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Android version history

android version history, android version history wiki
The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the release of the Android alpha in November 5, 2007 The first commercial version, Android 10, was released in September 2008 Android is continually developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance OHA, and it has seen a number of updates to its base operating system since the initial release

Versions 10 and 11 were not released under specific code names, but since April 2009's Android 15 "Cupcake", Android versions have had confectionery-themed code names Each is in alphabetical order, with the most recent major version being Android 70 "Nougat", released in August 2016

Code name Version number Initial release date API level Support status
Alpha 10 September 23, 2008 1 Discontinued
Beta 11 February 9, 2009 2 Discontinued
Cupcake 15 April 27, 2009 3 Discontinued
Donut 16 September 15, 2009 4 Discontinued
Eclair 20 – 21 October 26, 2009 5–7 Discontinued
Froyo 22 – 223 May 20, 2010 8 Discontinued
Gingerbread 23 – 237 December 6, 2010 9–10 Discontinued
Honeycomb 30 – 326 February 22, 2011 11–13 Discontinued
Ice Cream Sandwich 40 – 404 October 18, 2011 14–15 Discontinued
Jelly Bean 41 – 431 July 9, 2012 16–18 Discontinued
KitKat 44 – 444 October 31, 2013 19 Discontinued
Lollipop 50 – 511 November 12, 2014 21–22 Discontinued
Marshmallow 60 – 601 October 5, 2015 23 Supported
Nougat 70 – 711 August 22, 2016 24–25 Supported

A special version Android 44W is "KitKat for Wearables Only" eg smartwatches with API level 20

Contents

  • 1 Pre-commercial release versions
    • 11 Alpha
    • 12 Beta
  • 2 Version history by API level
    • 21 Android 10 API level 1
    • 22 Android 11 API level 2
    • 23 Android 15 Cupcake API level 3
    • 24 Android 16 Donut API level 4
    • 25 Android 20 Eclair API level 5
      • 251 Android 201 Eclair API level 6
      • 252 Android 21 Eclair API level 7
    • 26 Android 22 Froyo API level 8
    • 27 Android 23 Gingerbread API level 9
      • 271 Android 233 Gingerbread API level 10
    • 28 Android 30 Honeycomb API level 11
      • 281 Android 31 Honeycomb API level 12
      • 282 Android 32 Honeycomb API level 13
    • 29 Android 40 Ice Cream Sandwich API level 14
      • 291 Android 403 Ice Cream Sandwich API level 15
    • 210 Android 41 Jelly Bean API level 16
      • 2101 Android 42 Jelly Bean API level 17
      • 2102 Android 43 Jelly Bean API level 18
    • 211 Android 44 KitKat API level 19
      • 2111 Android 44W KitKat, with wearable extensions API level 20
    • 212 Android 50 Lollipop API level 21
      • 2121 Android 51 Lollipop API level 22
    • 213 Android 60 Marshmallow API level 23
    • 214 Android 70 Nougat API level 24
      • 2141 Android 71 Nougat API level 25
  • 3 Hardware requirements
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Pre-commercial release versions

The development of Android started in 2003 by Android, Inc, which was purchased by Google in 2005

Alpha

There were at least two internal releases of the software inside Google and the OHA before the beta version was released

Dan Morrill created some of the first mascot logos, but the current green Android logo was designed by Irina Blok The project manager, Ryan Gibson, conceived the confectionery-themed naming scheme that has been used for the majority of the public releases, starting with Android 15 "Cupcake"

Beta

The beta was released on November 5, 2007, while the software development kit SDK was released on November 12, 2007 The November 5 date is popularly celebrated as Android's "birthday" Public beta versions of the SDK were released in the following order:

  • November 12, 2007: m3-rc20a milestone 3, release code 20a
  • November 16, 2007: m3-rc22a milestone 3, release code 22a
  • December 14, 2007: m3-rc37a milestone 3, release code 37a
  • February 13, 2008: m5-rc14 milestone 5, release code 14
  • March 3, 2008: m5-rc15 milestone 5, release code 15
  • August 18, 2008: 09
  • September 23, 2008: 10-r1

Version history by API level

The following tables show the release dates and key features of all Android operating system updates to date, listed chronologically by their official application programming interface API levels

Android 10 API level 1

Android 10 API level 1
Android 10, the first commercial version of the software, was released on September 23, 2008 The first commercially available Android device was the HTC Dream Android 10 incorporated the following features:
Version Release date Features Images
10 September 23, 2008
  • Android Market allowed application downloads and updates through the Market application
  • Web browser to show, zoom and pan full HTML and XHTML web pages – multiple pages show as windows "cards"
  • Camera support – however, this version lacked the option to change the camera's resolution, white balance, quality, etc
  • Folders allowing the grouping of a number of application icons into a single folder icon on the Home screen
  • Access to web email servers, supporting POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP
  • Gmail synchronization with the Gmail application
  • Google Contacts synchronization with the People application
  • Google Calendar synchronization with the Calendar application
  • Google Maps with Street View to view maps and satellite imagery, as well as find local business and obtain driving directions using GPS
  • Google Sync, allowing management of over-the-air synchronization of Gmail, People, and Calendar
  • Google Search, allowing users to search the Internet and phone applications, contacts, calendar, etc
  • Google Talk instant messaging
  • Instant messaging, text messaging, and MMS
  • Media Player, enabling management, importing, and playback of media files – however, this version lacked video and stereo Bluetooth support
  • Notifications appear in the Status bar, with options to set ringtone, LED or vibration alerts
  • Voice Dialer allows dialing and placing of phone calls without typing a name or number
  • Wallpaper allows the user to set the background image or photo behind the Home screen icons and widgets
  • YouTube video player
  • Other applications include: Alarm Clock, Calculator, Dialer Phone, Home screen Launcher, Pictures Gallery, and Settings
  • Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support
Image unavailable

