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Alternatives to animal testing

alternatives to animal testing, alternatives to animal testing replacement
Main articles
Animal testing
Alternatives to animal testing
Testing on: invertebrates
frogs · primates
rabbits · rodents
Animal testing regulations
History of animal testing
History of model organisms
IACUC
Laboratory animal sources
Pain and suffering in lab animals
Testing cosmetics on animals
Toxicology testing
Vivisection

Issues
Biomedical research
Animal rights · Animal welfare
Animals Scientific Procedures
Great ape research ban
International trade in primates

Cases
Brown Dog affair
Cambridge University primates
Pit of despair
Silver Spring monkeys
UCR 1985 laboratory raid
Unnecessary Fuss

Companies
Jackson Laboratory
Charles River Laboratories, Inc
Covance · Harlan
Huntingdon Life Sciences
UK lab animal suppliers
Nafovanny · Shamrock

Groups/campaigns
AALAS · AAAS · ALF
Americans for Medical Progress
Boyd Group · BUAV
Dr Hadwen Trust
Foundation for Biomedical
Research · FRAME
National Anti-Vivisection Society
New England Anti-Vivisection Society
PETA · Physicians Committee
for Responsible Medicine
Primate Freedom Project
Pro-Test
SPEAK · SHAC
Speaking of Research
Understanding Animal Research

Writers/activists
Tipu Aziz · Michael Balls
Neal Barnard · Colin Blakemore
Simon Festing · Gill Langley
Ingrid Newkirk · Bernard Rollin
Jerry Vlasak · Syed Ziaur Rahman

Categories
Animal testing · Animal rights
Animal welfare

Related templates
Template:Animal rights

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Alternatives to animal testing are the development and implementation of test methods that avoid the use of live animals

There is widespread agreement that a reduction in the number of animals used and the refinement of testing to reduce suffering should be important goals for the industries involved1 Two major alternatives to in vivo animal testing are in vitro cell culture techniques and in silico computer simulation However, some claim they are not true alternatives because simulations use data from prior animal experiments and cell cultures often require animal derived products, such as serum or cells Others say that they cannot replace animals completely as they are unlikely to ever provide enough information about the complex interactions of living systems2 Other alternatives include the use of humans for skin irritancy tests and donated human blood for pyrogenicity studies Another alternative is so-called microdosing, in which the basic behaviour of drugs is assessed using human volunteers receiving doses well below those expected to produce whole-body effects3 While microdosing produces important information about pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics it does not reveal information about toxicity or toxicology4 Furthermore, it was noted by the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments that despite the use of microdosing, "animal studies will still be required"5

Guiding principles for more ethical use of animals in testing are the Three Rs 3Rs first described by Russell and Burch in 19596 These principles are now followed in many testing establishments worldwide

  1. Replacement refers to the preferred use of non-animal methods over animal methods whenever it is possible to achieve the same scientific aim
  2. Reduction refers to methods that enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals, or to obtain more information from the same number of animals
  3. Refinement refers to methods that alleviate or minimize potential pain, suffering, or distress, and enhance animal welfare for the animals used

