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A.I. Artificial Intelligence

a.i. artificial intelligence, a.i. artificial intelligence robots
Ian Watson

uncredited: Stanley Kubrick Based on "Super-Toys Last All Summer Long"
by Brian Aldiss Starring
  • Haley Joel Osment
  • Jude Law
  • Frances O'Connor
  • Brendan Gleeson
  • William Hurt
Music by John Williams Cinematography Janusz Kamiński Edited by Michael Kahn Production
company
  • Amblin Entertainment
  • Stanley Kubrick Productions
Distributed by
  • International:
  • Warner Bros Pictures
  • North America:
  • DreamWorks Pictures
Release dates
  • June 29, 2001 2001-06-29
Running time 146 minutes Country United States Language English Budget $100 million Box office $2359 million

AI Artificial Intelligence, also known as AI, is a 2001 American science fiction drama film directed by Steven Spielberg The screenplay by Spielberg was based on a screen story by Ian Watson and the 1969 short story "Super-Toys Last All Summer Long" by Brian Aldiss The film was produced by Kathleen Kennedy, Spielberg and Bonnie Curtis It stars Haley Joel Osment, Jude Law, Frances O'Connor, Brendan Gleeson and William Hurt Set in a futuristic post-climate change society, AI tells the story of David Osment, a childlike android uniquely programmed with the ability to love

Development of AI originally began with producer-director Stanley Kubrick after he acquired the rights to Aldiss' story in 1982 Kubrick hired a series of writers until the mid-1990s, including Brian Aldiss, Bob Shaw, Ian Watson, and Sara Maitland The film languished in protracted development for years, partly because Kubrick felt computer-generated imagery was not advanced enough to create the David character, whom he believed no child actor would convincingly portray In 1995, Kubrick handed AI to Spielberg, but the film did not gain momentum until Kubrick's death in 1999 Spielberg remained close to Watson's film treatment for the screenplay The film was greeted with generally positive reviews from critics, grossed approximately $235 million, and was nominated for two Academy Awards at the 74th Academy Awards for Best Visual Effects and Best Original Score by John Williams The film is dedicated to Stanley Kubrick

Contents

  • 1 Plot
  • 2 Cast
  • 3 Production
    • 31 Development
    • 32 Pre-production
    • 33 Filming
  • 4 Soundtrack
  • 5 Release
    • 51 Marketing
    • 52 Box office
    • 53 Critical response
    • 54 Accolades
  • 6 References
  • 7 Further reading
  • 8 External links

Plot

In the late 22nd century, global warming has flooded the coastlines, wiping out coastal cities such as Amsterdam, Venice, and New York City and drastically reducing the human population There is a new class of robots called Mecha, advanced humanoids capable of emulating thoughts and emotions

David Haley Joel Osment, a prototype model created by Cybertronics of New Jersey, is designed to resemble a human child and to display love for its human owners They test their creation with one of their employees, Henry Swinton Sam Robards, and his wife Monica Frances O'Connor The Swintons' son, Martin Jake Thomas, had been placed in suspended animation until a cure could be found for his rare disease Initially frightened of David, Monica eventually warms up enough to him to activate his imprinting protocol, which irreversibly causes David to have an enduring childlike love for her He is also befriended by Teddy Jack Angel, a robotic teddy bear, who takes it upon himself to care for David's well-being

A cure is found for Martin and he is brought home; as he recovers, it becomes clear he does not want a sibling and soon makes moves to cause issues for David First, he attempts to make Teddy choose whom he likes more He then makes David promise to do something and in return Martin will tell Monica that he loves his new "brother", making her love him more The promise David makes is to go to Monica in the middle of the night and cut off a lock of her hair This upsets the parents, particularly Henry, who fears that the scissors are a weapon, and warns Monica that a robot programmed to love may also be able to hate

At a pool party, one of Martin's friends unintentionally activates David's self-protection programming by poking him with a knife David grabs Martin, apparently for protection, but they both fall into the pool David sinks to the bottom while still clinging to Martin Martin is saved from drowning, but Henry mistakes David's fear during the pool incident as hate for Martin