Android 11 API level 2

Android 11 API level 2
On February 9, 2009, the Android 11 update was released, initially for the HTC Dream only Android 11 was known as "Petit Four" internally, though this name was not used officially The update resolved bugs, changed the Android API and added a number of features:
Version Release date Features Images
11 February 9, 2009
  • Details and reviews available when a user searches for businesses on Maps
  • Longer in-call screen timeout default when using the speakerphone, plus ability to show/hide dialpad
  • Ability to save attachments in messages
  • Support added for marquee in system layouts
Image unavailable

Android 15 Cupcake API level 3

Android 15 Cupcake API level 3
On April 27, 2009, the Android 15 update was released, based on Linux kernel 2627 This was the first release to officially use a codename based on a dessert item "Cupcake", a theme which would be used for all releases henceforth The update included several new features and UI amendments:
Version Release date Features Images
15 April 27, 2009
  • Support for third-party virtual keyboards with text prediction and user dictionary for custom words
  • Support for Widgets – miniature application views that can be embedded in other applications such as the Home screen and receive periodic updates
  • Video recording and playback in MPEG-4 and 3GP formats
  • Auto-pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth A2DP and AVRCP profiles
  • Copy and paste features in web browser
  • User pictures shown for Favorites in Contacts
  • Specific date/time stamp shown for events in call log, and one-touch access to a contact card from call log event
  • Animated screen transitions
  • Auto-rotation option
  • New stock boot animation
  • Ability to upload videos to YouTube
  • Ability to upload photos to Picasa

Android 15 Home Screen

Android 16 Donut API level 4

Android 16 Donut API level 4
On September 15, 2009, the Android 16 SDK – dubbed Donut – was released, based on Linux kernel 2629 Included in the update were numerous new features:
Version Release date Features Images
16 September 15, 2009
  • Voice and text entry search enhanced to include bookmark history, contacts, and the web
  • Ability for developers to include their content in search results
  • Multi-lingual speech synthesis engine to allow any Android application to "speak" a string of text
  • Easier searching and ability to view app screenshots in Android Market
  • Gallery, camera and camcorder more fully integrated, with faster camera access
  • Ability for users to select multiple photos for deletion
  • Updated technology support for CDMA/EVDO, 8021x, VPNs, and a text-to-speech engine
  • Support for WVGA screen resolutions
  • Speed improvements in searching and camera applications
  • Expanded Gesture framework and new GestureBuilder development tool

Android 16 Home Screen

Android 20 Eclair API level 5

Android 20 Eclair API level 5
On October 26, 2009, the Android 20 SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2629 and codenamed Eclair Changes include the ones listed below
Version Release date Features Images
20 October 26, 2009
  • Expanded Account sync, allowing users to add multiple accounts to a device for synchronization of email and contacts
  • Microsoft Exchange email support, with combined inbox to browse email from multiple accounts in one page
  • Bluetooth 21 support
  • Ability to tap a Contacts photo and select to call, SMS, or email the person
  • Ability to search all saved SMS and MMS messages, with delete oldest messages in a conversation automatically deleted when a defined limit is reached
  • Numerous new camera features, including flash support, digital zoom, scene mode, white balance, color effect and macro focus
  • Improved typing speed on virtual keyboard, with smarter dictionary that learns from word usage and includes contact names as suggestions
  • Refreshed browser UI with bookmark thumbnails, double-tap zoom and support for HTML5
  • Calendar agenda view enhanced, showing attending status for each invitee, and ability to invite new guests to events
  • Optimized hardware speed and revamped UI
  • Support for more screen sizes and resolutions, with better contrast ratio
  • Improved Google Maps 312
  • MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch events
  • Addition of live wallpapers, allowing the animation of home-screen background images to show movement

Android 20 Home Screen

Android 201 Eclair API level 6

Android 201 Eclair API level 6
Version Release date Features Images
201 December 3, 2009
  • Minor API changes, bugfixes and framework behavioral changes

Android 20 Home Screen

Android 21 Eclair API level 7

Android 21 Eclair API level 7
Version Release date Features Images
21 January 12, 2010
  • Minor amendments to the API and bugfixes
Android 21 Home Screen

