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Anarchy

anarchy, anarchy meaning
Anarchy is the condition of a society, entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy The term originally meant leaderlessness, but in 1840, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon adopted the term in his treatise What Is Property to refer to a new political philosophy, anarchism, which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government

Contents

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 Anarchy and political philosophy
    • 21 Kant on anarchy
    • 22 Anarchism
  • 3 Anarchy and anthropology
  • 4 Examples of state-collapse anarchy
    • 41 English Civil War 1642–1651
    • 42 French Revolution 1789 - 1799
    • 43 Jamaica 1720
    • 44 The Russian Civil War 1917—1922
    • 45 Spain 1936
    • 46 Albania 1997
    • 47 Somalia 1991–2006
  • 5 Lists of ungoverned communities
    • 51 Ungoverned communities
    • 52 Anarchist communities
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Etymology

The word anarchy comes from the ancient Greek ἀναρχία anarchia, which combines ἀ a, "not, without" and ἀρχή arkhi, "ruler, leader, authority" Thus, the term refers to a person or society "without rulers" or "without leaders"

Anarchy and political philosophy

Kant on anarchy

The German philosopher Immanuel Kant treated anarchy in his Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View as consisting of "Law and Freedom without Force" Thus, for Kant, anarchy falls short of being a true civil state because the law is only an "empty recommendation" if force is not included to make this law efficacious "legitimation" from "lex timere" = "fearing the law" For there to be such a state, force must be included while law and freedom are maintained, a state which Kant calls republic

Kant identified four kinds of government:

  1. Law and freedom without force anarchy
  2. Law and force without freedom despotism
  3. Force without freedom and law barbarism
  4. Force with freedom and law republic

Anarchism

Main article: Anarchism

Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions These are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful While anti-statism is central, anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of all human relations, including, but not limited to, the state system

There are many types and traditions of anarchism, not all of which are mutually exclusive Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism Strains of anarchism have been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism or similar dual classifications Anarchism is often considered to be a radical left-wing ideology, and much of anarchist economics and anarchist legal philosophy reflect anti-statist interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism or participatory economics Some individualist anarchists are also socialists or communists while some anarcho-communists are also individualists or egoists

Anarchism as a social movement has regularly endured fluctuations in popularity The central tendency of anarchism as a mass social movement has been represented by anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism, with individualist anarchism being primarily a literary phenomenon which nevertheless did influence the bigger currents and individualists also participated in large anarchist organizations Some anarchists oppose all forms of aggression, supporting self-defense or non-violence anarcho-pacifism, while others have supported the use of militant measures, including revolution and propaganda of the deed, on the path to an anarchist society

Since the 1890s, the term libertarianism has been used as a synonym for anarchism and was used almost exclusively in this sense until the 1950s in the United States At this time, classical liberals in the United States began to describe themselves as libertarians, and it has since become necessary to distinguish their individualist and capitalist philosophy from socialist anarchism Thus, the former is often referred to as right-wing libertarianism, or simply right-libertarianism, whereas the latter is described by the terms libertarian socialism, socialist libertarianism, left-libertarianism, and left-anarchism Right-libertarians are divided into minarchists and anarcho-capitalists or voluntarists Outside the Anglosphere, libertarianism generally retains its association with left-wing anarchism

Anarchy and anthropology

See also: acephalous society, stateless society, primitive communism, and anarcho-primitivism

Although most known societies are characterized by the presence of hierarchy or the state, anthropologists have studied many egalitarian stateless societies, including most nomadic hunter-gatherer societies and horticultural societies such as the Semai and the Piaroa Many of these societies can be considered to be anarchic in the sense that they explicitly reject the idea of centralized political authority

The egalitarianism typical of human hunter-gatherers is interesting when viewed in an evolutionary context One of humanity's two closest primate relatives, the chimpanzee, is anything but egalitarian, forming hierarchies that are dominated by alpha males Bonobos, humanity's other closest relative, are much less hierarchical and aggressive than chimpanzees, but their societies are nonetheless still stratified So great is the contrast with human hunter-gatherers that it is widely argued by palaeoanthropologists that resistance to being dominated was a key factor driving the development of human consciousness, language, kinship, and social organization

In Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology anarchist anthropologist David Graeber attempts to outline areas of research that intellectuals might explore in creating a cohesive body of anarchist social theory Graeber posits that anthropology is "particularly well positioned" as an academic discipline that can look at the gamut of human societies and organizations, to study, analyze and catalog alternative social and economic structures around the world, and most importantly, present these alternatives to the world