Contents

  • 1 Types
    • 11 Cell culture and tissue engineering
      • 111 Skin corrosion and skin irritation
      • 112 Skin absorption
      • 113 Phototoxicity
    • 12 Human-based
      • 121 Skin irritation
      • 122 Pyrogenicity
      • 123 Modular immune in vitro construct
    • 13 Computer simulation
    • 14 Medical imaging
    • 15 Microfluidic Chip
    • 16 Fungal model for mammalian drug metabolism
    • 17 Future alternatives
      • 171 Organs on a chip
      • 172 Human toxome
  • 2 Research initiatives
    • 21 SEURAT-1
    • 22 Euroecotox
    • 23 AXLR8
  • 3 Scientific congresses
  • 4 Industry and corporate initiatives
  • 5 Legislation
    • 51 EU Directive 2010/63/EU
    • 52 EU cosmetic regulation
    • 53 EU chemical policy: REACH
    • 54 EU test methods regulation
    • 55 EU Regulation for Food Additives, Food Enzymes, and Food Flavourings
  • 6 Animal welfare and animal rights organizations
    • 61 Europe
      • 611 Austria
      • 612 France
      • 613 Germany
      • 614 Italy
      • 615 Monaco
      • 616 United Kingdom
      • 617 United States
    • 62 Joint
  • 7 Public campaigns and awards
  • 8 Education and training
  • 9 Institutes and national or international organizations
    • 91 Asia - Oceania
      • 911 Australia
      • 912 India
      • 913 Japan
      • 914 South Korea
    • 92 South America
      • 921 Brazil
    • 93 North America
      • 931 Canada
      • 932 United States of America
    • 94 Europe
      • 941 Austria
      • 942 Finland
      • 943 France
      • 944 Germany
      • 945 Norway
      • 946 Romania
      • 947 United Kingdom
    • 95 International
      • 951 ICATM
      • 952 OECD
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
  • 12 External links

Typesedit

Cell culture and tissue engineeringedit

Cell culture in a special tissue culture dish

Cell culture can be an alternative to animal use in some cases For example, cultured cells have been developed to create monoclonal antibodies; prior to this, production required animals to undergo a procedure likely to cause pain and distress7 However, even though cell or tissue culture methods may reduce the number of experiments performed on intact animals, the maintenance of cells in culture normally requires the use of animal-derived serum Although exact figures are difficult to obtain, some have estimated that one million fetal cows are sacrificed each year to obtain the world's supply of fetal bovine serum, used to grow cultured cells8

Skin corrosion and skin irritationedit

Skin irritation and skin corrosion refer to localized toxic effects resulting from a topical exposure of the skin to a substance Human skin equivalent tests can be used to replace animal-based corrosive and irritative studies EpiDerm from Mattek9 and EpiSkin10 and SkinEthic RHE model11 are derived from human skin cells which have been cultured to produce a model of human skin These methods are currently accepted replacements in Canada and the European Union EU12 In August 2010, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD published the Test Guideline 439 which describes the new procedure for in vitro hazard identification of irritant chemicals13

Another synthetic replacement uses a protein membrane to simulate a skin barrier and is approved as a partial replacement by the US Department of Transportation and European Union14

Skin absorptionedit

Several tissue culture methods which measure the rate of chemical absorption by the skin have been approved by the OECDcitation needed

Phototoxicityedit

Phototoxicity is a rash, swelling or inflammation, like a severe sunburn, caused by exposure to light following exposure to a chemical The 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake NRU Phototoxicity Test, approved by the OECD, detects the viability of 3T3 cells after exposure to a chemical in the presence or absence of light15 Although originally derived from a mouse embryo, the 3T3 cell line was developed in 1962

Human-basededit

Skin irritationedit

A skinpatch test has been designed and is used in Canada to measure development of rashes, inflammation, swelling or abnormal tissue growth on human volunteerscitation needed Unlike corrosives, substances defined as irritants cause only reversible skin damage

Another approach has been the development of test methods that use cultured human cells Human epidermal keratinocytes have been cultured to mimic the human epidermis, and are used to measure skin irritation and dermal corrosion This method has been accepted by the EU and is intended to replace the Draize rabbit skin irritation test16

Pyrogenicityedit

Pyrogens are most often pharmaceutical products or intravenous drugs that may cause inflammation or fever when they interact with immune system cells This interaction can be quickly and accurately tested in vitro

Modular immune in vitro constructedit

The modular immune in vitro construct MIMIC uses human cells to create a model of the human immune system on which the efficacy of new vaccines and other compounds may be tested, replacing some steps of the vaccine development process that would otherwise be performed on animals This process is faster and more flexible than previous methods but critics worry that it may be too simple to be useful on a large scale17