Android 22 Froyo API level 8

Android 22 Froyo API level 8
On May 20, 2010, the SDK for Android 22 Froyo, short for frozen yogurt was released, based on Linux kernel 2632
Version Release date Features Images
22 May 20, 2010
  • Speed, memory, and performance optimizations
  • Additional application speed improvements, implemented through JIT compilation
  • Integration of Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine into the Browser application
  • Support for the Android Cloud to Device Messaging C2DM service, enabling push notifications
  • Improved Microsoft Exchange support, including security policies, auto-discovery, GAL look-up, calendar synchronization and remote wipe
  • Improved application launcher with shortcuts to Phone and Browser applications
  • USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality
  • Option to disable data access over mobile network
  • Updated Market application with batch and automatic update features
  • Quick switching between multiple keyboard languages and their dictionaries
  • Support for Bluetooth-enabled car and desk docks
  • Support for numeric and alphanumeric passwords
  • Support for file upload fields in the Browser application
  • The browser now shows all frames of animated GIFs instead of just the first frame only
  • Support for installing applications to the expandable memory
  • Adobe Flash support
  • Support for high-PPI displays up to 320 ppi, such as four-inch 720p screens
  • Gallery allows users to view picture stacks using a zoom gesture
Android 22 Home Screen
221 January 18, 2011
  • Bugfixes, security updates and performance improvements
222 January 22, 2011
  • Minor bugfixes, including SMS routing issues that affected the Nexus One
223 November 21, 2011
  • Two security updates

Android 23 Gingerbread API level 9

Android 23 Gingerbread API level 9
On December 6, 2010, the Android 23 Gingerbread SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2635 Changes included:
Version Release date Features Images
23 December 6, 2010
  • Updated user interface design with increased simplicity and speed
  • Support for extra-large screen sizes and resolutions WXGA and higher
  • Native support for SIP VoIP internet telephony
  • Faster, more intuitive text input in virtual keyboard, with improved accuracy, better suggested text and voice input mode
  • Enhanced copy/paste functionality, allowing users to select a word by press-hold, copy, and paste
  • Support for Near Field Communication NFC, allowing the user to read an NFC tag embedded in a poster, sticker, or advertisement
  • New audio effects such as reverb, equalization, headphone virtualization, and bass boost
  • New Download Manager, giving users easy access to any file downloaded from the browser, email, or another application
  • Support for multiple cameras on the device, including a front-facing camera, if available
  • Support for WebM/VP8 video playback, and AAC audio encoding
  • Improved power management with a more active role in managing applications that are keeping the device awake for too long
  • Enhanced support for native code development
  • Switched from YAFFS to ext4 on newer devices
  • Audio, graphical, and input enhancements for game developers
  • Concurrent garbage collection for increased performance
  • Native support for more sensors such as gyroscopes and barometers
Android 23 Home Screen
231 December 2010
  • Improvements and bugfixes for the Nexus S
232 January 2011

Android 233 Gingerbread API level 10

Android 233 Gingerbread API level 10
Version Release date Features Images
233 February 9, 2011
  • Several improvements and API fixes

Android 23 Home Screen

234 April 28, 2011
  • Support for voice or video chat using Google Talk
  • Open Accessory Library support Open Accessory was introduced in 31 Honeycomb but the Open Accessory Library grants 234 added support when connecting to a USB peripheral with compatible software and a compatible application on the device
  • Switched the default encryption for SSL from AES256-SHA to RC4-MD5
235 July 25, 2011
  • Improved network performance for the Nexus S 4G, among other fixes and improvements
  • Fixed Bluetooth bug on Samsung Galaxy S
  • Improved Gmail application
  • Shadow animations for list scrolling
  • Camera software enhancements
  • Improved battery efficiency
236 September 2, 2011
  • Fixed a voice search bug
237 September 21, 2011
  • Google Wallet support for the Nexus S 4G

Android 30 Honeycomb API level 11

Android 30 Honeycomb API level 11
On February 22, 2011, the Android 30 Honeycomb SDK – the first tablet-only Android update – was released, based on Linux kernel 2636 The first device featuring this version, the Motorola Xoom tablet, was released on February 24, 2011 The update's features included:
Version Release date Features Images
30 February 22, 2011
  • Optimized tablet support with a new “holographic” user interface
  • Added System Bar, featuring quick access to notifications, status, and soft navigation buttons, available at the bottom of the screen
  • Added Action Bar, giving access to contextual options, navigation, widgets, or other types of content at the top of the screen
  • Simplified multitasking – tapping Recent Applications in the System Bar allows users to see snapshots of the tasks underway and quickly jump from one application to another
  • Redesigned keyboard, making typing fast, efficient and accurate on larger screen sizes
  • Simplified, more intuitive copy/paste interface
  • Multiple browser tabs replacing browser windows, plus form auto-fill and a new “incognito” mode allowing anonymous browsing
  • Quick access to camera exposure, focus, flash, zoom, front-facing camera, time-lapse, and other camera features
  • Ability to view albums and other collections in full-screen mode in Gallery, with easy access to thumbnails for other photos
  • New two-pane Contacts UI and Fast Scroll to let users easily organize and locate contacts
  • New two-pane Email UI to make viewing and organizing messages more efficient, allowing users to select one or more messages
  • Hardware acceleration
  • Support for multi-core processors
  • Ability to encrypt all user data
  • HTTPS stack improved with Server Name Indication SNI
  • Filesystem in Userspace FUSE; kernel module
  • Disallows applications from having write access to secondary storage memory cards on devices with internal primary storage outside of designated, application-specific directories Full access to primary internal storage is still allowed through a separate application-level permission
Android 30 Home Screen