Henry persuades Monica to return David to Cybertronics, where he will be destroyed However, Monica cannot bring herself to do this and, instead, tearfully abandons David in the forest with Teddy to hide as an unregistered Mecha

David is captured for an anti-Mecha "Flesh Fair", an event where obsolete and unlicensed Mecha are destroyed in front of cheering crowds David is nearly killed, but the crowd is swayed by his fear since Mecha do not plead for their lives into believing he is human and he escapes with Gigolo Joe Jude Law, a male prostitute Mecha on the run after being framed for the murder of a client by the client's husband

The two set out to find the Blue Fairy, who David remembers from the story The Adventures of Pinocchio He is convinced that the Blue Fairy will transform him into a human boy, allowing Monica to love him and take him home

Joe and David make their way to Rouge City, a Las Vegas-esque resort Information from a holographic answer engine called "Dr Know" Robin Williams eventually leads them to the top of Rockefeller Center in the flooded ruins of Manhattan There, David meets an identical copy of himself and, believing he is not special, becomes filled with anger and destroys the copy Mecha David then meets his human creator, Professor Allen Hobby William Hurt, who excitedly tells David that finding him was a test, which has demonstrated the reality of his love and desire However, David learns that he is the namesake and image of Professor Hobby's deceased son and that many copies of David, along with female versions called Darlene, are already being manufactured

Sadly realizing that he is not unique, a disheartened David attempts to commit suicide by falling from a ledge into the ocean, but Joe rescues him with their stolen amphibicopter David tells Joe he saw the Blue Fairy underwater and wants to go down to her At that moment, Joe is captured by the authorities with the use of an electromagnet, but he sets the amphibicopter on submerge David and Teddy take it to the fairy, which turns out to be a statue from a submerged attraction at Coney Island Teddy and David become trapped when the Wonder Wheel falls on their vehicle Believing the Blue Fairy to be real, David asks to be turned into a real boy, repeating his wish without an end, until the ocean freezes in another ice age and his internal power source drains away

Two thousand years later, humans are extinct and Manhattan is buried under several hundred feet of glacial ice The now highly advanced Mecha have evolved into an intelligent, silicon-based form On their project to study humans—believing it was the key to understanding the meaning of existence—they find David and Teddy and discover they are original Mecha who knew living humans, making the pair very special and unique

David is revived and walks to the frozen Blue Fairy statue, which cracks and collapses as he touches it Having downloaded and comprehended his memories, the advanced Mecha use these to reconstruct the Swinton home and explain to David via an interactive image of the Blue Fairy Meryl Streep that it is impossible to make him human However, at David's insistence, they recreate Monica from DNA in the lock of her hair, which Teddy had saved One of the Mecha warns David that the clone can live for only a single day and that the process cannot be repeated The next morning, David is reunited with Monica and spends the happiest day of his life with her and Teddy Monica tells David that she loves him and has always loved him as she drifts to sleep for the last time David lies down next to her, closes his eyes and goes "to that place where dreams are born" in fact turns off, being exhausted and at the end of his technical lifetime Teddy climbs onto the bed and watches as David and Monica lie peacefully together

Cast

  • Haley Joel Osment as David, an innovative Mecha created by Cybertronics and programmed with the ability to love He is adopted by Henry and Monica Swinton, but a sibling rivalry ensues once their son Martin comes out of suspended animation Osment was Spielberg's first and only choice for the role Osment avoided blinking his eyes to perfectly portray the character, and "programmed" himself with good posture for realism
  • Jude Law as Gigolo Joe, a male prostitute Mecha programmed with the ability to mimic love, like David, but in a different sense To prepare for the role, Law studied the acting of Fred Astaire and Gene Kelly
  • Frances O'Connor as Monica Swinton, David's adopted mother who reads him The Adventures of Pinocchio She is first displeased to have David in her home but soon starts loving him
  • Sam Robards as Henry Swinton, an employee at Cybertronics, husband of Monica and David's adopted father Henry eventually sees David as dangerous to his family
  • Jake Thomas as Martin Swinton, Henry and Monica's first son, who was placed in suspended animation and David's adopted brother When Martin comes back, he convinces David to cut off a lock of Monica's hair
  • William Hurt as Professor Allen Hobby, responsible for shepherding the creation of David He resides in New York City, which is crippled by the effects of global warming but still functioning as Cybertronics' headquarters David is modeled after Hobby's own son, also named David, who died at a young age
  • Brendan Gleeson as Lord Johnson-Johnson, the owner and master of ceremonies of the Flesh Fair
  • Ashley Scott as Gigolo Jane
Voices
  • Jack Angel as Teddy, David's android teddy bear
  • Ben Kingsley as a Mecha specialist He is also uncredited as the narrator
  • Robin Williams as Dr Know, a holographic answer engine Cameo
  • Meryl Streep as The Blue Fairy Cameo
  • Chris Rock as a Mecha comedian destroyed at the Flesh Fair Cameo

