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Airborne disease

airborne diseases, airborne disease transmission
An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens that can be transmitted through the air Such diseases include many of considerable importance both in human and veterinary medicine The relevant pathogens may be viruses, bacteria, or fungi, and they may be spread through breathing, talking, coughing, sneezing, raising of dust, spraying of liquids, toilet flushing or any activities which generates aerosol particles or droplets Human airborne diseases do not include conditions caused by air pollution such as volatile organic compounds VOCs, gasses and any airborne particles, though their study and prevention may help inform the science of airborne disease transmission

Contents

  • 1 Overview
  • 2 Causes
  • 3 Transmission
  • 4 Prevention
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References

Overview

Airborne diseases include any that are caused via transmission through the air Many airborne diseases are of great medical importance The pathogens transmitted may be any kind of microbe, and they may be spread in aerosols, dust or liquids The aerosols might be generated from sources of infection such as the bodily secretions of an infected animal or person, or biological wastes such as accumulate in lofts, caves, garbage and the like Such infected aerosols may stay suspended in air currents long enough to travel for considerable distances, though the rate of infection decreases sharply with the distance between the source and the organism infected

Airborne pathogens or allergens often cause inflammation in the nose, throat, sinuses and the lungs This is caused by the inhalation of these pathogens that affect a person's respiratory system or even the rest of the body Sinus congestion, coughing and sore throats are examples of inflammation of the upper respiratory air way due to these airborne agents Air pollution plays a significant role in airborne diseases which is linked to asthma Pollutants are said to influence lung function by increasing air way inflammation

Many common infections can spread by airborne transmission at least in some cases, including: Anthrax inhalational, Chickenpox, Influenza, Measles, Smallpox, Cryptococcosis, and Tuberculosis

Airborne diseases can also affect non-humans For example, Newcastle disease is an avian disease that affects many types of domestic poultry worldwide which is transmitted via airborne contamination Often, airborne pathogens or allergens cause inflammation in the nose, throat, sinuses, and the upper airway lungs Upper airway inflammation causes coughing congestion, and sore throat This is caused by the inhalation of these pathogens that affect a person's respiratory system or even the rest of the body Sinus congestion, coughing and sore throats are examples of inflammation of the upper respiratory air way due to these airborne agents

Causes

An airborne disease can be caused by exposure to a source: an infected patient or animal, by being transferred from the infected person or animal’s mouth, nose, cut, or needle puncture People receive the disease through a portal of entry: mouth, nose, cut, or needle puncture

Transmission

Airborne transmission of disease depends on several physical variables endemic to the infectious particle Environmental factors influence the efficacy of airborne disease transmission; the most evident environmental conditions are temperature and relative humidity The sum of all the factors that influence temperature and humidity, either meteorological outdoor or human indoor, as well as other circumstances influencing the spread of the droplets containing the infectious particles, as winds, or human behavior, sum up the factors influencing the transmission of airborne diseases

  • Climate and living area Rainfall number of rainy days being more important than total precipitation, mean of sunshine daily hours, latitude, altitude are characteristic agents to take in account when assessing the possibility of spread of any airborne infection Furthermore, some infrequent or exceptional extreme events also influence the dissemination of airborne diseases, as tropical storms, hurricanes, typhoons, or monsoons Climate conditions determine temperature, winds and relative humidity in any territory, either all year around or at isolated moments days or weeks Those are the main factors affecting the spread, duration and infectiousness of droplets containing infectious particles For instance, influenza virus, is spread easily in northern countries north hemisphere, because of climate conditions which favour the infectiousness of the virus but on the other hand, in those countries, lots of bacterial infections cannot spread outdoor most of the year, keeping in a latent stage
UV is harmful to both viruses and bacteria UV incidence can determine the survival of the infectious particles, so that in those territories with a higher average of sunshine daily hours, and closer to the equator, some particles lose their infectious ability Infectious particles show and increased survival in the presence of UV light at higher relative humidity levels It is thought to be due to the protective effect of larger particle sizes, as evaporation would be less at these higher RH levels, showing a protective effect of a thicker water coat After isolated events, as tropical storms, has been determined that firstly the quantity of fungal spores is decreased, but a few days later, an exponentially increased number of spores is found, compared to normal conditions
  • Socioeconomics and living conditions They have a minor role in airborne diseases transmission, but they also have to be taken in consideration Dwelling is an important aspect In cities the spread of diseases is faster than in rural areas and outskirts Normally, cities enclose quarters of buildings, in which the transmission of the viral and bacterial diseases among the neighborhoods is uncomplicated However, suburban areas are generally more favourable for higher airborne fungal spores
Nearness to large sources of water as rivers and lakes can be a cause of some outbreaks of airborne diseases, after changes in local watershed Poor sewage systems are usually found in poor countries, especially in the rural areas, and can determine the proliferation of infectious bacteria, that once infecting animal or humans can be transmitted throughout the air Working conditions, can also settle infectious airborne diseases At indoor environments, temperature and relative humidity are mainly affected by HVAC systems heating, ventilation and air conditioning Inadequate ventilation is implicated in the airborne transmission of respiratory viruses Poor maintenance or defects on those systems can foster the conditions for airborne infections For instance, a poor maintenance of air conditioning systems, can lead to an outbreak of Legionella mainly Legionella pneumophila, that will spread among the population of the building workers, before the finding of the focal point In hospitals, isolation of patients sick of infectious diseases has to be added as a factor, which is noticeable in poor regions, where lack of resources facilitates the spread of infectious diseases