Android 31 Honeycomb API level 12

Android 31 Honeycomb API level 12
Version Release date Features Images
31 May 10, 2011
  • UI refinements
  • Connectivity for USB accessories USB On-The-Go
  • Expanded Recent Applications list
  • Resizable Home screen widgets
  • Support for external keyboards and pointing devices
  • Support for joysticks and gamepads
  • Support for FLAC audio playback
  • High-performance Wi-Fi lock, maintaining high-performance Wi-Fi connections when device screen is off
  • Support for HTTP proxy for each connected Wi-Fi access point
Android 31 Home Screen

Android 32 Honeycomb API level 13

Android 32 Honeycomb API level 13
Most first- and second-generation Google TV-enabled devices used Honeycomb 32
Version Release date Features Images
32 July 15, 2011
  • Improved hardware support, including optimizations for a wider range of tablets
  • Increased ability of applications to access files on the SD card, eg for synchronization
  • Compatibility display mode for applications that have not been optimized for tablet screen resolutions
  • New display support functions, giving developers more control over display appearance on different Android devices
Android 32 Home Screen
321 September 20, 2011
  • Bugfixes and minor security, stability and Wi-Fi improvements
  • Update to Android Market with automatic updates and easier-to-read Terms and Conditions text
  • Update to Google Books
  • Improved Adobe Flash support in browser
  • Improved Chinese handwriting prediction
322 August 30, 2011
  • Bugfixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom 4G
323
  • Bugfixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom and Motorola Xoom 4G
324 December 2011
  • "Pay as You Go" support for 3G and 4G tablets
325 January 2012
  • Bugfixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom and Motorola Xoom 4G
326 February 2012
  • Fixed data connectivity issues when coming out of airplane mode on the US 4G Motorola Xoom

Android 40 Ice Cream Sandwich API level 14

Android 40 Ice Cream Sandwich API level 14
The SDK for Android 401 Ice Cream Sandwich, based on Linux kernel 301, was publicly released on October 19, 2011 Google's Gabe Cohen stated that Android 40 was "theoretically compatible" with any Android 23x device in production at that time The source code for Android 40 became available on November 14, 2011 Ice Cream Sandwich was the last version to officially support Adobe Systems' Flash player The update introduced numerous new features:
Version Release date Features Images
40 October 18, 2011
  • Major refinements to the "Holo" interface with new Roboto font family
  • Soft buttons from Android 3x are now available for use on phones
  • Separation of widgets in a new tab, listed in a similar manner to applications
  • Easier-to-create folders, with a drag-and-drop style
  • Improved visual voicemail with the ability to speed up or slow down voicemail messages
  • Pinch-to-zoom functionality in the calendar
  • Integrated screenshot capture accomplished by holding down the Power and Volume-Down buttons
  • Improved error correction on the keyboard
  • Ability to access applications directly from lock screen
  • Improved copy and paste functionality
  • Better voice integration and continuous, real-time speech to text dictation
  • Face Unlock, a feature that allows users to unlock handsets using facial recognition software
  • Automatic syncing of browser with users' Chrome bookmarks
  • Data Usage section in settings that lets users set warnings when they approach a certain usage limit, and disable data use when the limit is exceeded
  • Ability to shut down applications from the recent apps list with a swipe
  • Improved camera application with zero shutter lag, time lapse settings, panorama mode, and the ability to zoom while recording
  • Built-in photo editor
  • New gallery layout, organized by location and person
  • Refreshed "People" application with social network integration, status updates and hi-res images
  • Android Beam, a near-field communication feature allowing the rapid short-range exchange of web bookmarks, contact info, directions, YouTube videos and other data
  • Support for the WebP image format
  • Hardware acceleration of the UI
  • Wi-Fi Direct
  • 1080p video recording for stock Android devices
  • Android VPN Framework AVF, and TUN but not TAP kernel module Prior to 40, VPN software required rooted Android
Android 40 Home Screen
401 October 21, 2011
  • Fixed minor bugs for the Samsung Galaxy Nexus
402 November 28, 2011
  • Fixed minor bugs on the Verizon Galaxy Nexus, the US launch of which was later delayed until December 2011

Android 403 Ice Cream Sandwich API level 15

Android 403 Ice Cream Sandwich API level 15
Version Release date Features Images
403 December 16, 2011
  • Numerous bugfixes and optimizations
  • Improvements to graphics, databases, spell-checking and Bluetooth functionality
  • New APIs for developers, including a social stream API in the Contacts provider
  • Calendar provider enhancements
  • New camera applications enhancing video stabilization and QVGA resolution
  • Accessibility refinements such as improved content access for screen readers

Android 40 Home Screen

404 March 29, 2012
  • Stability improvements
  • Better camera performance
  • Smoother screen rotation
  • Improved phone number recognition