In Society Against the State Pierre Clastres examines stateless societies where certain cultural practices and attitudes avert the development of hierarchy and the state He dismisses the notion that the state is the natural outcome of the evolution of human societies

Anarcho-primitivists base their critique of civilization partly on anthropological studies of nomadic hunter-gatherers, noting that the shift towards domestication has likely caused increases in disease, labor, inequality, warfare, and psychological disorders Authors such as John Zerzan have argued that negative stereotypes of primitive societies eg that they are typically extremely violent or impoverished are used to justify the values of modern industrial society and to move individuals further away from more natural and equitable conditions

Examples of state-collapse anarchy

See also: Failed states Mainland Europe experienced near-anarchy in the Thirty Years' War 1618–1648

English Civil War 1642–1651

Main article: English Civil War

Anarchy was one of the issues at the Putney Debates of 1647:

Thomas Rainsborough: I shall now be a little more free and open with you than I was before I wish we were all true-hearted, and that we did all carry ourselves with integrity If I did mistrust you I would not use such asseverations I think it doth go on mistrust, and things are thought too readily matters of reflection, that were never intended For my part, as I think, you forgot something that was in my speech, and you do not only yourselves believe that some men believe that the government is never correct, but you hate all men that believe that And, sir, to say because a man pleads that every man hath a voice by right of nature, that therefore it destroys by the same argument all property -- this is to forget the Law of God That there's a property, the Law of God says it; else why hath God made that law, Thou shalt not steal I am a poor man, therefore I must be oppressed: if I have no interest in the kingdom, I must suffer by all their laws be they right or wrong Nay thus: a gentleman lives in a country and hath three or four lordships, as some men have God knows how they got them; and when a Parliament is called he must be a Parliament-man; and it may be he sees some poor men, they live near this man, he can crush them -- I have known an invasion to make sure he hath turned the poor men out of doors; and I would fain know whether the potency of rich men do not this, and so keep them under the greatest tyranny that was ever thought of in the world And therefore I think that to that it is fully answered: God hath set down that thing as to propriety with this law of his, Thou shalt not steal And for my part I am against any such thought, and, as for yourselves, I wish you would not make the world believe that we are for anarchy Oliver Cromwell: I know nothing but this, that they that are the most yielding have the greatest wisdom; but really, sir, this is not right as it should be No man says that you have a mind to anarchy, but that the consequence of this rule tends to anarchy, must end in anarchy; for where is there any bound or limit set if you take away this limit , that men that have no interest but the interest of breathing shall have no voice in elections Therefore I am confident on 't, we should not be so hot one with another

As people began to theorize about the English Civil War, "anarchy" came to be more sharply defined, albeit from differing political perspectives:

  • 1651 – Thomas Hobbes Leviathan describes the natural condition of mankind as a war of all against all, where man lives a brutish existence "For the savage people in many places of America, except the government of small families, the concord whereof dependeth on natural lust, have no government at all, and live at this day in that brutish manner" Hobbes finds three basic causes of the conflict in this state of nature: competition, diffidence and glory, "The first maketh men invade for gain; the second, for safety; and the third, for reputation" His first law of nature is that "every man ought to endeavour peace, as far as he has hope of obtaining it; and when he cannot obtain it, that he may seek and use all helps and advantages of war" In the state of nature, "every man has a right to every thing, even to then go for one another's body" but the second law is that, in order to secure the advantages of peace, "that a man be willing, when others are so too… to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men as he would allow other men against himself" This is the beginning of contracts/covenants; performing of which is the third law of nature "Injustice," therefore, is failure to perform in a covenant; all else is just
  • 1656 – James Harrington The Commonwealth of Oceana uses the term to describe a situation where the people use force to impose a government on an economic base composed of either solitary land ownership absolute monarchy, or land in the ownership of a few mixed monarchy He distinguishes it from commonwealth, the situation when both land ownership and governance shared by the population at large, seeing it as a temporary situation arising from an imbalance between the form of government and the form of property relations

French Revolution 1789 - 1799

Main articles: French Revolution and Reign of Terror Heads of Aristocrats, on spikes

Thomas Carlyle, Scottish essayist of the Victorian era known foremost for his widely influential work of history, The French Revolution, wrote that the French Revolution was a war against both aristocracy and anarchy:

Meanwhile, we will hate Anarchy as Death, which it is; and the things worse than Anarchy shall be hated more! Surely Peace alone is fruitful Anarchy is destruction: a burning up, say, of Shams and Insupportabilities; but which leaves Vacancy behind Know this also, that out of a world of Unwise nothing but an Unwisdom can be made Arrange it, Constitution-build it, sift it through Ballot-Boxes as thou wilt, it is and remains an Unwisdom,-- the new prey of new quacks and unclean things, the latter end of it slightly better than the beginning Who can bring a wise thing out of men unwise Not one And so Vacancy and general Abolition having come for this France, what can Anarchy do more Let there be Order, were it under the Soldier's Sword; let there be Peace, that the bounty of the Heavens be not spilt; that what of Wisdom they do send us bring fruit in its season!-- It remains to be seen how the quellers of Sansculottism were themselves quelled, and sacred right of Insurrection was blown away by gunpowder: wherewith this singular eventful History called French Revolution ends

Armand II, duke of Aiguillon came before the National Assembly in 1789 and shared his views on the anarchy:

I may be permitted here to express my personal opinion I shall no doubt not be accused of not loving liberty, but I know that not all movements of peoples lead to liberty But I know that great anarchy quickly leads to great exhaustion and that despotism, which is a kind of rest, has almost always been the necessary result of great anarchy It is therefore much more important than we think to end the disorder under which we suffer If we can achieve this only through the use of force by authorities, then it would be thoughtless to keep refraining from using such force

Armand II was later exiled because he was viewed as being opposed to the revolution's violent tactics

Professor Chris Bossche commented on the role of anarchy in the revolution:

In The French Revolution, the narrative of increasing anarchy undermined the narrative in which the revolutionaries were striving to create a new social order by writing a constitution

Jamaica 1720

Sir Nicholas Lawes, Governor of Jamaica, wrote to John Robinson, the Bishop of London, in 1720:

As to the Englishmen that came as mechanics hither, very young and have now acquired good estates in Sugar Plantations and Indigo & co, of course they know no better than what maxims they learn in the Country To be now short & plain Your Lordship will see that they have no maxims of Church and State but what are absolutely anarchical

In the letter, Lawes goes on to complain that these "estated men now are like Jonah's gourd" and details the humble origins of the "creolians" largely lacking an education and flouting the rules of church and state In particular, he cites their refusal to abide by the Deficiency Act, which required slave owners to procure from England one white person for every 40 enslaved Africans, thereby hoping to expand their own estates and inhibit further English/Irish immigration Lawes describes the government as being "anarchical, but nearest to any form of Aristocracy" "Must the King's good subjects at home who are as capable to begin plantations, as their Fathers, and themselves were, be excluded from their Liberty of settling Plantations in this noble Island, for ever and the King and Nation at home be deprived of so much riches, to make a few upstart Gentlemen Princes"

The Russian Civil War 1917—1922

During the Russian Civil War - which initially started as a confrontation between the Communists and Monarchists - on the territory of today's Ukraine, a new force emerged, namely the Anarchist Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine led by Nestor Makhno The Ukrainian Anarchist during the Russian Civil War also called the "Black Army" organized the Free Territory of Ukraine, an anarchist society, committed to resisting state authority, whether capitalist or communist This project was cut short by the consolidation of Bolshevik power Makhno was described by anarchist theorist Emma Goldman as "an extraordinary figure" leading a revolutionary peasants' movement During 1918, most of Ukraine was controlled by the forces of the Central Powers, which were unpopular among the people In March 1918, the young anarchist Makhno's forces and allied anarchist and guerrilla groups won victories against German, Austrian, and Ukrainian nationalist the army of Symon Petlura forces, and units of the White Army, capturing a lot of German and Austro-Hungarian arms These victories over much larger enemy forces established Makhno's reputation as a military tactician; he became known as Batko 'Father' to his admirers

Nestor Makhno 1918, the leader of the Anarchist Free Territory in Ukraine during the Russian Civil War

At this point, the emphasis on military campaigns that Makhno had adopted in the previous year shifted to political concerns The first Congress of the Confederation of Anarchists Groups, under the name of Nabat "the Alarm Drum", issued five main principles: rejection of all political parties, rejection of all forms of dictatorships including the dictatorship of the proletariat, viewed by Makhnovists and many anarchists of the day as a term synonymous with the dictatorship of the Bolshevik communist party, negation of any concept of a central state, rejection of a so-called "transitional period" necessitating a temporary dictatorship of the proletariat, and self-management of all workers through free local workers' councils soviets While the Bolsheviks argued that their concept of dictatorship of the proletariat meant precisely "rule by workers' councils", the Makhnovist platform opposed the "temporary" Bolshevik measure of "party dictatorship" The Nabat was by no means a puppet of Mahkno and his supporters, from time to time criticizing the Black Army and its conduct in the war

