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Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn `Uthman ibn Qayyim `Abu `Abd Allah Shams ad-Din al-Dhahabi Arabic: محمد بن احمد بن عثمان بن قيم ، أبو عبد الله شمس الدين الذهبي‎‎, known as Al-Dhahabi 5 October 1274–3 February 13483, a Shafi'i Muhaddith and historian of Islam


  • 1 Biography
  • 2 Teachers
  • 3 Works
    • 31 List of popular works
  • 4 See also
  • 5 External links
  • 6 References


Al-Dhahabi was born in Damascus on 5 October 1274, where his family had lived from the time of his grandfather `Uthman He sometimes identified himself as Ibn al-Dhahabi son of the goldsmith in reference to his father's profession He began his study of hadith at age eighteen, travelling from Damascus to Baalbek, Homs, Hama, Aleppo, Nabulus, Cairo, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Hijaz, and elsewhere, after which he returned to Damascus, where he taught and authored many works and achieved wide renown as a perspicuous critic and expert examiner of the hadith, encyclopedic historian and biographer, and foremost authority in the canonical readings of the Qur'an He studied under more than 100 women4 His most important teacher at Baalbek included a woman, Zaynab bint ʿUmar b al-Kindī5 He lost his sight two years before he died, leaving three children: his eldest daughter Amat al-`Aziz and his two sons `Abd Allah and Abu Hurayra `Abd al-Rahman The latter taught the hadith masters Ibn Nasir al-Din al-Dimashqi6 and Ibn Hajar, to whom he transmitted several works authored or narrated by his father


Among al-Dhahabi's most notable teachers in hadith, fiqh and aqida:

  • ʿAbd al-K̲h̲āliḳ b ʿUlwān
  • Zaynab bint ʿUmar b al-Kindī
  • Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Mas‘ud ibn Nafis al-Musali
  • Ibn Taymiyyah Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah
  • Ibn al-Zahiri, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah al-Halabi
  • Sharaf al-Din al-Dimyati, `Abd al-Mu'min ibn Khalaf, the foremost Egyptian authority on hadith in his time
  • Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Daqiq al-'Id, whom he identified in his youth as Abu al-Fath al-Qushayri, later as Ibn Wahb7
  • Jamal al-Din Abu al-Ma`ali Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Ansari al-Zamalkani al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i d 727, whom he called "Qadi al-Qudat, the Paragon of Islam, the standard-bearer of the Sunna, my shaykh"
  • Al-Abarquhi, Ahmad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad al-Misri d 701, from which al-Dhahabi received the Suhrawardi Sufi path8


Dhahabi authored nearly a hundred works, some of them of considerable size His work regarding the practice of prophetic medicine was straightforward in its presentation, but also categorized by the author as alternative medicine Much of it consisted of an integration of medicine as understood from the revelations of the Muslim prophet Muhammad and the practices of Pre-Islamic Arabia with Ancient Greek medicine, quoting heavily from the ideas and terminologies of Hippocrates and Ibn Sina9

List of popular worksedit

  • Tarikh al-Islam al-kabir Major History of Islam; Ibn Hajar received it from Abu Hurayra ibn al-Dhahabi10
  • Siyar a`lam al-nubala' The Lives of Noble Figures, 23 volumes, a unique encyclopedia of biographical history
  • Tadhhib Tahdhib al-Kamal, an abridgement of al-Mizzi's abridgement of al-Maqdisee's Al-Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal, a compendium of historical biographies for hadith narrators cited in the Six major Hadith collections
    • Al-Kashif fi Ma`rifa Man Lahu Riwaya fi al-Kutub al-Sitta, an abridgment of the Tadhhib
      • Al-Mujarrad fi Asma' Rijal al-Kutub al-Sitta, an abridgment of the Kashif
  • Mukhtasar Kitab al-Wahm wa al-Iham li Ibn al-Qattan
  • Mukhtasar Sunan al-Bayhaqi, an abridgement of Bayhaqi's Sunan al-Kubara
  • Mukhtasar al-Mustadrak li al-Hakim, an abdridgement of Hakim's Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
  • Al-Amsar Dhawat al-Athar Cities Rich in Historical Relics, which begins with the description of Madina al-Munawwara
  • Al-Tajrid fi Asma' al-Sahaba, a dictionary of the Companions
  • Tadhkirat al-huffaz The Memorial of the Hadith Masters, a chronological history of the biography of hadith masters Ibn Hajar received it from Abu Hurayra ibn al-Dhahabi11
  • Al-Mu`in fi Tabaqat al-Muhaddithin, a compendium of hadith scholars Muhaddithin
  • Tabaqat al-Qurra Biography-Layers of the Qur'anic Scholars
  • Duwal al-Islam The Islamic Nations, a condensed history with emphasis on political figures and events
  • Al-Kaba'ir The Major Sins
  • Manaaqib Al-imam Abu Hanifa wa saahibayhi Abu Yusuf wa Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan The Honoured status of Imam Abu Hanifa and his two companions, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan

See alsoedit

  • Islamic scholars

External linksedit

  • Dhahabi's Letter to Ibn Taymiyya


  1. ^ a b Halverson, Jeffry R 2010 Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam Pelgrave Macmillan p 43 ISBN 9781137473578 
  2. ^ Spevack, Aaron 2014 The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri State University of New York Press p 169 ISBN 978-1-4384-5370-5 
  3. ^ Hoberman, Barry September–October 1982 "The Battle of Talas", Saudi Aramco World, p 26-31 Indiana University
  4. ^ The Female Teachers of the Historian of Islam: al-Ḏh̲ahabī PDF 
  5. ^ " al-Ḏh̲ahabī" Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition Brill Online , 2012 Reference Princeton University Library 09 June 2012 
  6. ^ al-Sakhawi, al-Daw' al-Lami` 8:103
  7. ^ Cf al-`Uluw Abu al-Fath and al-Muqiza Ibn Wahb
  8. ^ Siyar A`lam al-Nubala SAN 17:118–119 #6084, 16:300–302 #5655
  9. ^ Emilie Savage-Smith, "Medicine" Taken from Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Volume 3: Technology, Alchemy and Life Sciences, pg 928 Ed Roshdi Rashed London: Routledge, 1996 ISBN 0415124123
  10. ^ Ibn Hajar, al-Mu`jam p 400 #1773
  11. ^ Ibn Hajar, al-Mu`jam p 400 #1774

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