "a classic, in-depth, on-the-ground anthropological study of a 1,200-year-old industry"54 According to Dove, Dunham's dissertation challenged popular perceptions regarding economically and politically marginalized groups, and countered the notions that the roots of poverty lie with the poor themselves and that cultural differences are responsible for the gap between less-developed countries and the industrialized West54 According to Dove, Dunham:

found that the villagers she studied in Central Java had many of the same economic needs, beliefs and aspirations as the most capitalist of Westerners Village craftsmen were "keenly interested in profits", she wrote, and entrepreneurship was "in plentiful supply in rural Indonesia", having been "part of the traditional culture" there for a millennium

Based on these observations, Dr Soetoro concluded that underdevelopment in these communities resulted from a scarcity of capital, the allocation of which was a matter of politics, not culture Antipoverty programs that ignored this reality had the potential, perversely, of exacerbating inequality because they would only reinforce the power of elites As she wrote in her dissertation, "many government programs inadvertently foster stratification by channeling resources through village officials", who then used the money to strengthen their own status further54

Illness and deathedit

In late 1994, Dunham was living and working in Indonesia One night, during dinner at a friend's house in Jakarta, she experienced stomach pain A visit to a local physician led to an initial diagnosis of indigestion17 Dunham returned to the United States in early 1995 and was examined at the Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center in New York City and diagnosed with uterine cancer By this time, the cancer had spread to her ovaries21 She moved back to Hawaii to live near her widowed mother and died on November 7, 1995, 22 days short of her 53rd birthday365556 Following a memorial service at the University of Hawaii, Obama and his sister spread their mother's ashes in the Pacific Ocean at Lanai Lookout on the south side of Oahu36 Obama scattered the ashes of his grandmother Madelyn Dunham in the same spot on December 23, 2008, weeks after his election to the presidency57

Obama talked about Dunham's death in a 30-second campaign advertisement "Mother" arguing for health care reform The ad featured a photograph of Dunham holding a young Obama in her arms as Obama talks about her last days worrying about expensive medical bills56 The topic also came up in a 2007 speech in Santa Barbara:56

I remember my mother She was 52 years old when she died of ovarian cancer, and you know what she was thinking about in the last months of her life She wasn't thinking about getting well She wasn't thinking about coming to terms with her own mortality She had been diagnosed just as she was transitioning between jobs And she wasn't sure whether insurance was going to cover the medical expenses because they might consider this a preexisting condition I remember just being heartbroken, seeing her struggle through the paperwork and the medical bills and the insurance forms So, I have seen what it's like when somebody you love is suffering because of a broken health care system And it's wrong It's not who we are as a people56

Dunham's employer-provided health insurance covered most of the costs of her medical treatment, leaving her to pay the deductible and uncovered expenses, which came to several hundred dollars per month58 Her employer-provided disability insurance denied her claims for uncovered expenses because the insurance company said her cancer was a preexisting condition58

Posthumous interestedit

In September 2008, the University of Hawaii at Mānoa held a symposium about Dunham59 In December 2009, Duke University Press published a version of Dunham's dissertation titled Surviving against the Odds: Village Industry in Indonesia The book was revised and edited by Dunham's graduate advisor, Alice G Dewey, and Nancy I Cooper Dunham's daughter, Maya Soetoro-Ng, wrote the foreword for the book In his afterword, Boston University anthropologist Robert W Hefner describes Dunham's research as "prescient" and her legacy as "relevant today for anthropology, Indonesian studies, and engaged scholarship"60 The book was launched at the 2009 annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association in Philadelphia with a special Presidential Panel on Dunham's work; The 2009 meeting was taped by C-SPAN61

In 2009, an exhibition of Dunham's Javanese batik textile collection A Lady Found a Culture in its Cloth: Barack Obama's Mother and Indonesian Batiks toured six museums in the United States, finishing the tour at the Textile Museum of Washington, DC in August62 Early in her life, Dunham explored her interest in the textile arts as a weaver, creating wall hangings for her own enjoyment After moving to Indonesia, she was attracted to the striking textile art of the batik and began to collect a variety of different fabrics63