Android 41 Jelly Bean API level 16

Android 41 Jelly Bean API level 16
Google announced Android 41 Jelly Bean at the Google I/O conference on June 27, 2012 Based on Linux kernel 3031, Jelly Bean was an incremental update with the primary aim of improving the functionality and performance of the user interface The performance improvement involved "Project Butter", which uses touch anticipation, triple buffering, extended vsync timing and a fixed frame rate of 60 fps to create a fluid and "buttery-smooth" UI Android 41 Jelly Bean was released to the Android Open Source Project on July 9, 2012, and the Nexus 7 tablet, the first device to run Jelly Bean, was released on July 13, 2012
Version Release date Features Images
41 July 9, 2012
  • Smoother user interface:
    • Vsync timing across all drawing and animation done by the Android framework, including application rendering, touch events, screen composition and display refresh
    • Triple buffering in the graphics pipeline
    • CPU input boost
    • Synchronizing touch to vsync timing
  • Enhanced accessibility
  • Bi-directional text and other language support
  • User-installable keyboard maps
  • Expandable notifications
  • Ability to turn off notifications on an application-specific basis
  • Shortcuts and widgets can automatically be re-arranged or re-sized to allow new items to fit on home screens
  • Bluetooth data transfer for Android Beam
  • Tablets with smaller screens now use an expanded version of the interface layout and home screen used by phones
  • Improved camera application
  • Multichannel audio
  • The Fraunhofer FDK AAC codec becomes standard in Android, adding AAC 51 channel encoding/decoding
  • USB audio for external sound DACs
  • Audio chaining also known as gapless playback
  • Ability for other launchers to add widgets from the application drawer without requiring root access

Android 41 Home Screen
411 July 11, 2012
  • Fixed a bug on the Nexus 7 regarding the inability to change screen orientation in any application
412 October 9, 2012
  • Lock/home screen rotation support for the Nexus 7
  • One-finger gestures to expand/collapse notifications
  • Bugfixes and performance enhancements

Android 42 Jelly Bean API level 17

Android 42 Jelly Bean API level 17
Google was expected to announce Jelly Bean 42 at an event in New York City on October 29, 2012, but the event was cancelled due to Hurricane Sandy Instead of rescheduling the live event, Google announced the new version with a press release, under the slogan "A new flavor of Jelly Bean" Jelly Bean 42 was based on Linux kernel 340, and debuted on Google's Nexus 4 and Nexus 10, which were released on November 13, 2012
Version Release date Features Images
42 November 13, 2012
  • Lock screen improvements, including widget support and the ability to swipe directly to camera
  • Notification power controls "Quick Settings"
  • "Daydream" screensavers, showing information when idle or docked
  • Multiple user accounts tablets only
  • Rewritten Bluetooth stack, switching from Bluez to Broadcom open source BlueDroid, allowing improved support for multiple displays and wireless display Miracast
  • Native right-to-left, always-on VPN and application verification A new NFC stack was added at the same time
  • Accessibility improvements: triple-tap to magnify the entire screen, pan and zoom with two fingers Speech output and Gesture Mode navigation for blind users
  • New clock application with built-in world clock, stop watch and timer
  • All devices now use the same interface layout, previously adapted from phones on 41 for smaller tablets with centered software buttons, the system bar at the top of the screen, and a home screen with a dock and centered application menu, regardless of screen size
  • Increased number of extended notifications and Actionable Notifications for more applications, allowing users to respond to certain notifications within the notification bar and without launching the application directly
  • SELinux
  • Premium SMS confirmation
  • Group Messaging

Android 42 Home Screen

421 November 27, 2012
  • Fixed a bug in the People application where December was not displayed on the date selector when adding an event to a contact
  • Added Bluetooth gamepads and joysticks as supported HID Human interface device
422 February 11, 2013
  • Fixed Bluetooth audio streaming bugs
  • Long-pressing the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth icons in Quick Settings now toggles the on/off state
  • New download notifications, which now shows the percentage and estimated time remaining for active application downloads
  • New sounds for wireless charging and low battery
  • New Gallery application animation allows faster loading
  • USB debug whitelist
  • Bugfixes and performance enhancements

Android 43 Jelly Bean API level 18

Android 43 Jelly Bean API level 18
Google released Jelly Bean 43 under the slogan "An even sweeter Jelly Bean" on July 24, 2013, during an event in San Francisco called "Breakfast with Sundar Pichai" Most Nexus devices received the update within a week, although the second-generation Nexus 7 tablet was the first device to officially ship with it A minor bugfix update was released on August 22, 2013
Version Release date Features Images
43 July 24, 2013
  • Bluetooth low energy support
  • Bluetooth Audio/Video Remote Control Profile AVRCP 13 support
  • OpenGL ES 30 support, allowing for improved game graphics
  • Restricted access mode for new user profiles
  • Filesystem write performance improvement by running fstrim command while device is idle
  • Dial pad auto-complete in the Phone application
  • Volume for incoming calls ringtone and notification alerts is no longer adjustable separately
  • Improvements to Photo Sphere
  • Reworked camera UI, previously introduced on Google Play edition phones
  • Addition of "App Ops", a fine-grained application permissions control system hidden by default
  • SELinux enabled by default
  • 4K resolution support
  • Numerous security updates, performance enhancements, and bugfixes
  • System-level support for geofencing and Wi-Fi scanning APIs
    • Background Wi-Fi location still runs even when Wi-Fi is turned off
  • Developer logging and analyzing enhancements
  • Added support for five more languages
  • Changed digital rights management DRM APIs
  • Right-to-left RTL languages now supported
  • Clock in the status bar disappears if clock is selected as lockscreen widget
  • Native emoji support