In 1918, after recruiting large numbers of Ukrainian peasants, as well as numbers of Jews, anarchists, naletchki, and recruits arriving from other countries, Makhno formed the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, otherwise known as the Anarchist Black Army At its formation, the Black Army consisted of about 15,000 armed troops, including infantry and cavalry both regular and irregular brigades; artillery detachments were incorporated into each regiment From November 1918 to June 1919, using the Black Army to secure its hold on power, the Makhnovists attempted to create an anarchist society in Ukraine, administered at the local level by autonomous peasants' and workers' councils

The agricultural part of these villages was composed of peasants, someone understood at the same time peasants and workers They were founded first of all on equality and solidarity of his members All, men and women, worked together with a perfect conscience that they should work on fields or that they should be used in housework Working program was established in meetings where all participated They knew then exactly what they had to make

— Makhno, Russian Revolution in Ukraine

Makhno called the Bolsheviks dictators and opposed the "Cheka and similar compulsory authoritative and disciplinary institutions" and called for "reedom of speech, press, assembly, unions and the like" The Bolsheviks accused the Makhnovists of imposing a formal government over the area they controlled, and also said that Makhnovists used forced conscription, committed summary executions, and had two military and counter-intelligence forces: the Razvedka and the Kommissiya Protivmakhnovskikh Del patterned after the Cheka and the GRU However, later historians have dismissed these claims as fraudulent propaganda

The Bolsheviks claimed that it would be impossible for a small, agricultural society to organize into an anarchist society so quickly However, Eastern Ukraine had a large amount of coal mines, and was one of the most industrialised parts of the Russian Empire

Spain 1936

Further information: Anarchism in Spain

In 1919, the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo CNT, the Spanish confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labor unions, had grown to 1 million members, and encountered many fights with the police and the fascists in Spain On July 18, 1936, General Franco led the army to launch their fight against the government, but instead of an easy victory they faced significant obstacles They were met with a big resistance from the people, and the rebels were supported by military and the police With the government in shambles, the workers and peasants took over the government of Spain and joined together to create a revolutionary militia to fight the fascists The workers and peasants were fighting to start a revolution, not to help save their government Spain's society was transposed by a social revolution Every business was re-organized to have a company with no bosses; surprisingly profits increased by over half While Stalin wanted to send arms but only on one condition: The party must be given government positions and the militias be "re-organized" On May 2, 1937, the CNT issued a warning:

The guarantee of the revolution is the proletariat in arms To attempt to disarm the people is to place oneself on the wrong side of the barricades No councillor or police commissioner, no matter who he is, can order the disarming of the workers, who are fighting fascism with more self-sacrifice than all the politicians in the rear, whose incapacity and impotence everybody knows Do not, on any account, allow yourselves to be disarmed!

On the next day after the warning was issued the CNT's central exchange was attacked and the militias prepared to quit, in front of Barcelona With this became a power struggle, and confusion which lead the workers to cease fire and lay down their weapons The "re-organized" Republican Army tried one last attempt to gain control, with over 70,000 casualties, and many people fleeing to France, General Franco's army entered Barcelona on January 26, 1939 to end the revolution

Albania 1997

Main article: 1997 rebellion in Albania

In 1997, Albania fell into a state of anarchy, mainly due to the heavy losses of money caused by the collapse of pyramid firms As a result of the societal collapse, heavily-armed criminals roamed freely with near total impunity There were often 3-4 gangs per city, especially in the south, where the police did not have sufficient resources to deal with gang-related crime

Somalia 1991–2006

Main article: History of Somalia 1991–2006 Map of Somalia showing the major self-declared states and areas of factional control in 2006

Following the outbreak of the civil war in Somalia and the ensuing collapse of the central government, residents reverted to local forms of conflict resolution; either secular, traditional or Islamic law, with a provision for appeal of all sentences The legal structure in the country was thus divided along three lines: civil law, religious law and customary law xeer

While Somalia's formal judicial system was largely destroyed after the fall of the Siad Barre regime, it was later gradually rebuilt and administered under different regional governments, such as the autonomous Puntland and Somaliland macro-regions In the case of the Transitional National Government and its successor the Transitional Federal Government, new interim judicial structures were formed through various international conferences