Production

Development

Kubrick began development on an adaptation of "Super-Toys Last All Summer Long" in the late 1970s, hiring the story's author, Brian Aldiss, to write a film treatment In 1985, Kubrick brought Steven Spielberg on board to produce the film, along with Jan Harlan Warner Bros agreed to co-finance AI and cover distribution duties The film labored in development hell, and Aldiss was fired by Kubrick over creative differences in 1989 Bob Shaw served as writer very briefly, leaving after six weeks because of Kubrick's demanding work schedule, and Ian Watson was hired as the new writer in March 1990 Aldiss later remarked, "Not only did the bastard fire me, he hired my enemy instead" Kubrick handed Watson The Adventures of Pinocchio for inspiration, calling AI "a picaresque robot version of Pinocchio"

Three weeks later Watson gave Kubrick his first story treatment, and concluded his work on AI in May 1991 with another treatment, at 90 pages Gigolo Joe was originally conceived as a GI Mecha, but Watson suggested changing him to a male prostitute Kubrick joked, "I guess we lost the kiddie market" In the meantime, Kubrick dropped AI to work on a film adaptation of Wartime Lies, feeling computer animation was not advanced enough to create the David character However, after the release of Spielberg's Jurassic Park with its innovative use of computer-generated imagery, it was announced in November 1993 that production would begin in 1994 Dennis Muren and Ned Gorman, who worked on Jurassic Park, became visual effects supervisors, but Kubrick was displeased with their previsualization, and with the expense of hiring Industrial Light & Magic

Stanley showed Steven 650 drawings which he had, and the script and the story, everything Stanley said, "Look, why don't you direct it and I'll produce it" Steven was almost in shock

Producer Jan Harlan, on Spielberg's first meeting with Kubrick about AI

Pre-production

In early 1994, the film was in pre-production with Christopher "Fangorn" Baker as concept artist, and Sara Maitland assisting on the story, which gave it "a feminist fairy-tale focus" Maitland said that Kubrick never referred to the film as AI, but as Pinocchio Chris Cunningham became the new visual effects supervisor Some of his unproduced work for AI can be seen on the DVD, The Work of Director Chris Cunningham Aside from considering computer animation, Kubrick also had Joseph Mazzello do a screen test for the lead role Cunningham helped assemble a series of "little robot-type humans" for the David character "We tried to construct a little boy with a movable rubber face to see whether we could make it look appealing," producer Jan Harlan reflected "But it was a total failure, it looked awful" Hans Moravec was brought in as a technical consultant Meanwhile, Kubrick and Harlan thought AI would be closer to Steven Spielberg's sensibilities as director Kubrick handed the position to Spielberg in 1995, but Spielberg chose to direct other projects, and convinced Kubrick to remain as director The film was put on hold due to Kubrick's commitment to Eyes Wide Shut 1999 After the filmmaker's death in March 1999, Harlan and Christiane Kubrick approached Spielberg to take over the director's position By November 1999, Spielberg was writing the screenplay based on Watson's 90-page story treatment It was his first solo screenplay credit since Close Encounters of the Third Kind 1977 Spielberg remained close to Watson's treatment, but removed various sex scenes with Gigolo Joe Pre-production was briefly halted during February 2000, because Spielberg pondered directing other projects, which were Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Minority Report and Memoirs of a Geisha The following month Spielberg announced that AI would be his next project, with Minority Report as a follow-up When he decided to fast track AI, Spielberg brought Chris Baker back as concept artist