Prevention

Some ways to prevent airborne diseases include washing hands, using appropriate hand disinfection, getting regular immunizations against diseases believed to be locally present, wearing a respirator and limiting time spent in the presence of any patient likely to be a source of infection Exposure to a patient or animal with an airborne disease does not guarantee receiving the disease Because of the changes in host immunity and how much the host was exposed to the particles in the air makes a difference to how the disease affects the body

Antibiotics are not prescribed for patients to control viral infections They may however be prescribed to a flu patient for instance, to control or prevent bacterial secondary infections They also may be used in dealing with air-borne bacterial primary infections, such as pneumonic plague

Additionally the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC has told consumers about vaccination and following careful hygiene and sanitation protocols for airborne disease prevention Consumers also have access to preventive measures like UV Air purification devices that FDA and EPA-certified laboratory test data has verified as effective in inactivating a broad array of airborne infectious diseases Many public health specialists recommend social distancing to reduce the transmission of airborne infections

See also

  • Vector epidemiology
  • Waterborne diseases
  • Zoonosis

References

  1. ^ "Airborne diseases" Archived from the original on 28 June 2012 Retrieved 21 May 2013 
  2. ^ Mitchell, Bailey W; King, Daniel J October–December 1994 "Effect of Negative Air Ionization on Airborne Transmission of Newcastle Disease Virus" Avian Diseases 38 4 JSTOR 1592107 Retrieved 21 May 2013 
  3. ^ a b Pica N, Bouvier NM 2012 "Environmental Factors Affecting the Transmission of Respiratory Viruses" Curr Opin Virol 2 1: 90–5 doi:101016/jcoviro201112003 PMC 3311988  PMID 22440971 
  4. ^ a b Rodríguez-Rajo FJ, Iglesias I, Jato V 2005 "Variation assessment of airborne Alternaria and Cladosporium spores at different bioclimatical conditions" Mycol Res 109: 497–507 doi:101017/s0953756204001777 PMID 15912938 
  5. ^ Peternel R, Culig J, Hrga I 2004 "Atmospheric concentrations of Cladosporium spp and Alternaria spp spores in Zagreb Croatia and effects of some meteorological factors" Ann Agric Environ Med 11: 303–7 PMID 15627341 
  6. ^ Sabariego S, Díaz de la Guardia C, Alba F May 2000 "The effect of meteorological factors on the daily variation of airborne fungal spores in Granada southern Spain" Int J Biometeorol 44 1: 1–5 doi:101007/s004840050131 PMID 10879421 
  7. ^ a b Hedlund C, Blomstedt Y, Schumann B 2014 "Association of climatic factors with infectious diseases in the Arctic and subarctic region – a systematic review" Glob Health Action 7: 24161 doi:103402/ghav724161 PMC 4079933  PMID 24990685 
  8. ^ a b Tang JW 2009 "The effect of environmental parameters on the survival of airborne infectious agents" J R Soc Interface 6 Suppl 6: S737–46 doi:101098/rsif20090227focus PMC 2843949  PMID 19773291 
  9. ^ Khan NN, Wilson BL 2003 "An environmental assessment of mold concentrations and potential mycotoxin exposures in the greater Southeast Texas area" J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 38: 2759–72 PMID 14672314 
  10. ^ Fernstrom A, Goldblatt M 2013 "Aerobiology and its role in the transmission of infectious diseases" J Pathog 2013: 493960 doi:101155/2013/493960 PMC 3556854  PMID 23365758 
  11. ^ "Aerosolization 's Roll in Transmission of Healthcare Acquired Conditions" Retrieved 12 April 2015 
  12. ^ "Legionnaire disease" Retrieved 12 April 2015 
  13. ^ a b American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons AAOS 2011 Bloodborne and Airborne Pathogens Jones & Barlett Publishers p 2 Retrieved 21 May 2013 
  14. ^ Laura Ester Ziady; Nico Small 2006 Prevent and Control Infection: Application Made Easy Juta and Company Ltd pp 119–120 Retrieved 21 May 2013 
  15. ^ "Redirect - Vaccines: VPD-VAC/VPD menu page" 
  16. ^ "Chamber Test Analysis on Eco-RX Inc Model 400 Air Purifier" PDF Retrieved 4 May 2007 
  17. ^ Glass RJ, Glass LM, Beyeler WE, Min HJ November 2006 "Targeted social distancing design for pandemic influenza" Emerging Infect Dis 12 11: 1671–81 doi:103201/eid1211060255 PMC 3372334  PMID 17283616 

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    29.10.2014


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