In December 2010 Dunham was awarded the Bintang Jasa Utama, the highest civilian award in Indonesia64

A lengthy major biography of Dunham by former New York Times reporter Janny Scott, titled A Singular Woman, was published in 2011

The University of Hawaii Foundation has established the Ann Dunham Soetoro Endowment, which supports a faculty position housed in the Anthropology Department at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, and the Ann Dunham Soetoro Graduate Fellowships, providing funding for students associated with the East–West Center EWC in Honolulu, Hawaii6

In 2010 the Stanley Ann Dunham Scholarship was established for young women graduating from Mercer Island High School, Ann's alma mater In its first six years the scholarship fund has awarded eleven college scholarships65

On January 1, 2012, President Obama and family visited an exhibition of his mother's anthropological work on display at the East–West Center66

Filmmaker Vivian Norris's feature length biographical film of Ann Dunham entitled Obama Mama La mère d'Obama-French title premiered on May 31, 2014 as part of the 40th annual Seattle International Film Festival, not far from where Dunham grew up on Mercer Island67

Personal beliefsedit

In his 1995 memoir Dreams from My Father, Barack Obama wrote, "My mother's confidence in needlepoint virtues depended on a faith I didn't possess In a land Indonesia where fatalism remained a necessary tool for enduring hardship  she was a lonely witness for secular humanism, a soldier for New Deal, Peace Corps, position-paper liberalism"68 In his 2006 book The Audacity of Hope Obama wrote, "I was not raised in a religious household  My mother's own experiences  only reinforced this inherited skepticism Her memories of the Christians who populated her youth were not fond ones  And yet for all her professed secularism, my mother was in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I've ever known"69 "Religion for her was "just one of the many ways—and not necessarily the best way—that man attempted to control the unknowable and understand the deeper truths about our lives," Obama wrote70

"She felt that somehow, wandering through uncharted territory, we might stumble upon something that will, in an instant, seem to represent who we are at the core That was very much her philosophy of life—to not be limited by fear or narrow definitions, to not build walls around ourselves and to do our best to find kinship and beauty in unexpected places"

Maya Soetoro-Ng36

Dunham's daughter, Maya Soetoro-Ng, when asked later if her mother was an atheist, said, "I wouldn't have called her an atheist She was an agnostic She basically gave us all the good books—the Bible, the Hindu Upanishads and the Buddhist scripture, the Tao Te Ching—and wanted us to recognize that everyone has something beautiful to contribute"35 "Jesus, she felt, was a wonderful example But she felt that a lot of Christians behaved in un-Christian ways"70 On the other hand, Maxine Box, Dunham's best friend in high school, said that Dunham "touted herself then as an atheist, and it was something she'd read about and could argue She was always challenging and arguing and comparing She was already thinking about things that the rest of us hadn't"7

In a 2007 speech, Obama contrasted the beliefs of his mother to those of her parents, and commented on her spirituality and skepticism: "My mother, whose parents were nonpracticing Baptists and Methodists, was one of the most spiritual souls I ever knew But she had a healthy skepticism of religion as an institution"17

Obama also described his own beliefs in relation to the religious upbringing of his mother and father:

My father was from Kenya and a lot of people in his village were Muslim He didn't practice Islam Truth is he wasn't very religious He met my mother My mother was a Christian from Kansas, and they married and then divorced I was raised by my mother So, I've always been a Christian The only connection I've had to Islam is that my grandfather on my father's side came from that country But I've never practiced Islam71


