Advanced sleep phase disorderadvanced sleep phase disorder, advanced sleep phase disorder treatment
Advanced sleep phase disorder ASPD, also known as the advanced sleep-phase type ASPT of circadian rhythm sleep disorder or advanced sleep phase syndrome ASPS, is a condition in which patients feel very sleepy and go to bed early in the evening eg 6:00–8:00 pm and wake up very early in the morning eg around 3:00 am
- 1 Symptoms
- 2 Epidemiology
- 3 Treatment
- 4 Familial advanced sleep phase syndrome
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
People with ASPD are unable to stay awake until their desired bedtime and unable to stay asleep until their desired waking time They will complain to a sleep clinician of early morning insomnia and falling asleep early in the evening When someone has advanced sleep phase disorder their melatonin levels and core body temperature will cycle hours earlier than an average person1 These symptoms must be present for at least three months in order to be correctly diagnosed
ASPD is a rare disorder It affects both men and women equally and has been determined to have a strong genetic link with 40–50% of people related to someone with ASPD having it themselves As stated below, several genes have been discovered to have links with this syndrome and the body's circadian rhythms Although it can be impairing, the syndrome is not necessarily unhealthy; most people don't seek help unless it starts to severely impact their social life
Once diagnosed, ASPD can be treated with bright light therapy in the evenings or behaviorally with chronotherapy Unlike other sleep disorders, ASPD does not disrupt normal functioning at work during the day and the patient does not complain of excessive daytime sleepiness If their ASPD is causing people to lose out on evening activities, including putting their own typical children to bed, they may be able to force themselves to stay up later than their circadian rhythm requires A sufferer of ASPD will still wake up very early and if this cycle continues it can lead to chronic sleep deprivation and other sleep disorders2
Familial advanced sleep phase syndromeedit
In 1999, Louis Ptáček's and Ying-Hui Fu's research group at the University of California, San Francisco reported findings of a human circadian rhythm disorder showing a familial tendency The disorder was characterized by a lifelong pattern of sleep onset around 7:30 pm and offset around 4:30 am Among three lineages, 29 people were identified as affected with this familial advanced sleep-phase disorder FASPD, and 46 were considered unaffected The pedigrees demonstrated FASPD to be a highly penetrant, autosomal dominant trait3
Two years after reporting the finding of FASPD, Ptáček's and Fu's groups published results of genetic sequencing analysis on a family with FASPD They genetically mapped the FASPD locus to chromosome 2q where very little human genome sequence was then available Thus, they identified and sequenced all the genes in the critical interval One of these was Period2 Per2 Sequencing of the hPer2 gene revealed a serine-to-glycine point mutation in the CKI binding domain of the hPER2 protein that resulted in hypophosphorylation of Per2 in vitro4
In 2005, Fu's and Ptáček's labs reported discovery of a different mutation causing FASPD This time, CKIδ was implicated, demonstrating an A-to-G missense mutation that resulted in a threonine-to-alanine alteration in the protein5 The evidence for both of these reported causes of FASPD is strengthened by the absence of said mutations in all tested control subjects and by demonstration of functional consequences of the respective mutations in vitro Fruit flies and mice engineered to carry the human mutation also demonstrated abnormal circadian phenotypes although the mutant flies had a long circadian period while the mutant mice had a shorter period45 The differences between flies and mammals that account for this difference are not known Most recently, Ptáček and Fu reported additional studies of the human Per2 S662G mutation and generation of mice carrying the human mutation These mice had a circadian period almost 2 hours shorter than wild-type animals Genetic dosage studies of CKIδ on the Per2 S662G mutation revealed that CKIδ is having opposite effects on Per2 levels depending on the sites on Per2 that CKIδ is phosphorylating6
- Delayed sleep phase disorder
- Irregular sleep–wake rhythm
- Non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder
- ^ http://wwwsleepdexorg/faspshtm
- ^ ADVANCED SLEEP PHASE SYNDROME http://wwwstanfordedu/~dement/advancedhtml
- ^ Jones, Christopher R; Scott S Campbell; Stephanie E Zone; et al September 1999 "Familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome: A short-period circadian rhythm variant in humans" Nature Medicine 5 9: 1062–1065 doi:101038/12502 PMID 10470086 Retrieved 2007-05-06
- ^ a b Toh, Kong L; Christopher R Jones; Yan He; et al 9 February 2001 "An hPer2 phosphorylation site mutation in familial advanced sleep phase syndrome" Science 291 5506: 1040–1043 doi:101126/science1057499 PMID 11232563 Retrieved 2007-05-06
- ^ a b Xu, Ying; Quasar S Padiath; Robert E Shapiro; et al 31 March 2005 "Functional consequences of a CKIδ mutation causing familial advanced sleep phase syndrome" Nature 434 7033: 640–644 doi:101038/nature03453 PMID 15800623 Retrieved 2007-05-06
- ^ Xu, Ying; Kong L Toh; Christopher R Jones; et al 12 January 2007 "Modeling of a human circadian mutation yields insights into clock regulation by PER2" Cell 128 1: 59–70 doi:101016/jcell200611043 PMC 1828903 PMID 17218255
- Circadian Sleep Disorders Organization
- Louis Ptacek
- Ptacek and Fu labs at UCSF
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