Computer simulationedit

Crash test dummies have been used to replace live animals in impact testing See also: in silico

Examples of computer simulations available include models of asthma,18 though potential new medicines identified using these techniques are currently still required to be verified in animal and human tests before licensing

Computer operated mannequins, also known as crash test dummies, complete with internal sensors and video, have replaced live animal trauma testing for automobile crash testing The first of these was "Sierra Sam" built in 1949 by Alderson Research Labs ARL Sierra Engineering These dummies continue to be refined19 Prior to this, live pigs were used as test subjects for crash testing20

Computer models have been constructed to model human metabolism, to study plaque build-up and cardiovascular risk, and to evaluate toxicity of drugs, tasks for which animals are also used21 In 2007, US researchers using the world's fastest computer at the time, BlueGene L, modeled half a mouse's brain for just 10 seconds However, due to limitations in computing power, the simulation could only be run at 1/10th the speed of an actual mouse brain22 Although this was an advance in science, its representative power as a model was limited and the researchers were quoted as saying that "although the simulation shared some similarities with a mouse's mental make-up in terms of nerves and connections it lacked the structures seen in real mice brains"22

For pharmacology and toxicology, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are much used for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of alternative testing

Medical imagingedit

Further information: Medical imaging and Microdosing

Medical imaging is able to demonstrate to researchers both how drugs are metabolized by use of microdosing, and the detailed condition of organ tissue23

Microfluidic Chipedit

Further information: microfluidics and Lab-on-a-chip

Microfluidic chip, which is just 2 cm wide, have engraved into a series of small chambers, each containing a sample of tissue from different parts of the body A substitute of blood flows through micro-channels where the compartments of chips linked by When injected, test drug circulates around the device, mimicking what goes in the body on a micro scale Sensors in the chip transfer information for computer analysis24

The choice of the material for chips is still challenging One of the major materials that can be possibly used in chips is known as Polydimethylsiloxane PDMS However, due to lack of facilities for mass production and drug clearance issue, the use of PDMS is still being speculated, even though it has great properties as microfluidic chip Also, the biological process involved in proliferation and metabolism might be modified when compared to larger scales, because the materials have micro-structured scales comparable in size to cells25

Fungal model for mammalian drug metabolismedit

Fungi like Cunninghamella elegans can be used as a microbial model of mammalian drug metabolism26272829 thereby reducing the need for laboratory animals30

Future alternativesedit

Organs on a chipedit

Main article: Organ-on-a-chip

The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering US intends to develop in-vitro organs for drug screening and thereby eliminate the use of animals for this type of testing One model is the "lung-on-a-chip"31 This combines microfabrication techniques with modern tissue engineering and mimics the complicated mechanical and biochemical behaviours of a human lung

Human toxomeedit

Toxicity testing typically involves studying adverse health outcomes in animals subjected to high doses of toxicants with subsequent extrapolation to expected human responses at lower doses The system relies on the use of a 40+year-old patchwork of animal tests that are expensive costing more than $3B per year, time-consuming, low-throughput and often provide results of limited predictive value for human health effects The low-throughput of current toxicity testing approaches which are largely the same for industrial chemicals, pesticides and drugs has led to a backlog of more than 80,000 chemicals to which humans are potentially exposed whose potential toxicity remains largely unknown In 2007, the National Research Council NRC released the report "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy",32 that charted a long-range strategic plan for transforming toxicity testing The major components of the plan include the use of predictive, high-throughput cell-based assays of human origin to evaluate perturbations in key toxicity pathways, and to conduct targeted testing against those pathways This approach will greatly accelerate our ability to test the vast "storehouses" of chemical compounds using a rational, risk-based approach to chemical prioritization, and provide test results that are hopefully far more predictive of human toxicity than current methods Although a number of toxicity pathways have already been identified, most are only partially known and no common annotation exists Mapping the entirety of these pathways ie the Human Toxome33 will be a large-scale effort, perhaps on the order of the Human Genome Project