Despite some significant political differences between them, all of these administrations shared similar legal structures, much of which were predicated on the judicial systems of previous Somali administrations These similarities in civil law included: a a charter which affirms the primacy of Muslim shari'a or religious law, although in practice shari'a is applied mainly to matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, and civil issues The charter assured the independence of the judiciary, which in turn was protected by a judicial committee; b a three-tier judicial system including a supreme court, a court of appeals, and courts of first instance either divided between district and regional courts, or a single court per region; and c the laws of the civilian government which were in effect prior to the military coup d'état that saw the Barre regime into power remain in forced until the laws are amended

Lists of ungoverned communities

Ungoverned communities

The entrance of Freetown Christiania, a Danish neighborhood autonomous from local government controls
  • Zomia, Southeast Asian highlands beyond control of governments
  • Icelandic Commonwealth 930–1262 CE
  • Republic of Cospaia 1440-1826
  • Anarchy in the United States 19th century
  • The Diggers England, 1649–1651
  • Libertatia late 17th century
  • Neutral Moresnet June 26, 1816 – June 28, 1919
  • Kibbutz, a community movement in Israel initially influenced by anarchist philosophy Palestine, 1909–1948
  • Kowloon Walled City was a largely ungoverned squatter settlement from the mid 1940s until the early 1970s
  • Drop City, the first rural hippie commune Colorado 1965–1977
  • Comunidad de Población en Resistencia CPR, indigenous movement Guatemala, 1988–
  • Slab City, squatted RV desert community California 1965-
  • The 27 Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities January 1, 1994 – present
  • Abahlali baseMjondolo, a South African social movement 2005–

Anarchist communities

Main article: List of anarchist communities

Anarchists have been involved in a wide variety of communities While there are only a few instances of mass society "anarchies" that have come about from explicitly anarchist revolutions, there are also examples of intentional communities founded by anarchists

Intentional communities
  • Utopia, Ohio 1847
  • Whiteway Colony 1898
  • Life and Labor Commune 1921
  • Freetown Christiania September 26, 1971
  • Trumbullplex 1993
Mass societies
  • Free Territory Ukraine, November 1918 – 1921
  • Anarchist Catalonia July 21, 1936 – May 1939
  • Autonomous Shinmin Region 1929–1932

See also

  • Anomie
  • Outline of anarchism
  • Unorganization
  • List of anarchist organizations
  • Criticisms of electoral politics
  • Anarchism portal
  • Politics portal
  • Social and political philosophy portal
  • Society portal
  • Sociology portal