Android 43 Home Screen

431 October 3, 2013
  • Bugfixes and small tweaks for the Nexus 7 LTE

Android 44 KitKat API level 19

Android 44 KitKat API level 19
Google announced Android 44 KitKat on September 3, 2013 Although initially under the "Key Lime Pie" "KLP" codename, the name was changed because "very few people actually know the taste of a key lime pie" Some technology bloggers also expected the "Key Lime Pie" release to be Android 5 KitKat debuted on Google's Nexus 5 on October 31, 2013, and was optimized to run on a greater range of devices than earlier Android versions, having 512 MB of RAM as a recommended minimum; those improvements were known as "Project Svelte" internally at Google The required minimum amount of RAM available to Android is 340 MB, and all devices with less than 512 MB of RAM must report themselves as "low RAM" devices
Version Release date Features Images
44 October 31, 2013
  • Refreshed interface with white elements instead of blue
  • Clock no longer shows bold hours; all digits are thin The H, M, and S markings for the stopwatch and timer have been removed, leaving just the numbers
  • Ability for applications to trigger translucency in the navigation and status bars
  • Ability for applications to use "immersive mode" to keep the navigation and status bars hidden while maintaining user interaction
  • Action overflow menu buttons are always visible, even on devices with a "Menu" key, which was officially deprecated by Android 40
  • Restriction for applications when accessing external storage, except for their own directories
  • Optimizations for performance on devices with lower specifications, including zRAM support and "low RAM" device API
  • Wireless printing capability
  • NFC host card emulation, enabling a device to replace smart cards
  • WebViews now based on Chromium engine feature parity with Chrome for Android 30
  • Expanded functionality for notification listener services
  • Public API for developing and managing text messaging clients
  • Storage Access Framework, an API allowing apps to retrieve files in a consistent manner As part of the framework, a new system file picker allows users to access files from various sources including those exposed by apps, such as online storage services
  • New framework for UI transitions
  • Sensor batching, step detector and counter APIs
  • Settings application now makes it possible to select default text messaging and home launcher application
  • Audio tunneling, audio monitoring and loudness enhancer
  • Built-in screen recording feature primarily for developers, as usage of ADB is required
  • Native infrared blaster API
  • Verified boot
  • Enforcing SELinux
  • Expanded accessibility APIs and system-level closed captioning settings
  • Android Runtime ART introduced as a new experimental application runtime environment, not enabled by default, as a replacement for the Dalvik virtual machine
  • Bluetooth Message Access Profile MAP support
  • Disabled access to battery statistics by third-party applications
  • Settings application no longer uses a multi-pane layout on devices with larger screens
  • Wi-Fi and mobile data activity TX/RX indicators are moved to quick settings
  • Disables text wrapping in the WebView browser component

Android 44 Home Screen

441 December 5, 2013
  • Improvements to auto focus, white balance and HDR+ for the Nexus 5 camera
  • Better application compatibility for the experimental Android Runtime ART
  • Camera application now loads Google+ Photos instead of Gallery when swiping away from the camera view
  • Miscellaneous improvements and bugfixes
442 December 9, 2013
  • Further security enhancements and bugfixes
  • Removal of the "App Ops" application permissions control system, introduced in Android 43
443 June 2, 2014
  • Refreshed Dialer app interface
  • Updated the Chromium-based WebView to version 33 screencasting to DevTools, HTML5 Canvas hardware acceleration performance improvements, vibration API, HTML5 form validation, HTML5 datalist
  • Miscellaneous improvements and bugfixes
444 June 19, 2014
  • CVE-2014-0224 fixed, eliminating an OpenSSL man-in-the-middle vulnerability

Android 44W KitKat, with wearable extensions API level 20

Android 44W KitKat, with wearable extensions API level 20
Version Release date Features Images
44W June 25, 2014
  • Initial release of Android Wear platform for smartwatches: the same as Android 44 "KitKat", but with wearable extensions added
Image unavailable
44W1 September 6, 2014
  • UI updates for Google Maps navigation and alarms
44W2 October 21, 2014
  • Offline music playback
  • GPS support

Android 50 Lollipop API level 21

Android 50 Lollipop API level 21
Android 50 "Lollipop" was unveiled under the codename "Android L" on June 25, 2014, during Google I/O It became available as official over-the-air OTA updates on November 12, 2014, for select devices that run distributions of Android serviced by Google, including Nexus and Google Play edition devices Its source code was made available on November 3, 2014