Research initiativesedit

SEURAT-1edit

SEURAT-1 is a long term strategic target for "Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing"34 It is called "SEURAT-1" to indicate that more steps have to be taken before the final goal will be reached SEURAT-1 will develop knowledge and technology building blocks required for the development of solutions for the replacement of current repeated dose systemic toxicity testing in vivo used for the assessment of human safety SEURAT-1 is composed of six research projects, which started on January 1, 2011 and will run for five years These projects will closely cooperate with a common goal and combine the research efforts of over 70 European universities, public research institutes and companies The collaboration between these six research projects, the dissemination of results, the cooperation with other international research teams, and the continuous updating on research priorities will be facilitated by the coordination and support action project "COACH"

SEURAT-1 was developed through the Framework Programme 7 FP7 research initiative and was created through a call for proposals by the European Commission EC that was published in June 2009 The Cosmetics Europe industry offered to match the EC's funds to make a total of EUR 50 million available to try to fill current gaps in scientific knowledge and accelerate the development of non-animal test methods

Euroecotoxedit

Laboratory animals are not restricted to rats, mice, dogs, and rabbits, but also include fish, frogs and birds Research into alternatives to replace these species is often neglected, although fish are the third most widely used laboratory animal used for scientific purposes in the EU35 This is also the field where until now only two alternative tests exist worldwide: One guideline, OECD TG 236,36 and one guidance OECD series on testing and assessment 12637 are so far available

Euroecotox38 is a European network for alternative testing strategies in ecotoxicology It was funded by the Seventh Framework Programme FP7 of the European Commission Environment Programme The main objectives of the Euroecotox network are: To contribute to the advancement of alternative methods of ecotoxicity testing in Europe To promote the validation and regulatory acceptance of new alternative ecotoxicity methods To facilitate the networking of research groups working in the field of alternative ecotoxicology To provide a gathering point for all stakeholders involved in the development, validation, regulatory acceptance and final use of alternative ecotoxicity testing strategies To act as the one voice for alternative ecotoxicity testing in Europe

AXLR8edit

AXLR8 is a coordination action funded by the European Commission Directorate General for Research & Innovation under the 7 Framework Programme 7 FP7 Health Theme The European Commission is currently funding a number of research consortia to develop new 3Rs replacement, reduction and refinement test methods and strategies as potential alternatives to the use of animals in safety testing Monitoring of these 3Rs activities at pan-European, national, and international levels is vital to facilitate swift progress AXLR8 aims to fulfill this growing need by providing a focal point for dialogue and collaboration39 Humane Society International is part of the consortium

Scientific congressesedit

The European Society for Alternatives to Animal Testing EUSAAT40 organises an annual conference in Linz Austria for

  1. Dissemination and validation of alternative methods to animal testing
  2. Promotion of research in the field of the 3Rs
  3. Reduction of the use of animals for tests in the field of education and continuing education
  4. Reduction of suffering and stress of laboratory animals by better breeding, keeping, test planning and other accompanying measures
  5. Experts' guidance and referees' opinion for public and private organizations, companies, universities
  6. Suitable information for the public and the media

The World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences takes place every three years The next conference 10th will be held in September 2017 in Seattle41

The 1st Latino-Americano Congress on Alternative to Animal Testing took place in 2012 Colama I Congresso Latino-Americano De Metodos Alternativos Ao Uso De Animais No Ensino, Pesquisa E Industria42

Industry and corporate initiativesedit

  • Cosmetics Europe: Represents the interests of more than 4000 companies in the cosmetic, toiletry and perfumery industry since 196243
  • Unilever: "We do not test finished products on animals unless demanded by the regulatory authorities in the few countries where this is the law In such cases, we try to convince the local authorities to change the law Where some testing of ingredients is required by law or currently unavoidable, we aim to minimise the number of animals used"44
  • BASF: "Systematic screening investigations provide information about important toxicological properties of substances at an early stage of development  We replace animal experiments whenever an alternative method is available that complies with an OECD Test Guideline and is recognized by the authorities"45