References

  1. ^ "Decentralism: Where It Came From-Where Is It Going" Amazoncom Retrieved 2012-01-30 
  2. ^ "anarchy, n" OED Online December 2012 Oxford University Press Accessed January 17, 2013
  3. ^ Kant, Immanuel 1798 "Grundzüge der Schilderung des Charakters der Menschengattung" In Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht AA: VII, s330
  4. ^ Louden, Robert B, ed 2006 Kant: Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View Cambridge University Press p 235
  5. ^ "ANARCHISM, a social philosophy that rejects authoritarian government and maintains that voluntary institutions are best suited to express man's natural social tendencies" George Woodcock "Anarchism" at The Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  6. ^ "In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all the fields of human activity would take a still greater extension so as to substitute themselves for the state in all its functions" Peter Kropotkin "Anarchism" from the Encyclopædia Britannica
  7. ^ "Anarchism" The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2005 p 14 "Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable"
  8. ^ Sheehan, Sean Anarchism, London: Reaktion Books Ltd, 2004 p 85
  9. ^ "as many anarchists have stressed, it is not government as such that they find objectionable, but the hierarchical forms of government associated with the nation state" Judith Suissa Anarchism and Education: a Philosophical Perspective Routledge New York 2006 p 7
  10. ^ a b "IAF principles" International of Anarchist Federations Archived from the original on 5 January 2012 The IAF – IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual 
  11. ^ "That is why Anarchy, when it works to destroy authority in all its aspects, when it demands the abrogation of laws and the abolition of the mechanism that serves to impose them, when it refuses all hierarchical organisation and preaches free agreement — at the same time strives to maintain and enlarge the precious kernel of social customs without which no human or animal society can exist" Peter Kropotkin Anarchism: its philosophy and ideal
  12. ^ "anarchists are opposed to irrational eg, illegitimate authority, in other words, hierarchy — hierarchy being the institutionalisation of authority within a society" "B1 Why are anarchists against authority and hierarchy" in An Anarchist FAQ
  13. ^ Malatesta, Errico "Towards Anarchism" MAN! Los Angeles: International Group of San Francisco OCLC 3930443 Archived from the original on 7 November 2012  Agrell, Siri 14 May 2007 "Working for The Man" The Globe and Mail Archived from the original on 16 May 2007 Retrieved 14 April 2008  "Anarchism" Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service 2006 Archived from the original on 14 December 2006 Retrieved 29 August 2006  "Anarchism" The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: 14 2005 Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable  The following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy: Mclaughlin, Paul 2007 Anarchism and Authority Aldershot: Ashgate p 59 ISBN 978-0754661962  Johnston, R 2000 The Dictionary of Human Geography Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers p 24 ISBN 0-631-20561-6 
  14. ^ a b Slevin, Carl "Anarchism" The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics Ed Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan Oxford University Press, 2003
  15. ^ "Anarchists do reject the state, as we will see But to claim that this central aspect of anarchism is definitive is to sell anarchism short"Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism by Paul McLaughlin AshGate 2007 p 28
  16. ^ "My use of the word hierarchy in the subtitle of this work is meant to be provocative There is a strong theoretical need to contrast hierarchy with the more widespread use of the words class and State; careless use of these terms can produce a dangerous simplification of social reality To use the words hierarchy, class, and State interchangeably, as many social theorists do, is insidious and obscurantist This practice, in the name of a "classless" or "libertarian" society, could easily conceal the existence of hierarchical relationships and a hierarchical sensibility, both of which-even in the absence of economic exploitation or political coercion-would serve to perpetuate unfreedom" Murray Bookchin The Ecology of Freedom: the emergence and dissolution of Hierarchy CHESHIRE BOOKS Palo Alto 1982 Pg 3
  17. ^ "Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social control as explored in the "sociology of power" and the correlative duty to obey as explored in the "philosophy of practical reason" Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards such moral relations – by its questioning of the claims made for such normative power – and, practically, by its challenge to those "authoritative" powers which cannot justify their claims and which are therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation"Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism by Paul McLaughlin AshGate 2007 p 1
  18. ^ "Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations" Emma Goldman "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in Anarchism and Other Essays
  19. ^ Individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker defined anarchism as opposition to authority as follows "They found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, – follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism  Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of Karl Marx" Benjamin Tucker Individual Liberty