  • Dunham, S Ann 1982 Civil rights of working Indonesian women OCLC 428080409 
  • Dunham, S Ann 1982 The effects of industrialization on women workers in Indonesia OCLC 428078083 
  • Dunham, S Ann 1982 Women's work in village industries on Java OCLC 663711102 
  • Dunham, S Ann 1983 Women's economic activities in North Coast fishing communities: background for a proposal from PPA OCLC 428080414 
  • Dunham, S Ann; Haryanto, Roes 1990 BRI Briefing Booklet: KUPEDES Development Impact Survey Jakarta: Bank Rakyat Indonesia 
  • Dunham, S Ann 1992 Peasant blacksmithing in Indonesia : surviving against all odds Thesis Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa OCLC 608906279, 607863728, 221709485 
  • Dunham, S Ann; Liputo, Yuliani; Prabantoro, Andityas 2008 Pendekar-pendekar besi Nusantara : kajian antropologi tentang pandai besi tradisional di Indonesia Nusantara iron warrior-warrior: anthropological studies of traditional blacksmiths in Indonesia in Indonesian Bandung, Indonesia: Mizan ISBN 9789794335345 OCLC 778260082 
  • Dunham, S Ann 2010 2009 Dewey, Alice G; Cooper, Nancy I, eds Surviving against the odds : village industry in Indonesia Foreword by Maya Soetoro-Ng; afterword by Robert W Hefner Durham, NC: Duke University Press ISBN 9780822346876 OCLC 492379459, 652066335 
  • Dunham, S Ann; Ghildyal, Anita 2012 Ann Dunham's legacy : a collection of Indonesian batik Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia ISBN 9789834469672 OCLC 809731662 


  1. ^ "S Ann Dunham – Surviving against the Odds: Village Industry in Indonesia" Dukeupressedu Retrieved 2014-08-20 
  2. ^ a b c Scott 2011, p 6:

    Anyone writing about Dunham's life must address the question of what to call her She was Stanley Ann Dunham at birth and Stanley Ann as a child, but dropped the Stanley upon graduating from high school She was Ann Dunham, then Ann Obama, then Ann Soetoro until her second divorce Then she kept her husband's name but modernized the spelling to Sutoro In the early 1980s, she was Ann Sutoro, Ann Dunham Sutoro, S Ann Dunham Sutoro In conversation, Indonesians who worked with her in the late 1980s and early 1990s referred to her as Ann Dunham, putting the emphasis on the second syllable of the surname Toward the end of her life, she signed her dissertation S Ann Dunham and official correspondence Stanley Ann Dunham

    p 363:
    modernized the spelling: The spelling of certain Indonesian words changed after Indonesia gained its independence from the Dutch in 1949, and again under a 1972 agreement between Indonesia and Malaysia Names containing oe, are now often spelled with a u However, older spellings are still used in some personal names After her divorce from Lolo Soetoro, Ann Dunham kept his last name for a number of years while she was still working in Indonesia, but she changed the spelling to Sutoro Their daughter, Maya Soetoro-Ng, chose to keep the traditional spelling of her Indonesian surname