Legislationedit

EU Directive 2010/63/EUedit

Main article: EU Directive 2010/63/EU

On January 1, 2013, EU Directive 2010/63/EU "on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes" entered into force for the EU Member States MS,46 repealing Directive 86/609/EEC47 Because it is a Directive, it allows Member States certain flexibility in transposition of national rules The status of the implementation of the new Directive in the EU is described by the EC General Environment Directorate48

Article 13: The new EU Directive applies to the following animals: a live non-human vertebrate animals, including: i independently feeding larval forms; and ii foetal forms of mammals from the last third of their normal development; b live cephalopods Article 4: The Directive refers directly to the 3Rs:6 "Principle of replacement, reduction and refinement" Article 47-2: Member States shall assist the Commission in identifying and nominating suitable specialised and qualified laboratories to carry out such validation studies

In July 2013, the Commission announced the creation of NETVAL 49 European Union Network of Laboratories for the Validation of Alternative Methods EU-NETVAL's primary role is to provide support for EURL ECVAM validation projects, including aspects of training and dissemination, and the identification of methods that have a potential to reduce, refine or replace animals used for scientific purposes50 Currently there are 13 test facilities in 9 Member States: Germany 3, The Netherlands 2, Spain 2, Belgium 1, Czech Republic 1, Finland 1, France 1, Italy 1 and Sweden 149

EU cosmetic regulationedit

The Cosmetics Directive provides the regulatory framework for the phasing out of animal testing for cosmetics purposes It establishes prohibitions against a testing finished cosmetic products and cosmetic ingredients on animals testing ban, and b marketing in the EU finished cosmetic products and ingredients included in cosmetic products which were tested on animals for cosmetics purposes marketing ban The same provisions are contained in Cosmetics Regulation EU 1223/2009, which replaces the Cosmetics Directive as of July 11, 201351

EU chemical policy: REACHedit

In 2007, EU legislation on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals REACH EC 1907/2006 came into force, relating to chemicals and their safe use52 The aim of REACH is to improve the protection of human health and the environment through the better and earlier identification of the intrinsic properties of chemical substances It promotes the use of alternative methods for animal testing, but does not oblige the test performer to do so; Article 251 - In order to avoid animal testing, testing on vertebrate animals for the purposes of this Regulation shall be undertaken only as a last resort It is also necessary to take measures limiting duplication of other tests

EU test methods regulationedit

In parallel to the adoption of REACH, the EC published standardised and accepted methods for testing hazardous properties of chemicals These were written into the "Test Methods Regulation"53 All the alternative test methods among the in vivo studies are included in PART B; "The European Union is committed to promoting the development and validation of alternative techniques which can provide the same level of information as current animal tests, but which use fewer animals, cause less suffering or avoid the use of animals completely Such methods, as they become available, must be considered wherever possible for hazard characterisation and consequent classification and labeling for intrinsic hazards and chemical safety assessment"

EU Regulation for Food Additives, Food Enzymes, and Food Flavouringsedit

EU philosophy on food additives, food enzymes, and food flavourings and ingredients intended for human consumption is that none should be put on the market unless they are included on a published Community list of authorised substances, in accordance with the conditions laid down in relevant food law This approach is intended to bring food producers into compliance with the provisions of Regulation EC 1334/2008 that pertain to the safety of food flavourings As part of the approval process, the EC will require full disclosure of study data, safety issues, and toxicological findings for all such additives54

Within the EU animal welfare law 2010/63/EU, the principles of the 3Rs are invoked whenever toxicological test methods are necessary55

