Sun . 19 Jun 2019


Altungulata or Pantomesaxonia sensu Fischer 1986 and later authors is an invalid clade mirorder of ungulate mammals comprising the perissodactyls, hyracoids, and tethytheres sirenians, proboscideans, and related extinct taxa

The name "Pantomesaxonia" was originally introduced by Franz 1924, a German zoologist and racial theorist It was resurrected by Fischer 1986 by including sirenians and excluding South American ungulates, phenacodontids, and meniscotheriids from the original concept

The name "Altungulata", introduced by Prothero & Schoch 1989 and revised by McKenna & Bell 1997, was erected as an alternative because the updated concept of "Pantomesaxonia" was regarded too deviant from the original concept

Both names are still in use, and, to add to the confusion, various authors assign different ranks to the involved taxa For example, according to Thewissen & Domning 1992, Phenacodonta Phenacodontidae and Meniscotheriidae and Pantomesaxonia Sirenia, Desmostylia, Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, and Perissodactyla are sister groups together making up the superorder Paenungulata

Altungulata is not supported by molecular evidence unless perissodactyls are excluded thus dividing Altungulata into Laurasiatheria and Afrotheria, and the validity of the following uniting synapomorphies remain disputed:

  • bilophodonty, two lophs or crests running transversally across the crown of the tooth
  • large third molars
  • molarization of posterior premolars
  • elongated thoracic region with at least 19 vertebrae
  • clavicle absent
  • similar development of fetal membranes

Recent studies on Abdounodus showcase that dental synapomorphies between both groups arose independently, further discrediting the Altungulata hypothesis


  • 1 Classification
  • 2 See also
  • 3 Notes
  • 4 References


The classification below is from Rose 2006, p 242 Paenungulata together with Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, and the lipotyphlan families Tenrecidae and Chrysochloridae compose Afrotheria With the exclusion of the better known Radinskya and Minchenella from Phenacolophidae, their affinities to Embrithropoda are suspect, and they were regarded as Altungulata incertae sedis by Mao et al 2015

Altungulata Prothero and Schoch 1989

  • †Radinskya,
  • †Olbitherium
  • †Phenacolophidae Zhang 1978
    • †Ganolophus Zhang 1979
    • †Phenacolophus Matthew and Granger 1925 = Procoryphodon Flerow 1957
    • †Sanshuilophus Mao et al 2015
    • †Tieshanilophus Tong 1979
    • †Yuelophus Zhang 1978
    • †Zaisanolophus Gabunia 1998
  • Order Perissodactyla
    • Suborder Hippomorpha
      • Superfamily Equoidea
        • Equidae
        • †Palaeotheriidae
    • Suborder Tapiromorpha
      • †Isectolophidae
      • Infraorder Ceratomorpha
        • Superfamily Tapiroidea
          • †Helaletidae
          • †Deperetellidae
          • †Lophialetidae
          • Tapiridae
        • Superfamily Rhinocerotoidea
          • †Hyrachyidae Hyracodontidae
          • †Hyracodontidae
          • †Amynodontidae Rhinocerotidae
          • Rhinocerotidae
      • Infraorder †Ancylopoda
        • †Eomoropidae
        • †Chalicotheriidae
        • †Lophiodontidae Tapiroidea
    • Suborder †Titanotheriomorpha
      • Superfamily †Brontotherioidea
        • †Brontotheriidae equoids
        • †Anchilophidae palaeotheriid equoids
  • Order Paenungulata =Uranotheria
    • Suborder Hyracoidea sister taxon of Perissodactyla
      • †Pliohyracidae
      • Procaviidae
    • Suborder Tethytheria
      • Infraorder †Embrithopoda
        • †Arsinoitheriidae
      • Infraorder Sirenia
        • †Prorastomidae
        • †Protosirenidae Dugongidae
        • Dugongidae
        • Trichechidae
      • Infraorder †Desmostylia
        • †Desmostylidae
      • Infraorder Proboscidea
        • †Anthracobunidae tethytheres
        • †Phosphatheriidae Numidotheriidae
        • †Numidotheriidae
        • †Moeritheriidae
        • †Barytheriidae
        • †Deinotheriidae
        • †Palaeomastodontidae
        • †Phiomiidae
        • †Hemimastodontidae
        • †Mammutidae
        • †Gomphotheriidae
        • Elephantidae

See also

  • Mammal classification


  1. ^ "Mirorder Altungulata" Systema Naturae 2000 Retrieved 5 May 2013 
  2. ^ a b c d Rose 2006, pp 241–4
  3. ^ a b Hooker 2005, pp 201–2
  4. ^ " Thewissen, Johannes" Sireniaorg Retrieved 5 May 2013 
  5. ^ Gheerbrant, Emmanuel; Filippo, Andrea; Schmitt, Arnaud 2016 "Convergence of Afrotherian and Laurasiatherian Ungulate-Like Mammals: First Morphological Evidence from the Paleocene of Morocco" PLOS ONE 11 7: e0157556 doi:101371/journalpone0157556
  6. ^ Fang-Yuan Mao, Yuan-Qing Wang, Qian Li & Xun Jin 2015: New records of archaic ungulates from the Lower Eocene of Sanshui Basin, Guangdong, China, Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology, DOI: 101080/0891296320151034120


  • Fischer, Martin S 1986 Die Stellung der Schliefer Hyracoidea im phylogenetischen System der Eutheria Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 84 pp 1–132 ISBN 9783924500214 OCLC 15682192 
  • Franz, Victor 1924 Die Geschichte der Organismen Jena: Verlag G Fischer 
  • Hooker, Jeremy J 2005 "The phylogenetic, geographic, and temporal origins of the Perissodactyla" In Rose, Kenneth D; Archibald, J David The Rise of Placental Mammals JHU Press ISBN 9780801880223 OCLC 55801049 
  • McKenna, Malcolm C; Bell, Susan K 1997 Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level New York: Columbia University Press ISBN 0231110138 OCLC 37345734 
  • Prothero, Donald R; Schoch, Robert M 1989 "Origin and Evolution of the Perissodactyla: Summary and Synthesis" PDF In Prothero, Donald R; Schoch, Robert M The Evolution of Perissodactyls New York: Oxford University Press pp 504–37 ISBN 9780195060393 OCLC 19268080 Retrieved 5 May 2013 
  • Rose, Kenneth David 2006 The beginning of the age of mammals Baltimore: JHU Press ISBN 0801884721 
  • Thewissen, JGM; Domning, Daryl Paul 1992 "The role of phenacodontids in the origin of the modern orders of ungulate mammals" Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 12 4: 494–504 doi:101080/02724634199210011476 OCLC 4649662166 

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