Filming

The original start date was July 10, 2000, but filming was delayed until August Aside from a couple of weeks shooting on location in Oxbow Regional Park in Oregon, AI was shot entirely using sound stages at Warner Bros Studios and the Spruce Goose Dome in Long Beach, south LA The Swinton house was constructed on Stage 16, while Stage 20 was used for Rouge City and other sets Spielberg copied Kubrick's obsessively secretive approach to filmmaking by refusing to give the complete script to cast and crew, banning press from the set, and making actors sign confidentiality agreements Social robotics expert Cynthia Breazeal served as technical consultant during production Haley Joel Osment and Jude Law applied prosthetic makeup daily in an attempt to look shinier and robotic Costume designer Bob Ringwood Batman, Troy studied pedestrians on the Las Vegas Strip for his influence on the Rouge City extras Spielberg found post-production on AI difficult because he was simultaneously preparing to shoot Minority Report

Soundtrack

Main article: AI Artificial Intelligence soundtrack

The film's soundtrack was released by Warner Sunset Records in 2001 The original score was composed by John Williams and featured singers Lara Fabian on two songs and Josh Groban on one The film's score also had a limited release as an official "For your consideration Academy Promo", as well as a complete score issue by La-La Land Records in 2015 The band Ministry appears in the film playing the song "What About Us" but the song does not appear on the official soundtrack album

Release

Marketing

Warner Bros used an alternate reality game titled The Beast to promote the film Over forty websites were created by Atomic Pictures in New York City kept online at Cloudmakersorg including the website for Cybertronics Corp There were to be a series of video games for the Xbox video game console that followed the storyline of The Beast, but they went undeveloped To avoid audiences mistaking AI for a family film, no action figures were created, although Hasbro released a talking Teddy following the film's release in June 2001

In November 2000, during production, a video-only webcam dubbed the "Bagel Cam" was placed in the craft services truck on the film's set at the Queen Mary Dome in Long Beach, California Steven Spielberg, producer Kathleen Kennedy and various other production personnel visited the camera and interacted with fans over the course of three days

AI had its premiere at the Venice Film Festival in 2001

Box office

The film opened in 3,242 theaters in the United States on June 29, 2001, earning $29,352,630 during its opening weekend AI went on to gross $7862 million in US totals as well as $15731 million in foreign countries, coming to a worldwide total of $23593 million

Critical response

The film received generally positive reviews Based on 190 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, 73% of the critics gave the film positive notices with a score of 66 out of 10 The website described the critical consensus perceiving the film as "a curious, not always seamless, amalgamation of Kubrick's chilly bleakness and Spielberg's warm-hearted optimism is, in a word, fascinating" By comparison, Metacritic collected an average score of 65, based on 32 reviews, which is considered favorable

Producer Jan Harlan stated that Kubrick "would have applauded" the final film, while Kubrick's widow Christiane also enjoyed AI Brian Aldiss admired the film as well: "I thought what an inventive, intriguing, ingenious, involving film this was There are flaws in it and I suppose I might have a personal quibble but it's so long since I wrote it" Of the film's ending, he wondered how it might have been had Kubrick directed the film: "That is one of the 'ifs' of film history - at least the ending indicates Spielberg adding some sugar to Kubrick's wine The actual ending is overly sympathetic and moreover rather overtly engineered by a plot device that does not really bear credence But it's a brilliant piece of film and of course it's a phenomenon because it contains the energies and talents of two brilliant filmmakers" Richard Corliss heavily praised Spielberg's direction, as well as the cast and visual effects Roger Ebert awarded the film 4 out of 4 stars, saying that it was "Audacious, technically masterful, challenging, sometimes moving ceaselessly watchable Leonard Maltin gives the film a not-so-positive review in his Movie Guide, giving it two stars out of four, writing: " intriguing story draws us in, thanks in part to Osment's exceptional performance, but takes several wrong turns; ultimately, it just doesn't work Spielberg rewrote the adaptation Stanley Kubrick commissioned of the Brian Aldiss short story 'Super Toys Last All Summer Long'; result is a curious and uncomfortable hybrid of Kubrick and Spielberg sensibilities" However, he calls John Williams' music score "striking" Jonathan Rosenbaum compared AI to Solaris 1972, and praised both "Kubrick for proposing that Spielberg direct the project and Spielberg for doing his utmost to respect Kubrick's intentions while making it a profoundly personal work" Film critic Armond White, of the New York Press, praised the film noting that "each part of David’s journey through carnal and sexual universes into the final eschatological devastation becomes as profoundly philosophical and contemplative as anything by cinema’s most thoughtful, speculative artists – Borzage, Ozu, Demy, Tarkovsky" Filmmaker Billy Wilder hailed AI as "the most underrated film of the past few years" When British filmmaker Ken Russell saw the film, he wept during the ending