Animal welfare and animal rights organizationsedit

Further information: Animal rights and List of animal welfare groups

Europeedit

  • Eurogroup for Animals: "An estimated 121 million animals – including dogs, rabbits and even our closest genetic relatives, primates – are used in laboratory research throughout Europe every year Eurogroup focusses on ensuring their protection and works with legislators, experts and industry with the aim of ultimately replacing all animal experiments with viable alternatives We continue to actively promote the replacement, reduction and refinement of animal tests and do all we can to improve the lives of those animals currently used for research"56

Austriaedit

  • Vier Pfoten Four Paws 57

Franceedit

  • Antidote: "When it is about assessing drug safety, humans are not 70kg rats! It is about time to move on from the actual paradigm on assessing drug safety The first step would be to eliminate all the regulatory requirements for animal testing and replace these tests by 21st century methods"58

Germanyedit

  • Deutscher Tierschutzbund:59

Italyedit

  • Lega Anti Vivisezione 60

Monacoedit

  • The ALEXANDRA Association: " aims at stimulating research and development R&D in the area of alternative methods to animal experimentation by providing political, technical and educational support to researchers and entrepreneurs worldwide In particular alternative methods based on 'Open Source' concepts ie non-patent protected core technologies for human tissue reconstruction and cell culture technologies will be actively promoted"61

United Kingdomedit

  • British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection BUAV: "For over 100 years the BUAV has been campaigning peacefully to create a world where nobody wants or believes we need to experiment on animals"62

United Statesedit

  • New England Anti-Vivisection Society NEAVS: "Recognition of the inadequacy of animal toxicity testing has resulted in the development of better techniques  NEAVS and its programs will help hasten the inevitable and necessary transition away from animal-based experimentation, testing, and teaching, toward science and science education governed by progressive scientific thought and compassionate ethics"63

Jointedit

  • Humane Society International HSI in the US and UK: "Today, scientific and government authorities worldwide are acknowledging the deficiencies of "animal models" and calling for a new approach to safety testing and health research using state-of-the-art techniques Advances in biology, genetics, computer science and robotics have given scientists new tools to help identify the root causes of human toxicity and disease"64
  • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals PETA in the US and UK: "We teamed up with CeeTox, Inc to fund work on a new humane skin test that could replace painful tests on mice and guinea pigs"65

Public campaigns and awardsedit

  • Petition to the European Parliament for the abolition of vivisection as a European Citizen Initiative66 The threshold of 1 million signatures was reached for the deadline 1 November 2013 The European Commission is currently checking the authenticity of each signature
  • "Go cruelty free"67
  • HSI's report "Advancing Safety Science and Health Research with Innovative, Non-Animal Tools"68
  • The Lush Prize: "The Lush Prize is a major initiative which will use resources to bring forward the day when safety testing takes place without the use of animals The Lush Prize will focus pressure on toxicity testing for consumer products and ingredients in a way which complements the many projects already addressing the use of animals in medical testing"69
  • EPAA European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing will grant a €3000 prize to a laboratory technician involved in implementing and raising awareness of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal testing70
  • The Alternatives Research and Development Foundation ARDF provides grants to advance the use of non-animal methods in the fields of biomedical testing, research, and education71
  • The international NC3Rs 3Rs Prize is awarded to highlight an outstanding original contribution to scientific and technological advances in the 3Rs in medical, biological or veterinary sciences published within the last three years72
  • The American Fund for Alternatives to Animal Research AFAAR funds a wide and encompassing range of research involving the use, development, or validation of alternatives73