Lollipop features a redesigned user interface built around a responsive design language referred to as "material design" Other changes include improvements to the notifications, which can be accessed from the lockscreen and displayed within applications as top-of-the-screen banners Furthermore, Google made internal changes to the platform, with the Android Runtime ART officially replacing Dalvik for improved application performance, and with changes intended to improve and optimize battery usage, known internally as Project Volta

Version Release date Features Images
50 November 12, 2014
  • Android Runtime ART with ahead-of-time AOT compilation and improved garbage collection GC, replacing Dalvik that combines bytecode interpretation with trace-based just-in-time JIT compilation
  • Support for 64-bit CPUs
  • OpenGL ES 31 and Android Extension Pack AEP on supported GPU configurations
  • Recent activities screen with tasks instead of applications, up to a configured maximum of tasks per application
  • Vector drawables, which scale without losing definition
  • Support for print previews
  • Material design, bringing a restyled user interface
  • Refreshed lock screen, no longer supporting widgets
  • Refreshed notification tray and quick settings pull-down
  • Project Volta, for battery life improvements
  • Searches can be performed within the system settings for quicker access to particular settings
  • Lock screen provides shortcuts to application and notification settings
  • Guest logins and multiple user accounts are available on more devices, such as phones
  • Audio input and output through USB devices
  • Third-party applications regain the ability to read and modify data located anywhere on external storage, such as on SD cards
  • Pinning of an application's screen for restricted user activity
  • Recently used applications are remembered even after restarting the device
  • WebViews receive updates independently through Google Play for security reasons, instead of relying on system-wide vendor updates
  • Addition of 15 new languages: Basque, Bengali, Burmese, Chinese Hong Kong, Galician, Icelandic, Kannada, Kyrgyz, Macedonian, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Sinhala, Tamil and Telugu
  • Tap and Go allows users to quickly migrate to a new Android device, using NFC and Bluetooth to transfer Google Account details, configuration settings, user data and installed applications
  • A flashlight-style application is included, working on supported devices with a camera flash
  • User-customizable priorities for application notifications
  • Smart lock feature
  • SELinux in enforcing mode for all domains
  • Updated emoji
  • Improved accessibility support eg switch access support
  • Block-based over-the-air OTA updates for new devices

Android 50 Home Screen

501 December 2, 2014
  • A few bugfixes, including resolving issues with video playback and password failures handling
502 December 19, 2014
  • Fixes a bug with TRIM support, which prevented devices from the nightly on-charger cleanups of file system allocations if the device was turned off while being charged, or if it was charged during the day
  • Changes how alarms wake the CPU, and how alarms compete for system resources

Android 51 Lollipop API level 22

Android 51 Lollipop API level 22
Version Release date Features Images
51 March 9, 2015
  • Improvements and bug-fixes to the Overview screen
  • Ability to join Wi-Fi networks and control paired Bluetooth devices from quick settings
  • Official support for multiple SIM cards
  • Device protection: if a device is lost or stolen it will remain locked until the owner signs into their Google account, even if the device is reset to factory settings
  • High-definition voice calls, available between compatible 4G LTE devices running Android 51
  • Improvements to the notification priority system, to more closely replicate the silent mode that was removed in Android 50

Android 51 Home Screen

511 April 21, 2015
  • Various bugfixes
  • Native WiFi calling support

Android 60 Marshmallow API level 23

Android 60 Marshmallow API level 23
Android 60 "Marshmallow" was unveiled under the codename "Android M" during Google I/O on May 28, 2015, for the Nexus 5 and Nexus 6 phones, Nexus 9 tablet, and Nexus Player set-top box, under the build number MPZ44Q The third developer preview MPA44G was released on August 17, 2015 for the Nexus 5, Nexus 6, Nexus 9 and Nexus Player devices, and was updated to MPA44I that brought fixes related to Android for Work profiles
Version Release date Features Images
60 October 5, 2015
  • Google "Now on Tap" feature
  • Introduction of Doze mode, which reduces CPU speed while the screen is off in order to save battery life
  • App Standby feature
  • Alphabetically accessible vertical application drawer
  • Application search bar and favorites
  • Native fingerprint reader support
  • Direct Share feature for target-specific sharing between apps
  • Renamed "Priority" mode to "Do Not Disturb" mode
  • App Linking for faster instinctive opening of links with corresponding applications
  • Larger Application folders with multiple pages
  • Post-install/run-time permission requests
  • USB Type-C support
  • Demo Mode feature for screenshot-capture usage
  • Automatic full data backup and restore for apps
  • 4K display mode for apps
  • Adoptable External storage to behave like Internal Storage
  • MIDI support for musical instruments
  • Experimental multi-window feature
  • App permissions now granted individually at run-time, not all-or-nothing at install time

Android 60 home screen

601 December 7, 2015
  • Unicode 80 emoji support<
  • Descriptions for USB connection options
  • New navigation bar layout for the Google Pixel C
  • Double-tap power button to open camera