Mick LaSalle gave a largely negative review "AI exhibits all its creators' bad traits and none of the good So we end up with the structureless, meandering, slow-motion endlessness of Kubrick combined with the fuzzy, cuddly mindlessness of Spielberg" Dubbing it Spielberg's "first boring movie", LaSalle also believed the robots at the end of the film were aliens, and compared Gigolo Joe to the "useless" Jar Jar Binks, yet praised Robin Williams for his portrayal of a futuristic Albert Einstein Peter Travers gave a mixed review, concluding "Spielberg cannot live up to Kubrick's darker side of the future" But he still put the film on his top ten list that year for best movies David Denby in The New Yorker criticized AI for not adhering closely to his concept of the Pinocchio character Spielberg responded to some of the criticisms of the film, stating that many of the "so called sentimental" elements of AI, including the ending, were in fact Kubrick's and the darker elements were his own However, Sara Maitland, who worked on the project with Kubrick in the 1990s, claimed that one of the reasons Kubrick never started production on AI was because he had a hard time making the ending work James Berardinelli found the film "consistently involving, with moments of near-brilliance, but far from a masterpiece In fact, as the long-awaited 'collaboration' of Kubrick and Spielberg, it ranks as something of a disappointment" Of the film's highly debated finale, he claimed, "There is no doubt that the concluding 30 minutes are all Spielberg; the outstanding question is where Kubrick's vision left off and Spielberg's began"

Screenwriter Ian Watson has speculated, "Worldwide, AI was very successful and the 4th highest earner of the year but it didn't do quite so well in America, because the film, so I'm told, was too poetical and intellectual in general for American tastes Plus, quite a few critics in America misunderstood the film, thinking for instance that the Giacometti-style beings in the final 20 minutes were aliens whereas they were robots of the future who had evolved themselves from the robots in the earlier part of the film and also thinking that the final 20 minutes were a sentimental addition by Spielberg, whereas those scenes were exactly what I wrote for Stanley and exactly what he wanted, filmed faithfully by Spielberg"

In 2002, Spielberg told film critic Joe Leydon that "People pretend to think they know Stanley Kubrick, and think they know me, when most of them don't know either of us" "And what's really funny about that is, all the parts of AI that people assume were Stanley's were mine And all the parts of AI that people accuse me of sweetening and softening and sentimentalizing were all Stanley's The teddy bear was Stanley's The whole last 20 minutes of the movie was completely Stanley's The whole first 35, 40 minutes of the film – all the stuff in the house – was word for word, from Stanley's screenplay This was Stanley's vision" "Eighty percent of the critics got it all mixed up But I could see why Because, obviously, I've done a lot of movies where people have cried and have been sentimental And I've been accused of sentimentalizing hard-core material But in fact it was Stanley who did the sweetest parts of AI, not me I'm the guy who did the dark center of the movie, with the Flesh Fair and everything else That's why he wanted me to make the movie in the first place He said, 'This is much closer to your sensibilities than my own'"

Upon rewatching the film many years after its release, BBC film critic Mark Kermode apologized to Spielberg in an interview in January 2013 for "getting it wrong" on the film when he first viewed it in 2001 He now believes the film to be Spielberg's "enduring masterpiece"