  3. ^ Scott 2011, p 108
  4. ^ The University of Hawaii at Manoa Department of Anthropology says Ann Dunham received a BA in anthropology in August 1967 and contemporaneous correspondence in 1966 and 1967 between S Ann Soetoro and the INS makes repeated references to her obtaining a BA in anthropology in 1967
  5. ^ a b c d Dewey, Alice; White, Geoffrey November 2008 "Ann Dunham: a personal reflection" Anthropology News 49 8: 20 doi:101111/an200849820 Archived from the original on June 10, 2010 Retrieved 2009-08-23  reprinted by:
    • "Spotlight on Alumni: EWC Alumna Ann Dunham— Mother to President Obama and Champion of Women's Rights and Economic Justice" East-West Center Honolulu, HI, USA: East–West Center 2008-12-09 Archived from the original on 2012-10-12 Retrieved 2013-03-09  External link in |work= help
  6. ^ a b "The Ann Dunham Soetoro Endowed Fund" Retrieved 2012-01-02 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Jones, Tim 2007-03-27 "Barack Obama: mother not just a girl from Kansas; Stanley Ann Dunham shaped a future senator" Chicago Tribune p 1 Tempo Archived from the original on 2012-04-02 Retrieved 2009-02-16 
    2007-03-27 "Video: Reflections on Obama's mother 02:34" Chicago Tribune Archived from the original on 29 March 2009 Retrieved 2009-02-16 
    2007-03-27 "Video: Jim Wichterman reflects on his former student 02:03" Chicago Tribune Archived from the original on 29 March 2009 Retrieved 2009-02-16 
    2007-03-27 "Video: She changed his diapers 01:02" Chicago Tribune Archived from the original on 30 March 2009 Retrieved 2009-02-16 
  8. ^ Peters, Susan 2009-01-27 "President Obama: from Kansas to the capital, part II video at videosurfcom" Wichita: KAKE 10 News ABC Retrieved 2009-09-12 
  9. ^ "Partial ancestor table: President Barack Hussein Obama, Jr" PDF Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society 2009 Retrieved 2009-06-11 dead link
    Peters, Susan 2009-01-27 "President Obama: from Kansas to the capital" Wichita: KAKE 10 News ABC Archived from the original on 2009-07-01 Retrieved 2009-07-29 
  10. ^ Smolenyak, Megan Smolenyak November–December 2008 "The quest for Obama's Irish roots" Ancestry 26 6: 46–47, 49 ISSN 1075-475X Retrieved December 20, 2011 
    • Smolenyak, Megan May 9, 2011 "Tracing Barack Obama's Roots to Moneygall" The Huffington Post Retrieved May 19, 2011 
    • Rising, David; Noelting, Christoph Associated Press June 4, 2009 "Researchers: Obama has German roots" USATodaycom Retrieved May 13, 2010  CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter link
    • Hutton, Brian; Nickerson, Matthew May 3, 2007 "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish; One of his roots traces back to small village" paid archive Chicago Sun-Times Press Association of Ireland p 3 Retrieved November 24, 2008 
    • Jordon, Mary May 13, 2007 "Tiny Irish village is latest place to claim Obama as its own" The Washington Post p A14 Retrieved May 13, 2007 
    • David Williamson July 5, 2008 "Wales link in US presidential candidate's past" wwwwalesonlinecouk Archived from the original on 21 May 2011 Retrieved April 30, 2011 
  11. ^ Boston Genealogical Society Confirms Obama and "Wild Bill" Hickok Are Cousins New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2008-07-30
  12. ^ Press Release: Ancestrycom Discovers President Obama Related to First Documented Slave in America: Research Connects First African-American President to First African Slave in the American Colonies
  13. ^ Harman, Anatasia; Cottrill, Natalie D; Reed, Paul C; Shumway, Joseph 2012-07-15 "Documenting President Barack Obama's Maternal African-American Ancestry:Tracing His Mother's Bunch Ancestry to the First Slave in America" PDF Ancestrycom Retrieved 2013-09-10 Most people will be surprised to learn that US President Barack Obama has African-American ancestry through his mother 
  14. ^ a b Fornek, Scott; Good, Greg 2007-09-09 "The Obama family tree" PDF Chicago Sun-Times p 2B Archived from the original PDF on 2008-06-25 Retrieved 2009-02-13 
  15. ^ Nakaso, Dan 2008-11-04 "Barack Obama's grandma, 86, dies of cancer before election" The Honolulu Advertiser Retrieved 2009-02-13 
    Nakaso, Dan 2008-11-11 "Day, time of Dunham death clarified" The Honolulu Advertiser Retrieved 2009-02-13 
  16. ^ Scott 2011, pp 41–42
    Maraniss 2012, p 68:

    A woman named Stanley: "Madelyn thought that was the height of sophistication!" recalled her brother Charles Payne, and the notion of giving her baby girl that name took hold The coincidence that her husband was also Stanley only deepened the association