Education and trainingedit

  • IIVS: The Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc is a non-profit research and testing laboratory dedicated to the advancement of in vitro non-animal methods worldwide Founded in 1997, IIVS has worked with industry and government agencies to implement in vitro testing strategies that limit animal use while supplying key information for product safety and efficacy decisions74
  • NORINA is a database containing details of products which may be used as alternatives or supplements to the use of animals in education and training75 NORINA's search engine is linked to those of two other databases: TextBase, which provides information on textbooks and other written material of relevance to laboratory animal science and alternatives, and 3R Guide which gives details of guidelines, information centres, databases, journals and email lists within the field of replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experimentation The three databases are hosted by Norecopa76
  • InterNICHE is the International Network for Humane Education It has been developed to meet the needs of teachers and trainers, students, ethics committees, alternatives producers and campaigners internationally77
  • "Tierschutz macht Schule" - the Association for Animal Welfare Education - was founded in the course of the implementation of Austria's nationwide animal welfare law The animal welfare education association aims to improve the living conditions of pets, farm animals, laboratory animals and wild animals through providing knowledge about their needs and behaviour to children, youth and the public78 The association offers a teaching magazine about research animals and animal tests suitable for secondary schools and college, which can be ordered on their website It aims at explaining alternatives to animal testing in a youth appropriate language and can be used in lessons straight away
  • XCellR8's mission is to support, develop and implement the use of scientifically advanced and ethically sound alternatives to animal testing They are an exclusively in vitro company, with commitment to promoting non-animal testing strategies at the core of all of their activities79

Institutes and national or international organizationsedit

Institutes and organizations that research or fund alternatives to animal testing include:

Asia - Oceaniaedit

Australiaedit

  • Medical Advances Without Animals Trust80

Indiaedit

  • Alternatives to Animal Experimentation Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh81
  • Mahatma Gandhi-Doerenkamp Center for Alternatives to Use of Animals in Life Science, Bharathidasan university, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India Education82

Japanedit

  • Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods JACVAM, since 200583

South Koreaedit

  • The Korean Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods KOCVAM, since 200984

South Americaedit

Braziledit

  • BraCVAM as the Brazilian Center for the Validation of Alternatives Methods It was established in 20118586

North Americaedit

Canadaedit

  • Canadian Council on Animal Care87
  • Health Canada, which does not have a formal validation center, but coordinates health related test method validation and acceptance issues88

United States of Americaedit

  • American Fund for Alternatives to Animal Research AFAAR: "Over the years, AFAAR has funded alternatives worldwide, including more than 200 human tissue culture tests to replace toxicity and other testing on animals  Today, AFAAR funds a wide and encompassing range of research involving the use, development, or validation of alternatives"73
  • Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods ICCVAM, since 1994;89
  • Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing90
  • Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine
  • UC Davis Center for Animal Alternatives

Europeedit

  • The EC's involvement in activities targeted to the validation of alternative approaches to animal testing started in 1991, with the launch of ECVAM European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods, hosted by the Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection IHCP As from 2011, ECVAM's tasks are assigned to EURL ECVAM91 Official bodies such as the EURL ECVAM,91 hosts an online database of toxicological, non-animal alternative test methods DB-ALM,92
  • Under the Framework Programmes 6 and 7, the EC funded a significant number of large integrated research projects aiming to develop alternatives to animal testing for about EUR 330 million based on the Review of REACH from February 2013 the European Chemical Program93
  • The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing EPAA as a liaison between the EC and industries94
  • The European Consensus Platform for Alternatives ECOPA coordinates efforts amongst EU member states95

Austriaedit

  • Zentrum fuer Ersatz96

Finlandedit

  • Finish Center for Alternative Methods FICAM, since 200897

Franceedit

  • FRANCOPA is the French platform dedicated to development, validation, and dissemination of alternative methods in animal testing It was created in November 16, 2007 98

Germanyedit

  • Zentralstelle zur Erfassung und Bewertung von Ersatz- und Ergänzungsmethoden ZEBET, since 198999100

Norwayedit

  • Norecopa is the Norwegian consensus platform for the replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments It was founded on October 10, 2007 101

Romaniaedit

  • Romanian Center for Alternative Test Methods ROCAM promotes the application of alternative methods in industry and their acceptance by regulators in Romania and also the development of new methods and approaches ROCAM was established in June 2015 with the main goal to support and promote the 3Rs principles in Romania and regionally