Android 70 Nougat API level 24

Android 70 Nougat API level 24
Android "Nougat" codenamed N in-development is the major 70 release of the Android operating system It was first released as a developer preview on March 9, 2016, with factory images for current Nexus devices, as well as with the new "Android Beta Program" which allows supported devices to be upgraded directly to the Android Nougat beta via over-the-air update Final release was on August 22, 2016 The final preview build was released on July 18, 2016, with the build number NPD90G
Version Release date Features Images
70 August 22, 2016
  • Ability to display color calibration
  • Ability to screen zoom
  • Ability to switch apps by double tapping in overview button
  • Added Emergency information part
  • Added the "Clear All" button in Overview screen
  • Another system partition, which gets updated when not in use, allowing for seamless system updates
  • Daydream virtual reality platform VR interface
  • Improved Doze functionality, which aims to prolong battery life
  • Improvements to file browser
  • More Quick Settings options
  • Multi-window support, which supports floating apps on a desktop layout
  • New Data Saver mode, which can force apps to reduce bandwidth usage
  • New JIT Compiler, making for 75 percent faster app installations and a 50 percent reduction in compiled code size
  • Just in Time JIT compiler with code profiling to ART, which lets it constantly improve the performance of Android apps as they run
  • New Unicode 9 emoji support and exposes a subset of ICU4J APIs
  • Picture-in-picture support for Android TV
  • Redesigned notification shade, featuring instant access to certain settings
  • Redesigned Overview screen
  • Replaced notification cards with notification sheets
  • Settings app navigation drawer
  • Vulkan 3D rendering API

Android 70 home screen

Android 71 Nougat API level 25

Android 71 Nougat API level 25
Version Release date Features Images
71 October 4, 2016
  • Night Light
  • Touch/display performance improvements
  • Moves Fingerprint swipe down gesture – opt-in
  • Seamless A/B system updates
  • Daydream VR mode
  • Developer features:
    • App shortcuts / shortcut manager APIs
    • Circular app icons support
    • Keyboard image insertion
    • Fingerprint sensor gesture to open/close notification shade
    • Manual storage manager Intent for apps
    • Improved VR thread scheduling
    • Enhanced wallpaper metadata
    • Multi-endpoint call support
    • Support for various MNO requirements
      • PCDMA voice privacy property
      • Source type support for Visual Voicemail
      • Carrier config options for managing video telephony
  • Manual storage manager – identifies files and apps using storage
711 December 5, 2016
  • New emojis
  • Send GIFs directly from the default keyboard
  • Launch actions on apps by long pressing the app icon

Hardware requirements

See also: Android operating system § Hardware Smartphones running Android 50, 60, 70

The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture ARMv7 and ARMv8-A architectures; formerly also ARMv5, with x86 and MIPS architectures also officially supported in later versions of Android Since Android 50 "Lollipop", 64-bit variants of all platforms are supported in addition to the 32-bit variants Unofficial Android-x86 project used to provide support for the x86 and MIPS architectures ahead of the official support Since 2012, Android devices with Intel processors began to appear, including phones and tablets While gaining support for 64-bit platforms, Android was first made to run on 64-bit x86 and then on ARM64

Requirements for the minimum amount of RAM for devices running Android 51 range from 512 MB of RAM for normal-density screens, to about 18 GB for high-density screens The recommendation for Android 44 is to have at least 512 MB of RAM, while for "low RAM" devices 340 MB is the required minimum amount that does not include memory dedicated to various hardware components such as the baseband processor Android 44 requires a 32-bit ARMv7, MIPS or x86 architecture processor latter two through unofficial ports, together with an OpenGL ES 20 compatible graphics processing unit GPU Android supports OpenGL ES 11, 20, 30, 32 and as of latest major version Vulkan Some applications may explicitly require a certain version of the OpenGL ES, and suitable GPU hardware is required to run such applications

Android used to require an autofocus camera, which was relaxed to a fixed-focus camera if present at all, since the camera was dropped as a requirement entirely except for smartphones when Android started to be used on set-top boxes

See also

  • Computing portal
  • BlackBerry 10 version history
  • Firefox OS § Release history
  • iOS version history
  • Palm OS version history
  • Sailfish OS § Software version
  • Symbian version history
  • Tizen § History
  • Windows Phone version history

Notes

  1. ^ The 236 update had the side-effect of impairing the Wi-Fi hotspot functionality of many Canadian Nexus S phones Google acknowledged this problem and fixed it in late September
  2. ^ For Canadian consumers, 402 reportedly created a bug on the Galaxy Nexus that crashed the application market when users attempted to view details of any Android application It also inadvertently reduced the NFC capabilities of the Nexus phone
  3. ^ Lowest supported x86 generation is the P6 microarchitecture, also called i686
  4. ^ Supported is revision 1 of MIPS32 and revision 6 for 64-bit MIPS64

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External links

  • Official Android website
  • Android API Levels via Android Developer
  • Android: A visual history, The Verge, by Chris Ziegler
  • The history of Android, Ars Technica, by Ron Amadeo
  • Website with Android version distribution historical charts
  • A Brief History of Android Version From Cupcake To Lollipop
  • Android versions comparison
  • Google Android: List of CVE security vulnerabilities

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    29.10.2014


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