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adipogenesis, adipogenesis pathway
Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which pre-adipocytes become adipocytes Adipogenesis has been one of the most intensively studied models of cellular differentiation

Differentiated Adipocyte stained with Oil Red O


  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Models of differentiation
    • 21 In vitro
    • 22 In vivo
  • 3 Hormonal regulation
    • 31 Endocrine factors
  • 4 References


Adipocytes play a vital role in energy homeostasis and process the largest energy reserve as triglycerol in the body of animals Adipocytes stay in a dynamic state, they start expanding when the energy intake is higher than the expenditure and undergo mobilization when the energy expenditure exceeds the intake This process is highly regulated by counter regulatory hormones to which these cells are very sensitive The hormone insulin promotes expansion whereas the counter hormones epinephrine, glucagon,and ACTH promote mobilization Adipogenesis is a tightly regulated cellular differentiation process, in which the preadipocytes are transformed into differentiated adipocyte cells Comparing with cells from other lineage, the in vitro differentiation of fat cells is authentic and recapitulates most of the characteristic feature of in vivo adipogenesis The key features of differentiated adipocytes are morphological change, growth arrest, high expression of lipogenic genes and production of hormones like leptin, resistin in the mouse, not in humans and TNF-alpha

Models of differentiation

In vitro

The transition of the fibroblast cells to mature adipocytes is one of the best characterized processes of cellular differentiation Primary preadipose cells can be isolated from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue; and when treated in cell culture with a combination of adipogenic effectors, they can differentiate into adipocytes

Cell Line Origin Differentiation Protocol
Committed Pre-adipocytes
3T3-L1 Sub-clone of Swiss 3T3 FBS+ I+ D+ M
3T3-F442A Sub-clone of Swiss 3T3 FBS + I
Ob17 Differentiated adipocyte from epididymal fat pad of C57BL/6J ob/ob mice FBS+ I+ T3
TA1 Subclone of C3H10T1/2 FBS + D + I
30A5 Subclone of C3H10T1/2 FBS + D + M + I
1246 Adipogenic Subclone of CH3 mouse teratocarcinoma cell line T984 D + M + I
Non-committed with adipogenic potential
NIH3T3 NIH Swiss mouse embryo cells Ectopic expression of PPAR-gamma, C/EBP-alpha or C/EBP-beta + D+ M+ I
Swiss 3T3 Swiss mouse embryo cells Ectopic expression of C/EBP-alpha
Balb/3T3 Balb/c mouse embryo cells Ectopic expression of C/EBP-alpha
C3H 10T1/2 C3H mouse embryo cells PPAR-gamma ligand
Kusa 4b10 mouse bone marrow stromal cell line FBS + I + D + M
C2C12 Thigh muscles of C3H mice Thiazolidinediones
G8 Hind limb muscles of fetal Swiss webster mouse Ectopic expression of PPAR-gamma + CEBP/alpha +D + I
FBS = Fetal Bovine Serum, D = Dexamethasone, I = Insulin, M = Methylisobutylxanthine T3 = Triidothyronine

In vivo

An approach of studying adipose tissue development and regulation of adipose specific gene expression in an in vivo context was developed by Mandrup and co-workers 3T3-F4424 cells when implanted into an athymic nude mice gave rise to fat pads that were similar to endogenous white adipose tissue

Another approach, developed by Scherer and his colleagues is the AdipoChaser system This mouse uses an inducible, adipose specific LacZ transgene, where one can label all the currently existing adipocytes as LacZ positive blue stained and evaluate the new white, unlabelled adipocytes in vivo

Hormonal regulation

Endocrine factors

Products of endocrine system such as insulin, IGF-1, cAMP, glucocorticoid,and triiodothyronine effectively induce adipogenesis in preadipocytes