  20. ^ Ward, Colin 1966 "Anarchism as a Theory of Organization" Archived from the original on 25 March 2010 Retrieved 1 March 2010 
  21. ^ Anarchist historian George Woodcock report of Mikhail Bakunin's anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it" p 9  Bakunin did not convert the League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State"
  22. ^ Brown, L Susan 2002 "Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism" The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism Black Rose Books Ltd Publishing p 106 
  23. ^ Sylvan, Richard 1995 "Anarchism" In Goodwin, Robert E and Pettit A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy Philip Blackwell Publishing p 231  CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link
  24. ^ Ostergaard, Geoffrey "Anarchism" The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought Blackwell Publishing p 14
  25. ^ Kropotkin, Peter 2002 Anarchism: A Collection of Revolutionary Writings Courier Dover Publications p 5 ISBN 0-486-41955-X RB Fowler 1972 "The Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought" Western Political Quarterly University of Utah 25 4: 738–752 doi:102307/446800 JSTOR 446800 
  26. ^ Brooks, Frank H 1994 The Individualist Anarchists: An Anthology of Liberty 1881–1908 Transaction Publishers p xi ISBN 1-56000-132-1 Usually considered to be an extreme left-wing ideology, anarchism has always included a significant strain of radical individualism, from the hyperrationalism of Godwin, to the egoism of Stirner, to the libertarians and anarcho-capitalists of today 
  27. ^ Joseph Kahn 2000 "Anarchism, the Creed That Won't Stay Dead; The Spread of World Capitalism Resurrects a Long-Dormant Movement" The New York Times 5 August Colin Moynihan 2007 "Book Fair Unites Anarchists In Spirit, Anyway" New York Times 16 April 
  28. ^ Post-left anarcho-communist Bob Black after analysing insurrectionary anarcho-communist Luigi Galleani's view on anarcho-communism went as far as saying that "communism is the final fulfillment of individualism The apparent contradiction between individualism and communism rests on a misunderstanding of both Subjectivity is also objective: the individual really is subjective It is nonsense to speak of 'emphatically prioritizing the social over the individual' You may as well speak of prioritizing the chicken over the egg Anarchy is a 'method of individualization' It aims to combine the greatest individual development with the greatest communal unity"Bob Black Nightmares of Reason
  29. ^ "Modern Communists are more individualistic than Stirner To them, not merely religion, morality, family and State are spooks, but property also is no more than a spook, in whose name the individual is enslaved - and how enslaved!Communism thus creates a basis for the liberty and Eigenheit of the individual I am a Communist because I am an Individualist Fully as heartily the Communists concur with Stirner when he puts the word take in place of demand - that leads to the dissolution of property, to expropriation Individualism and Communism go hand in hand" Max Baginski "Stirner: The Ego and His Own" on Mother Earth Vol 2 No 3 MAY, 1907
  30. ^ "This stance puts him squarely in the libertarian socialist tradition and, unsurprisingly, Benjamin Tucker referred to himself many times as a socialist and considered his philosophy to be "Anarchistic socialism" "An Anarchist FAQby Various Authors
  31. ^ "Because revolution is the fire of our will and a need of our solitary minds; it is an obligation of the libertarian aristocracy To create new ethical values To create new aesthetic values To communalize material wealth To individualize spiritual wealth" Renzo Novatore Toward the Creative Nothing
  32. ^ Skirda, Alexandre Facing the Enemy: A History of Anarchist Organization from Proudhon to May 1968 AK Press, 2002, p 191
  33. ^ Catalan historian Xavier Diez reports that the Spanish individualist anarchist press was widely read by members of anarcho-communist groups and by members of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union CNT There were also the cases of prominent individualist anarchists such as Federico Urales and Miguel Gimenez Igualada who were members of the CNT and J Elizalde who was a founding member and first secretary of the Iberian Anarchist Federation Xavier Diez El anarquismo individualista en España: 1923-1938 ISBN 978-84-96044-87-6
  34. ^ Within the synthesist anarchist organization, the Fédération Anarchiste, there existed an individualist anarchist tendency alongside anarcho-communist and anarchosyndicalist currents Individualist anarchists participating inside the Fédération Anarchiste included Charles-Auguste Bontemps, Georges Vincey and André Arru "Pensée et action des anarchistes en France : 1950-1970" by Cédric GUÉRIN
  35. ^ In Italy in 1945, during the Founding Congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation, there was a group of individualist anarchists led by Cesare Zaccaria who was an important anarchist of the timeCesare Zaccaria 19 August 1897-October 1961 by Pier Carlo Masini and Paul Sharkey
  36. ^ ""Resiting the Nation State, the pacifist and anarchist tradition" by Geoffrey Ostergaard" Ppuorguk 1945-08-06 Retrieved 2010-09-20 
  37. ^ George Woodcock Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements 1962
  38. ^ Fowler, RB "The Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought" The Western Political Quarterly, Vol 25, No 4 December 1972, pp 743–744
  39. ^ Nettlau, Max 1996 A Short History of Anarchism Freedom Press p 162 ISBN 0-900384-89-1 