Accolades

Visual effects supervisors Dennis Muren, Stan Winston, Michael Lantieri and Scott Farrar were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects, while John Williams was nominated for Best Original Music Score Steven Spielberg, Jude Law and Williams received nominations at the 59th Golden Globe Awards The visual effects department was once again nominated at the 55th British Academy Film Awards AI was successful at the Saturn Awards Spielberg for his screenplay, the visual effects department, Williams and Haley Joel Osment Performance by a Younger Actor won in their respective categories The film also won Best Science Fiction Film and for its DVD release Frances O'Connor and Spielberg as director were also nominated

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

  • 2005: AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores – Nominated
  • 2008: AFI's 10 Top 10:
    • Nominated Science Fiction Film

References

  1. ^ "AI 12" British Board of Film Classification Retrieved April 7, 2014 
  2. ^ a b "AI Artificial Intelligence 2001" Box Office Mojo Internet Movie Database Retrieved April 7, 2014 
  3. ^ a b Haley Joel Osment, A Portrait of David, 2001, Warner Home Video; DreamWorks
  4. ^ Jude Law, A Portrait of Gigolo Joe, 2001, Warner Home Video; DreamWorks
  5. ^ Scott Brake May 10, 2001 "Spielberg Talks About the Genesis of AI" IGN Retrieved August 4, 2008 
  6. ^ a b c d "Plumbing Stanley Kubrick" Ian Watson Archived from the original on July 3, 2008 Retrieved July 7, 2008 
  7. ^ a b Steven Gaydos March 15, 2000 "The Kubrick Connection" Variety Retrieved July 19, 2008 
  8. ^ Dana Haris March 15, 2000 "Spielberg lines up AI, Report" Variety Retrieved July 16, 2008 
  9. ^ Christian Moerk November 2, 1993 "AI next for Kubrick at Warners" Variety Retrieved July 7, 2008 
  10. ^ a b c d "The Kubrick FAQ Part 2: AI" The Kubrick Site Archived from the original on August 18, 2008 Retrieved August 5, 2008 
  11. ^ a b Kenneth Plume June 28, 2001 "Interview with Producer Jan Harlan" IGN Retrieved August 5, 2008 
  12. ^ "The Work of Director Chris Cunningham" NotComingcom Archived from the original on July 19, 2008 Retrieved July 19, 2008 
  13. ^ "AI Artificial Intelligence" Variety Varietycom May 15, 2001 Retrieved July 19, 2008 
  14. ^ a b c d Liane Bonin June 28, 2001 "Boy Wonder" Entertainment Weekly Retrieved July 15, 2008 
  15. ^ a b Steven Spielberg, Jan Harlan, Kathleen Kennedy, Bonnie Curtis, Creating AI, 2001, Warner Home Video; DreamWorks
  16. ^ a b Christian Moerk December 23, 1999 "Spielberg encounters close choices to direct" Variety Retrieved July 15, 2008 
  17. ^ Scott Brake June 29, 2001 "Producing AI" IGN Retrieved August 4, 2008 
  18. ^ Army Archerd July 15, 1999 "Annie Tv'er nab tops talent" Variety Retrieved July 14, 2008 
  19. ^ Michael Fleming November 16, 1999 "West pursues Prisoner; Spielberg scribbles" Variety Retrieved July 16, 2008 
  20. ^ Peter Bart January 24, 2000 "It's scary up there" Variety Retrieved July 15, 2008 
  21. ^ "Spielberg to wrap Kubrick project" BBC March 15, 2000 Retrieved March 24, 2007 
  22. ^ Brian Zoromski June 30, 2000 "AI Moves Full Speed Ahead" IGN Retrieved August 4, 2008 
  23. ^ The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations by Tony Reeves The Titan Publishing Group Pg9
  24. ^ Scott Brake August 3, 2000 "AI Set Reports!" IGN Retrieved August 4, 2008 
  25. ^ Christopher "Fangorn" Baker, Rick Carter, AI From Drawings to Sets, 2001, Warner Home Video; DreamWorks
  26. ^ Bill Higgins November 6, 2000 "BAFTA hails Spielberg" Variety Retrieved August 6, 2008 