  17. ^ a b c d e Ripley, Amanda 2008-04-09 "The story of Barack Obama's mother" Time Archived from the original on 2012-04-02 Retrieved 2009-08-27  Ripley, Amanda 2008-04-21 "A mother's story" Time 171 16: 36–40, 42 
  18. ^ Jones 2007 See also: "Obama's grandparents, mother lived in Oklahoma" Tulsa: KOTV 6 News CBS Associated Press 2009-02-08 Retrieved 2010-12-30  Also: Stewart, Linda 2009-02-15 "'Connections everywhere': Barack Obama's mother spent time in Vernon as child" Times Record News Wichita Falls Retrieved 2011-01-29 
  19. ^ a b Dougherty, Phil 2009-02-07 "Stanley Ann Dunham, mother of Barack Obama, graduates from Mercer Island High School in 1960" Seattle: HistoryLinkorg Retrieved 2009-02-13 
  20. ^ Obama, Barack 2004 1995 Dreams from my father: a story of race and inheritance New York: Three Rivers Press p 9 ISBN 1-4000-8277-3 
    Mendell 2007, p 27
    Glauberman, Stu; Burris, Jerry 2008 The dream begins: how Hawai‘i shaped Barack Obama Honolulu: Watermark Publishing p 25 ISBN 0-9815086-8-5 
    Jacobs, Sally 2008-09-21 "A father's charm, absence; friends recall Barack Obama Sr as a self-confident, complex dreamer whose promising life ended in tragedy" The Boston Globe p 1A Retrieved 2008-12-05 
  21. ^ a b c d e Maraniss, David 2008-08-22 "Though Obama had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible" washingtonpostcom Retrieved 2008-12-05  online
    Maraniss, David 2008-08-24 "Though Obama had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible" The Washington Post p A22  print
  22. ^ a b Meacham, Jon 2008-08-23 "On his own" newsweekcom Archived from the original on 23 July 2010 Retrieved 2010-07-27  online
    Meacham, Jon 2008-09-01 "On his own" Newsweek 152 9: 26–36  "Special Democratic Convention issue" print
  23. ^ Oywa, John 2008-11-10 "Keziah Obama: My life with Obama Senior" The Standard Kenya in keeping with the Luo customs, Obama Senior sought her consent to take another wife, which she granted  |access-date= requires |url= help
  24. ^ Henig, Jess; Miller, Joe 2008-08-21 "Born in the USA" Washington, DC: FactCheckorg Archived from the original on 25 October 2008 Retrieved October 24, 2008 
  25. ^ Brodeur, Nicole 2008-02-05 "Memories of Obama's mother" The Seattle Times p B1 Archived from the original on 24 February 2009 Retrieved 2009-02-13 Box last saw her friend in 1961, when she visited Seattle 
  26. ^ a b Martin, Jonathan 2008-04-08 "Obama's mother known here as "uncommon"" The Seattle Times p A1 Archived from the original on 7 February 2009 Retrieved 2009-02-13 
    Regarding the 1961 visit to Washington state: "Susan Blake,Botkin another high-school classmate, said that during a brief visit in 1961, Dunham was excited about her husband's plans to return to Kenya"
    Regarding her enrollment at University of Washington: "By 1962, Dunham had returned to Seattle as a single mother, enrolling in the UW for spring quarter and living in an apartment on Capitol Hill"
  27. ^ Montgomery, Rick 2008-05-26 "Barack Obama's mother wasn't just a girl from Kansas" The Kansas City Star p A1 Retrieved 2009-02-13 But all doubts dissipated when she passed through Mercer Island in 1961 with her month-old son 
  28. ^ 2007-03-27 "Video: She changed his diapers 01:02" Chicago Tribune Archived from the original on 30 March 2009 Retrieved 2009-02-16  Susan Blake Botkin Stanley Ann Dunham's high school classmate
  29. ^ At some point, she gave her old friends the impression that she was on her way to visit her husband at Harvard where he would not enroll until the fall of 1962 See Maraniss 2008-08-22
  30. ^ LeFevre, Charlette 2009-01-09 "Barack Obama: from Capitol Hill to Capitol Hill" Capitol Hill Times Archived from the original on 2013-03-09 Retrieved 2013-03-09 A single mother who enrolled in the University of Washington in 1961 and signed up for 1962 extension program, she likely came across many social prejudices in the predominantly all-white campus  Recently located was a listing for Stanley Ann Obama in the 1961 Polk directory at the Seattle Public Library 
  31. ^ LeFevre, Charlette; Lipson, Philip; co-directors, Seattle Museum of the Mysteries 2009-01-28 "Baby sitting Barack Obama on Seattle's Capitol Hill" Seattle Museum of the Mysteries, reprinted 2009-02-06 on p 3 of the Seattle Gay News Archived from the original on 30 March 2009 Retrieved 2009-02-13  External link in |publisher= help CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter link LeFevre and Lipson wrote:

    Mary Toutonghi  recalls as best she can the dates she baby sat Barack as her daughter was 18 months old and was born in July of 1959 and that would have placed the months of babysitting Barack in January and February of 1962  Anna was taking night classes at the University of Washington, and according to the University of Washington's registrar's office her major was listed as history She was enrolled at the University of Washington in the fall of 1961, took a full course load in the spring of 1962 and had her transcript transferred to the University of Hawaii in the fall of 1962 Along with the Seattle Polk Directory, Marc Leavipp of the University of Washington Registrar's office confirms 516 13th Ave E was the address Ann Dunham had given upon registering at the University

    Both Anna Obama and Joseph Toutonghi were listed as residing at the same address, in the Seattle Reverse Directory, 1961–1962 See:
    Dougherty, Phil 2009-02-07 "Stanley Ann Dunham, mother of Barack Obama, graduates from Mercer Island High School in 1960" Seattle: HistoryLinkorg Retrieved 2009-02-13 
  32. ^ Neyman, Jenny 2009-01-20 "Obama baby sitter awaits new era—Soldotna woman eager for former charge's reign" Redoubt Reporter Retrieved 2009-02-13 
  33. ^ One source says the scholarship was for New York University:
    Meacham, Jon 2008-08-23 "On his own" Newsweek Retrieved 2008-11-14 ;
    others say it was for the New School for Social Research, eg:
    Maraniss, David 2008-08-22 "Though Obama had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible" The Washington Post Retrieved 2008-11-14 
    Ripley, Amanda 2008-04-09 "The story of Barack Obama's mother" Time Archived from the original on 9 February 2009 Retrieved 2009-02-13 
  34. ^ 1986 Harvard alumni directory, vol 1 17th ed Boston: Harvard Alumni Association ISSN 0895-1683 
  35. ^ a b Solomon, Deborah 2008-01-20 "Questions for Maya Soetoro-Ng: All in the family" The New York Times Magazine p 17 Archived from the original on 12 February 2009 Retrieved 2009-02-13 
  36. ^ a b c d e f Scott, Janny 2008-03-14 "A free-spirited wanderer who set Obama's path" The New York Times p A1 Retrieved 2009-02-13 
  37. ^ Nakaso, Dan 2008-09-12 "Obama's mother's work focus of UH seminar" The Honolulu Advertiser p 1A Archived from the original on October 12, 2011 Retrieved 2011-05-10 
    Habib, Ridlawn 2008-11-11 "Kalau ke Jogja, Barry bisa habiskan seekor ayam baceman If traveling to Yogyakarta, Barry can eat one whole chicken" Jawa Pos in Indonesian Surabya Retrieved 2011-05-10  Google Translate's English translation
    Scott, Janny 2011 A singular woman: the untold story of Barack Obama's mother New York: Riverhead Books p 113 ISBN 1-59448-797-9 When Lolo completed his military service, Trisulo, who was married to Lolo's sister, Soewardinah, used his contacts with foreign oil companies doing business in Indonesia, he told me, to help Lolo get a job in the Jakarta office of the Union Oil Company of California 
  38. ^ Higgins, Andrew 2010-04-09 "Catholic school in Indonesia seeks recognition for its role in Obama's life" The Washington Post p A1 Retrieved 2011-01-01 
  39. ^ Onishi, Norimitsu 2010-11-09 "Obama visits a nation that knew him as Barry" The New York Times p A14 Retrieved 2011-01-01 
  40. ^ Mendell 2007, p 36
  41. ^ Tani, Carlyn Spring 2007 "A kid called Barry: Barack Obama '79" Punahou Bulletin Archived from the original on May 27, 2010 Retrieved 2008-04-01 
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Dunham, S Ann 2008 "Tentang penulis About the author" Pendekar-pendekar besi Nusantara: kajian antropologi tentang pandai besi tradisional di Indonesia Peasant blacksmithing in Indonesia: surviving and thriving against all odds Bandung: Mizan pp 211–219 ISBN 978-979-433-534-5 
  43. ^ a b Dunham, S Ann; Dewey, Alice G; Cooper, Nancy I 2009 "January 8, 1976 letter from Ann Dunham Soetoro Jl Polowijan 3, Kraton, Yogyakarta to Prof Alice G Dewey Univ of Hawaii, Honolulu" Surviving against the odds: village industry in Indonesia Durham, NC: Duke University Press pp xli–xliv ISBN 0-8223-4687-7 

