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Aggressive angiomyxoma

aggressive angiomyxoma, aggressive angiomyxoma pathology outlines
Angiomyxoma is a myxoid tumor involving the blood vessels

It can affect the vulva1 and other parts of the pelvis The characteristic feature of this tumor is its frequent local recurrence and it is currently regarded as a non-metastasizing benign tumor 2


  • 1 History
  • 2 Prognosis
  • 3 Pathology
    • 31 Microscopy
    • 32 Microscopical views
    • 33 Immunochemistry
    • 34 Differential diagnosis
  • 4 Genetics
  • 5 See also
    • 51 Internal links
    • 52 External links
      • 521 Digital slides
  • 6 Additional images
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links


Aggressive angiomyxoma was originally described in 1983,3 but the term "angiomyxoma" dates back to at least 19524


Although it is a benign tumour and does not 'invade' the neighbouring tissue, it has a tendency to recur after surgical excision so it is termed as aggressive The recurrence can be as close as six months from initial resection It will not be surprising to find cases coming to tertiary medical centers with history of having a labial mass sometimes misdiagnosed as gartner's cyst and have multiple surgical excisions from various doctors There is no proven medical therapy and people have tried various sorts of chemotherapy like Tamoxifen, Leuprolide and even full blown chemotherapy



  • Vascular appearance of tumor5
  • Hypocellular mesenchymal lesion
  • Spindled and stellate cells with an ill-defined cytoplasm
  • Cells loosely scattered in a myxoid stroma
  • No evidence of nuclear atypia and mitosis
  • Numerous, thin-to-thick wall vessels of different sizes
  • Myxoid, hypocellular background
  • Bland cytological appearance of spindle cells

Microscopical viewsedit


Immunohistochemical studies show strong staining for desmin, estrogen receptors, and progesterone receptors Staining for actin, CD34 and smooth muscle actin are intermediate Staining for S-100 protein is negative

Differential diagnosisedit

  • myxoid tumors
    • Angiomyofibroblastoma
    • myxoid smooth muscle tumors


  • HMGA2 rearrangement
    • by translocation t12;21q15;q21167
    • by translocation t11;12q23;q158
    • by translocation t8;12p12;q159
  • t5;8p15;q2210

See alsoedit

Internal linksedit

  • Myxoma
  • Cutaneous myxoma Superficial angiomyxoma

External linksedit

Digital slidesedit

  • JRC #11242
  • JRC #2788
  • JRC #3175
  • JRC #14570
  • JRC #91
  • JRC #14781

Additional imagesedit


  1. ^ Mandal S, Dhingra K, Roy S, Khurana N 2008 "Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva presenting as a pedunculated swelling" Indian J Pathol Microbiol 51 2: 259–60 PMID 18603701 doi:104103/0377-492941677 
  2. ^ Mathieson A, Chandrakanth S, Yousef G, Wadden P June 2007 "Aggressive angiomyxoma of the pelvis: a case report" PDF Can J Surg 50 3: 228–9 PMC 2384290  PMID 17568501 
  3. ^ Adwan H, Patel B, Kamel D, Glazer G November 2004 "A solitary encapsulated pelvic aggressive angiomyxoma" Ann R Coll Surg Engl 86 6: W1–3 PMC 1964274  PMID 16749950 doi:101308/14787080465 
  4. ^ RAEBURN C November 1952 "The histogenesis of four cases of angiomyxoma of the auricle" J Clin Pathol 5 4: 339–44 PMC 1023673  PMID 13011222 doi:101136/jcp54339 
  5. ^ Geng, J; Cao, B; Wang, L 2012 "Aggressive angiomyxoma: An unusual presentation" Korean Journal of Radiology 13 1: 90–3 PMC 3253408  PMID 22247641 doi:103348/kjr201213190 
  6. ^ Rawlinson, N J; West, W W; Nelson, M; Bridge, J A 2008 "Aggressive angiomyxoma with t12;21 and HMGA2 rearrangement: Report of a case and review of the literature" Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 181 2: 119–24 PMC 2396496  PMID 18295664 doi:101016/jcancergencyto200711008 
  7. ^ Medeiros, F; Erickson-Johnson, M R; Keeney, G L; Clayton, A C; Nascimento, A G; Wang, X; Oliveira, A M 2007 "Frequency and characterization of HMGA2 and HMGA1 rearrangements in mesenchymal tumors of the lower genital tract" Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer 46 11: 981–90 PMID 17654722 doi:101002/gcc20483 
  8. ^ Micci, F; Panagopoulos, I; Bjerkehagen, B; Heim, S 2006 "Deregulation of HMGA2 in an aggressive angiomyxoma with t11;12q23;q15" Virchows Archiv 448 6: 838–42 PMID 16568309 doi:101007/s00428-006-0186-5 
  9. ^ Nucci, M R; Weremowicz, S; Neskey, D M; Sornberger, K; Tallini, G; Morton, C C; Quade, B J 2001 "Chromosomal translocation t8;12 induces aberrant HMGIC expression in aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva" Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer 32 2: 172–6 PMID 11550285 doi:101002/gcc1179 
  10. ^ Nucci, M R; Weremowicz, S; Neskey, D M; Sornberger, K; Tallini, G; Morton, C C; Quade, B J 2001 "Chromosomal translocation t8;12 induces aberrant HMGIC expression in aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva" Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer 32 2: 172–6 PMID 11550285 doi:101002/gcc1179 

External linksedit

a video of an angiomyxoma being excised on YouTube

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Aggressive angiomyxoma

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