  27. ^ Bob Ringwood, Dressing AI, 2001, Warner Home Video; DreamWorks
  28. ^ Charles Lyons January 18, 2001 "Inside Move: Cruise staying busy" Variety Retrieved July 18, 2008 
  29. ^ Spielberg visits the AI Bagel Cam on YouTube accessdate August 10, 2016
  30. ^ "AI Bagel Cam - Entertainment Tonight" YouTube Retrieved April 16, 2015 
  31. ^ David Rooney April 16, 2001 "'Dust' in the wind for Venice fest" Variety Archived from the original on October 30, 2008 Retrieved July 19, 2008 
  32. ^ "AI Artificial Intelligence" Box Office Mojo Retrieved July 8, 2008 
  33. ^ "AI Artificial Intelligence" Rotten Tomatoes Archived from the original on July 8, 2008 Retrieved July 8, 2008 
  34. ^ "AI Artificial Intelligence 2001: Reviews" Metacritic Retrieved July 8, 2008 
  35. ^ Army Archerd June 20, 2000 "AI A Spielberg/Kubrick prod'n" Variety Retrieved August 6, 2008 
  36. ^ "ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE | The mind behind AI" BBC News September 20, 2001 Retrieved November 2, 2013 
  37. ^ Richard Corliss June 17, 2001 "AI – Spielberg's Strange Love" Time Archived from the original on June 26, 2008 Retrieved August 6, 2008 
  38. ^ http://wwwrogerebertcom/reviews/great-movie-ai-artificial-intelligence-2001
  39. ^ Jonathan Rosenbaum June 29, 2001 "The Best of Both Worlds" Chicago Reader Retrieved August 6, 2008 
  40. ^ Armond White July 4, 2001 "Spielberg's AI Dares Viewers to Remember and Accept the Part of Themselves that Is Capable of Feeling" The New York Press Retrieved April 26, 2010 
  41. ^ Paul Sussman November 17, 2006 "Close encounters of the hugely profitable kind" CNN Retrieved October 2, 2015 
  42. ^ Alex Russell December 7, 2011 "Eyewitness: Ken Russell by his son" Slipped Disc blog Retrieved January 23, 2015 
  43. ^ Mick LaSalle June 29, 2001 "Artificial foolishness" San Francisco Chronicle Retrieved August 6, 2008 
  44. ^ Peter Travers June 21, 2001 "AI Artificial Intelligence" Rolling Stone Retrieved August 6, 2008 
  45. ^ Mark Kermode 2006-11-04 "Steven Spielberg" The Culture Show BBC Two 
  46. ^ "The Kubrick FAQ Part 2" Visual-memorycouk Retrieved April 7, 2012 
  47. ^ "Review: AI" Reelviewsnet Retrieved November 2, 2013 
  48. ^ "Author Talk: Ian Watson" Moon Milk Review May 10, 2010 Retrieved April 7, 2012 
  49. ^ Leydon, Joe June 20, 2002 "'Minority Report' looks at the day after tomorrow -- and is relevant to today" Moving Picture Show Retrieved April 29, 2009 
  50. ^ Mark Kermode January 22, 2013 "Blogs - Kermode Uncut - AI Apology" BBC Retrieved November 2, 2013 
  51. ^ "Academy Awards: 2002" Internet Movie Database Retrieved July 14, 2008 
  52. ^ "59th Golden Globe Awards" Internet Movie Database Retrieved July 14, 2008 
  53. ^ "55th British Academy Film Awards" Internet Movie Database Archived from the original on July 23, 2008 Retrieved July 14, 2008 
  54. ^ "Saturn Awards: 2002" Internet Movie Database Retrieved July 14, 2008 
  55. ^ "AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores Nominees" PDF Retrieved 2016-08-12 
  56. ^ "AFI's 10 Top 10 Nominees" PDF Archived from the original on July 16, 2011 Retrieved 2016-08-19  CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown link

Further reading

  • Jane M Struthers, ed 2009 AI Artificial Intelligence: From Stanley Kubrick to Steven Spielberg: The Vision Behind the Film Thames & Hudson ISBN 978-0-500-51489-4 

External links

  • Official website
  • AI Artificial Intelligence at the Internet Movie Database
  • AI Artificial Intelligence at AllMovie
  • AI Artificial Intelligence at Rotten Tomatoes
  • AI Artificial Intelligence at Box Office Mojo

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