    Actually I had hoped to move to Jogja at midyear, but was unable to win a contract release from my old school in Jakarta they sponsored me via an Asia Foundation grant for my first two years in Hawaii As it turns out, however, I had plenty to do to keep me busy in W Java, and was able to carry out reasonably complete surveys of 3 village areas within radius of Jakarta

    At present I am staying with my mother-in-law on the corner of Taman Sari inside the Benteng, but according to old law foreigners are not allowed to live inside the Benteng I had to get a special dispensation from the kraton on the grounds that I am "djaga-ing" my mother-in-law she is 76 and strong as a horse but manages to look nice and frail In June I am having Barry come over for the summer, however, and will probably need to find another place, since I don't think I can stretch an excuse and say we are both needed to djaga my mother-in-law

  44. ^ Mendell 2007, p 43
  45. ^ Habib, Ridlawn 2008-11-06 "Keluarga besar Lolo Soetoro, kerabat dekat calon Presiden Amerika di Jakarta Lolo Soetoro's extended family, close relatives to American Presidential nominee in Jakarta" Jawa Pos Retrieved 2011-01-01 
  46. ^ Staunton, Denis 2008-11-06 "Easy-going youth who put passion into politics" The Irish Times p 51 Retrieved 2009-08-21 
  47. ^ Van Dam, Emma 2009-09-28 "Exploring the 'real' Indonesia with the Heritage Society" The Jakarta Post Retrieved 2011-01-01 
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h Dunham, S Ann; Dewey, Alice G; Cooper, Nancy I 2009 "Appendix Other projects undertaken by the author related to the present research" Surviving against the odds: village industry in Indonesia Durham, NC: Duke University Press pp 299–301 ISBN 0-8223-4687-7 
  49. ^ Sutoro, Ann Dunham; Haryanto, Roes 1990 BRI briefing booklet: KUPEDES development impact survey Jakarta: Bank Rakyat Indonesia 
  50. ^ Kampfner, Judith 2009-09-15 "Dreams from my mother" London: BBC World Service Retrieved 2010-02-16 
  51. ^ Wilhelm, Ian 2008-12-03 "Ford Foundation links parents of Obama and Treasury secretary nominee" The Chronicle of Philanthropy Archived from the original on 11 December 2008 Retrieved 2008-12-20 
  52. ^ Scott 2011, p 292
  53. ^ Dunham, S Ann 1992 "Peasant blacksmithing in Indonesia : surviving against all odds" Honolulu: University of Hawaii 
  54. ^ a b c Dove, Michael R 2009-08-11 "Dreams from his mother" The New York Times p A21 Retrieved 2009-08-11 
  55. ^ Chipman, Kim 2008-02-11 "Obama drive gets inspiration from his white mom born in Kansas" Bloombergcom Retrieved 2008-02-11 
  56. ^ a b c d McCormick, John 2007-09-21 "Obama's mother in new ad" Chicago Tribune p 3 Retrieved 2008-01-17 
  57. ^ 2008-12-24 "Obama bids farewell to grandmother photo gallery" New York Post Retrieved 2008-12-25 
  58. ^ a b Scott 2011, pp 328–336