  40. ^ Daniel Guérin Anarchism: From Theory to Practice "At the end of the century in France, Sebastien Faure took up a word originated in 1858 by one Joseph Déjacque to make it the title of a journal, Le Libertaire Today the terms 'anarchist' and 'libertarian' have become interchangeable"
  41. ^ Perlin, Terry M 1979 Contemporary Anarchism Transaction Publishers p 40 ISBN 0-87855-097-6 
  42. ^ Noam Chomsky; Carlos Peregrín Otero 2004 Language and Politics AK Press p 739 
  43. ^
    • Ward, Colin Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction Oxford University Press 2004 p 62
    • Goodway, David Anarchists Seed Beneath the Snow Liverpool Press 2006, p 4
    • MacDonald, Dwight & Wreszin, Michael Interviews with Dwight Macdonald University Press of Mississippi, 2003 p 82
    • Bufe, Charles The Heretic's Handbook of Quotations See Sharp Press, 1992 p iv
    • Gay, Kathlyn Encyclopedia of Political Anarchy ABC-CLIO / University of Michigan, 2006, p 126
    • Woodcock, George Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements Broadview Press, 2004 Uses the terms interchangeably, such as on page 10
    • Skirda, Alexandre Facing the Enemy: A History of Anarchist Organization from Proudhon to May 1968 AK Press 2002 p 183
    • Fernandez, Frank Cuban Anarchism The History of a Movement See Sharp Press, 2001, page 9
  44. ^ Gowdy, John M 1998 Limited Wants, Unlimited Means: A Reader on Hunter-Gatherer Economics and the Environment St Louis: Island Press p 342 ISBN 1-55963-555-X 
  45. ^ Dahlberg, Frances 1975 Woman the Gatherer London: Yale University Press ISBN 0-300-02989-6 
  46. ^ Graeber, David 2004 Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology PDF Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press ISBN 0-9728196-4-9 
  47. ^ Erdal, D; Whiten, A 1994 "On human egalitarianism: an evolutionary product of Machiavellian status escalation" Current Anthropology 35 2: 175–183 doi:101086/204255 
  48. ^ Erdal, D and A Whiten 1996 Egalitarianism and Machiavellian intelligence in human evolution In P Mellars and K Gibson eds, Modelling the early human mind Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs
  49. ^ Christopher Boehm 2001, Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
  50. ^ Graeber, David 2004 Fragments of an anarchist anthropology 2nd pr ed Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press ISBN 978-0972819640 
  51. ^ Clastres, Pierre 1989 Society Against the State: Essays in Political Anthropology Robert Hurley; Abe Stein translators New York: Zone Books ISBN 0-942299-01-9 
  52. ^ Zerzan, John 2002 Running on Emptiness: The Pathology of Civilization Feral House ISBN 0-922915-75-X 
  53. ^ Shepard, Paul 1996 Traces of an Omnivore Island Press ISBN 1-55963-431-6 
  54. ^ "The Consequences of Domestication and Sedentism by Emily Schultz, et al" Primitivismcom Retrieved 2012-01-30 
  55. ^ "Seven Lies About Civilization, Ran Prieur" Greenanarchyorg Retrieved 2012-01-30 
  56. ^ Industrial Society and Its Future, Theodore Kaczynski
  57. ^ "The Putney Debates, The Forum at the Online Library of Liberty"  Source: Sir William Clarke, Puritanism and Liberty, being the Army Debates 1647-9 from the Clarke Manuscripts with Supplementary Documents, selected and edited with an Introduction ASP Woodhouse, foreword by AD Lindsay University of Chicago Press, 1951]
  58. ^ "Chapter XIII" Oregonstateedu Archived from the original on 2010-05-28 Retrieved 2012-01-30 
  59. ^ Thomas Carlyle The French Revolution 
  60. ^ "Duke d'Aiguillon" Justicegcca 2007-11-14 Retrieved 2012-01-30 
  61. ^ "Revolution in Search of Authority" Victorianweborg 2001-10-26 Retrieved 2012-01-30 
  62. ^ Jamaica: Description of the Principal Persons there about 1720, Sir Nicholas Lawes, Governor in Caribbeana Vol III 1911, edited by Vere Langford Oliver
  63. ^ Yekelchyk 2007, p 80
  64. ^ Charles Townshend; John Bourne; Jeremy Black 1997 The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-820427-2 
  65. ^ Emma Goldman 2003 My Disillusionment in Russia Courier Dover Publications p 61 ISBN 0-486-43270-X 
  66. ^ Edward R Kantowicz 1999 The Rage of Nations Wm B Eerdmans Publishing p 173 ISBN 0-8028-4455-3 
  67. ^ Declaration Of The Revolutionary Insurgent Army Of The Ukraine Makhnovist Peter Arshinov, History of the Makhnovist Movement 1918-1921, 1923 Black & Red, 1974
  68. ^ Footman, David Civil War In Russia Frederick APraeger 1961, p287
  69. ^ Guerin, Daniel Anarchism: Theory and Practice
  70. ^ a b c "Spain's Revolutionary Anarchist Movement" Flagblackenednet Retrieved 2012-01-30 
  71. ^ Central Intelligence Agency 2011 "Somalia" The World Factbook Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency Retrieved 2011-10-05 
  72. ^ Andre Le Sage 2005-06-01 "Stateless Justice in Somalia" PDF Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue Retrieved 2009-06-26 

External links

  • The dictionary definition of anarchy at Wiktionary
  • Emma Goldman, Anarchism and Other Essays
  • On the Steppes of Central Asia, by Matt Stone Online version of book, hosted by Anarchismnet
  • Who Needs Government Pirates, Collapsed States, and the Possibility of Anarchy, August 2007 issue of Cato Unbound focusing on Somali anarchy
  • "Historical Examples of Anarchy without Chaos", a list of essays hosted by royhallidayhomemingspringcom
  • "wwwanarchyisorderorg, online @n@rchive" Principles, propositions & discussions for Land and Freedom
  • Brandon's Anarchy Page, classic essays and modern discussions Online since 1994
  • Anarchism Collection From the Rare Book and Special Collections Division at the Library of Congress

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