United Kingdomedit

  • Dr Hadwen Trust
  • Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments102
  • National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research NC3Rs, since 2004103

Internationaledit

ICATMedit

International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods ICATM: On April 27, 2009 the United States, Canada, Japan and EU signed a memorandum of cooperation that could reduce the number of animals required for consumer product safety testing worldwide The agreement will yield globally coordinated scientific recommendations on alternative toxicity testing methods that should speed their adoption in each of these countries, thus reducing the number of animals needed for product safety testing104

International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods ICATM
Legend :
ICH: The International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use105
OECD: The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has a Test Guideline program that deals with chemicals106
ICCR: The International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulation ICCR is an international group of cosmetic regulatory authorities from the United States FDA, Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, the EU EC, DG Enterprise, and Canada Health Canada This multilateral framework maintains the highest level of global consumer protection, while minimizing barriers to international trade107

OECDedit

The OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is a forum for discussion where governments express their points of view, share their experiences, and search for common ground, as opposed to a supranational organization108 OECD is a forum where alternative test methods also undergo validation and are therereafter accepted for regulatory purposes in more than 35 member countries worldwide109 NGOs are represented at the technical level at the OECD, under the ICOPA International Council on Animal Protection in OECD program110

The testing of chemicals is labor-intensive and expensive Often the same chemical is tested in several countries simultaneously, which means that redundant animal tests are performed To relieve some of this burden, the OECD Council adopted a decision in 1981, stating that data generated in a member country, in accordance with OECD Test Guidelines and Principles of Good Laboratory Practice GLP, shall be accepted in other member countries for assessment purposes and other uses relating to the protection of human health and the environment This principle is referred to using the acronym MAD, for the Mutual Acceptance of Data108

See alsoedit

  • In vitro toxicology

Referencesedit

  1. ^ R E Hester R M Harrison et al Alternatives To Animal Testing Issues in Environmental Science and Technology Royal Society of Chemistry; 1 edition June 7, 2006 ISBN 978-0-85404-211-1
  2. ^ Lipinski, Christopher; Hopkins, A 16 December 2004 "Navigating chemical space for biology and medicine" Nature 432 7019: 855–61 PMID 15602551 doi:101038/nature03193 
  3. ^ Malcolm Rowland February 2006 "Microdosing and the 3Rs" National Center for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research NC3Rs Archived from the original on 28 September 2007 Retrieved 2007-09-22 
  4. ^ "Alternatives" Speaking of Research 2009-07-31 Retrieved 2014-02-26 
  5. ^ FRAME 2005 "Human microdosing reduces the number of animals required for pre-clinical pharmaceutical research" Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 33 439 
  6. ^ a b Russell, WMS and Burch, RL, 1959 The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, Methuen, London ISBN 0-900767-78-2 1
  7. ^ "Special section: Monoclonal antibodies" Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Archived from the original on 2007-08-20 Retrieved 2007-09-20 
  8. ^ Brunner D; Frank Jürgen; App Helmut; Schöffl Harald; Pfaller Walter; Gstraunthaler Gerhard 2010 "Serum-free Cell Culture: The Serum-free Media Interactive Online Database" Altex 27: 53–62 
  9. ^ "EpiDermTM Tissue Model" MatTek Corporation Retrieved 7 July 2015 
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External linksedit

  • National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research
  • Alternatives to Animals: The Latest: Tracks news stories about scientific developments in alternatives to animal use
  • International Network for Humane Education
  • Go3R: semantic search to avoid animal experiments
  • The Use of Databases, Information Centers and Guidelines When Planning Research that May Involve Animals, Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin, National Agricultural Library Provides an overview of databases, bibliographies and guidelines that provide useful information on alternative methods when planning research that may involve animals
  • CADASTER Seventh Framework Programme project aimed to develop computational methods to minimize number of experimental tests for REACH – Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals

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