  1. ^ Cornelius, P; MacDougald, OA; Lane, MD 1994 "Regulation of adipocyte development" Annual Review of Nutrition 14: 99–129 doi:101146/annurevnu14070194000531 PMID 7946535 
  2. ^ MacDougald, OA; Lane, MD 1995 "Transcriptional regulation of gene expression during adipocyte differentiation" Annual Review of Biochemistry 64: 345–73 doi:101146/annurevbi64070195002021 PMID 7574486 
  3. ^ Kirkland, JL; Hollenberg, CH; Gillon, WS Feb 1990 "Age, anatomic site, and the replication and differentiation of adipocyte precursors" The American Journal of Physiology 258 2 Pt 1: C206–10 PMID 2305864 
  4. ^ Green, Howard; Kehinde, Olaniyi 28 February 1974 "Sublines of mouse 3T3 cells that accumulate lipid" Cell 1 3: 113–116 doi:101016/0092-86747490126-3 
  5. ^ Green, H; Kehinde, O Jan 1976 "Spontaneous heritable changes leading to increased adipose conversion in 3T3 cells" Cell 7 1: 105–13 doi:101016/0092-86747690260-9 PMID 949738 
  6. ^ R, Negrel; Grimaldi P; Ajlhaud G December 1978 "Establishment of preadipocyte clonal line from epididymal fat pad of ob/ob mouse that responds to insulin and to lipolytic hormones" PDF Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75 12: 6054–6058 doi:101073/pnas75126054 
  7. ^ Chapman, AB; Knight, DM; Dieckmann, BS; Ringold, GM Dec 25, 1984 "Analysis of gene expression during differentiation of adipogenic cells in culture and hormonal control of the developmental program" The Journal of Biological Chemistry 259 24: 15548–55 PMID 6392298 
  8. ^ Pape, ME; Kim, KH May 1988 "Effect of tumor necrosis factor on acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase gene expression and preadipocyte differentiation" Molecular endocrinology Baltimore, Md 2 5: 395–403 doi:101210/mend-2-5-395 PMID 2901666 
  9. ^ Darmon, M; Serrero, G; Rizzino, A; Sato, G Apr 1981 "Isolation of myoblastic, fibro-adipogenic, and fibroblastic clonal cell lines from a common precursor and study of their requirements for growth and differentiation" Experimental Cell Research 132 2: 313–27 doi:101016/0014-48278190107-5 PMID 7215448 
  10. ^ Jainchill, JL; Aaronson, SA; Todaro, GJ Nov 1969 "Murine sarcoma and leukemia viruses: assay using clonal lines of contact-inhibited mouse cells" Journal of Virology 4 5: 549–53 PMC 375908  PMID 4311790 
  11. ^ TODARO, GJ; GREEN, H May 1963 "Quantitative studies of the growth of mouse embryo cells in culture and their development into established lines" The Journal of Cell Biology 17: 299–313 doi:101083/jcb172299 PMC 2106200  PMID 13985244 
  12. ^ Aaronson, SA; Todaro, GJ Oct 1968 "Development of 3T3-like lines from Balb-c mouse embryo cultures: transformation susceptibility to SV40" Journal of Cellular Physiology 72 2: 141–8 doi:101002/jcp1040720208 PMID 4301006 
  13. ^ Reznikoff, CA; Brankow, DW; Heidelberger, C Dec 1973 "Establishment and characterization of a cloned line of C3H mouse embryo cells sensitive to postconfluence inhibition of division" Cancer Research 33 12: 3231–8 PMID 4357355 
  14. ^ Allan, EH; Häusler KD; Wei T; Gooi JH; Quinn JM; Crimeen-Irwin B; Pompolo S; Sims NA; Gillespie MT; Onyia JE; Martin TJ C Aug 2008 "EphrinB2 regulation by PTH and PTHrP revealed by molecular profiling in differentiating osteoblasts" J Bone Miner Res 23 8: 1170–81 doi:101359/jbmr080324 PMID 18627264 
  15. ^ Yaffe, D; Saxel, O Dec 22–29, 1977 "Serial passaging and differentiation of myogenic cells isolated from dystrophic mouse muscle" Nature 270 5639: 725–7 doi:101038/270725a0 PMID 563524 
  16. ^ Christian, CN; Nelson, PG; Peacock, J; Nirenberg, M May 27, 1977 "Synapse formation between two clonal cell lines" Science 196 4293: 995–8 doi:101126/science193191 PMID 193191 
  17. ^ Mandrup, S; Loftus, TM; MacDougald, OA; Kuhajda, FP; Lane, MD Apr 29, 1997 "Obese gene expression at in vivo levels by fat pads derived from sc implanted 3T3-F442A preadipocytes" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94 9: 4300–5 doi:101073/pnas9494300 PMC 20717  PMID 9113984 
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  19. ^ Wang, Qiong A; Tao, Caroline; Gupta, Rana K; Scherer, Philipp E 2013 "Tracking adipogenesis during white adipose tissue development, expansion and regeneration" Nature Medicine 19 10: 1338–1344 doi:101038/nm3324 ISSN 1078-8956 PMC 4075943  PMID 23995282 
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    Adipogenesis beatiful post thanks!


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