    Gerhart, Ann July 14, 2011 "Obama's mother had health insurance, according to biography" The Washington Post Retrieved June 2, 2012 
  59. ^ Essoyan, Susan 2008-09-18 "A woman of the people: a symposium recalls the efforts of Stanley Ann Dunham to aid the poor" Honolulu Star-Bulletin Archived from the original on 6 October 2008 Retrieved 2008-11-05 
  60. ^ Office of News & Communications 2009-05-04 "Book by President Barack Obama's mother to be published by Duke University Press" Durham, NC, USA: Duke University Archived from the original on 2012-08-06 Retrieved 2013-03-09  CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter link See also:
    • 2009 "Details: Surviving against the odds: village industry in Indonesia by S Ann Dunham" Durham, NC: Duke University Press Retrieved 2009-08-22 
  61. ^ 2009-12-16 "C-SPAN airs 2009 presidential session on S Ann Dunham" Arlington, Va: American Anthropological Association Retrieved 2010-05-10 
    American Anthropological Association – 108th annual meeting – Philadelphia 2009-12-03 "Panel on Ann Dunham's "Surviving against the odds: village industry in Indonesia" video 1:57:18" Washington, DC: Book TV Retrieved 2015-04-05 
  62. ^ McCann, Ruth 2009-08-08 "Cut from Obama's mother's cloth" The Washington Post p C1 Retrieved 2009-08-22 
  63. ^ 2009 "Previous exhibitions: A lady found a culture in its cloth: Barack Obama's mother and Indonesian batiks, August 9–23, 2009" Washington, DC: Textile Museum Archived from the original on August 11, 2009 Retrieved 2009-09-06 
  64. ^ "Wisdom 2010 Yogyakarta, Indonesia" Retrieved 2012-02-28 
  65. ^ Stanley Ann Dunham Scholarship Fund Website
  66. ^ "Scenes from Hawaii, Part II" mrs-oorg January 3, 2012 Retrieved February 6, 2012 
  67. ^ "Obama Mama" Seattle International Film Festival Retrieved 19 February 2015 
  68. ^ De Zutter, Hank 1995-12-08 "What makes Obama run" Chicago Reader Archived from the original on 2 May 2008 Retrieved 2008-04-01 
  69. ^ Obama, Barack 2006-10-15 "Book excerpt from The Audacity of Hope" Time Archived from the original on 14 March 2008 Retrieved 2008-02-28 
  70. ^ a b Sabar, Ariel 2007-07-16 "Barack Obama: Putting faith out front" The Christian Science Monitor p 1 Archived from the original on 3 July 2008 Retrieved 2008-06-01 
  71. ^ Anburajan, Aswini 2007-12-22 "Obama asked about connection to Islam" First Read msnbccom Archived from the original on 6 March 2008 Retrieved 2008-02-28 
    Saul, Michael 2007-12-22 "I'm no Muslim, says Barack Obama" New York Daily News Retrieved 2008-02-28 


  • Maraniss, David June 19, 2012 Barack Obama: the story New York: Simon & Schuster ISBN 978-1-4391-6040-4 
  • Mendell, David August 14, 2007 Obama: from promise to power New York: Amistad/Harper Collins ISBN 978-0-06-085820-9 
  • Scott, Janny May 3, 2011 A singular woman: the untold story of Barack Obama's mother New York: Riverhead Books ISBN 978-1-59448-797-2 

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