Active matteractive matter, active matter bird system
Active matter is composed of large numbers of active "agents", each of which consumes energy in order to move or to exert mechanical forces Due to the energy consumption, these systems are intrinsically out of thermal equilibrium Examples of active matter are schools of fish, flocks of birds, bacteria, artificial self-propelled particles, and self-organising bio-polymers such as microtubules and actin, both of which are part of the cytoskeleton of living cells Most examples of active matter are biological in origin; however, a great deal of current experimental work is devoted to synthetic systems Active matter is a relatively new field in soft matter physics: the most extensively studied model, the Vicsek model, dates from 1995
Research in active matter combines analytical techniques, numerical simulations and experiments Notable analytical approaches include hydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and non-equilibrium statistical physics Numerical studies mainly involve self-propelled-particles models, making use of agent-based techniques and molecular dynamics algorithms Experiments on biological systems extend over a wide range of scales, including animal groups eg, bird flocks, mammalian herds, fish schools and insect swarms, bacterial colonies, cellular tissues eg epithelial tissue layers, cancer growth and embryogenesis, cytoskeleton components eg, in vitro motility assays, actin-myosin networks and molecular-motor driven filaments Experiments on synthetic systems include self-propelled colloids eg, phoretically propelled particles, driven granular matter eg vibrated monolayers, swarming robots and Quinke rotators
Concepts in Active matter
- Active gels
- Dense active matter
- Collective motion
- Collective animal behavior
- Motility induced phase separation
- Schooling, flocking and swarming
Active matter systems
- Biological tissues
- Subcellular and cell mechanics
- Crowd behaviour
- Self-propelled particles and colloids
- ^ Ramaswamy, Sriram 2010-01-01 "The Mechanics and Statistics of Active Matter" Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics 1 1: 323–345 arXiv:10041933 Bibcode:2010ARCMP1323R doi:101146/annurev-conmatphys-070909-104101
- ^ Marcetti, M C; Joanny, JF; Ramaswamy, S; Liverpool, T B; Prost, J; Rao, M; Adita Simha, R 2012 "Hydrodynamics of soft active matter" Reviews of Modern Physics 85: 1143–1189 arXiv:12072929 Bibcode:2013RvMP851143M doi:101103/RevModPhys851143
- ^ Vicsek, T; Czirok, A; Ben-Jacob, E; Cohen, I; Shochet, O 1995 "Novel type of phase transition in a system of self-driven particles" Physical Review Letters 75 6: 1226–1229 arXiv:cond-mat/0611743 Bibcode:1995PhRvL751226V doi:101103/PhysRevLett751226 PMID 10060237
- ^ Toner, John; Tu, Yuhai; Ramaswamy, Sriram 2005-07-01 "Hydrodynamics and phases of flocks" Annals of Physics Special Issue 318 1: 170–244 Bibcode:2005AnPhy318170T doi:101016/jaop200504011
- ^ Vicsek, Tamás; Czirók, András; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Cohen, Inon; Shochet, Ofer 1995-08-07 "Novel Type of Phase Transition in a System of Self-Driven Particles" Physical Review Letters 75 6: 1226–1229 arXiv:cond-mat/0611743 Bibcode:1995PhRvL751226V doi:101103/PhysRevLett751226 PMID 10060237
- ^ Chaté, Hugues; Ginelli, Francesco; Grégoire, Guillaume; Raynaud, Franck 2008-04-18 "Collective motion of self-propelled particles interacting without cohesion" Physical Review E 77 4: 046113 arXiv:07122062 Bibcode:2008PhRvE77d6113C doi:101103/PhysRevE77046113
- ^ Ballerini, M; Cabibbo, N; Candelier, R; Cavagna, A; Cisbani, E; Giardina, I; Lecomte, V; Orlandi, A; Parisi, G 2008-01-29 "Interaction ruling animal collective behavior depends on topological rather than metric distance: Evidence from a field study" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 4: 1232–1237 arXiv:07091916 Bibcode:2008PNAS1051232B doi:101073/pnas0711437105 ISSN 0027-8424 PMC 2234121 PMID 18227508
- ^ Buhl, J; Sumpter, D J T; Couzin, I D; Hale, J J; Despland, E; Miller, E R; Simpson, S J 2006-06-02 "From Disorder to Order in Marching Locusts" Science 312 5778: 1402–1406 Bibcode:2006Sci3121402B doi:101126/science1125142 ISSN 0036-8075 PMID 16741126
- ^ Trepat, Xavier; Wasserman, Michael R; Angelini, Thomas E; Millet, Emil; Weitz, David A; Butler, James P; Fredberg, Jeffrey J 2009-06-01 "Physical forces during collective cell migration" Nature Physics 5 6: 426–430 Bibcode:2009NatPh5426T doi:101038/nphys1269 ISSN 1745-2473
- ^ Keber, Felix C; Loiseau, Etienne; Sanchez, Tim; DeCamp, Stephen J; Giomi, Luca; Bowick, Mark J; Marchetti, M Cristina; Dogic, Zvonimir; Bausch, Andreas R 2014-09-05 "Topology and dynamics of active nematic vesicles" Science 345 6201: 1135–1139 arXiv:14091836 Bibcode:2014Sci3451135K doi:101126/science1254784 ISSN 0036-8075 PMC 4401068 PMID 25190790
- ^ Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Steinberg, Asher Preska; Pine, David J; Chaikin, Paul M 2013-02-22 "Living Crystals of Light-Activated Colloidal Surfers" Science 339 6122: 936–940 Bibcode:2013Sci339936P doi:101126/science1230020 ISSN 0036-8075 PMID 23371555
- ^ Deseigne, Julien; Dauchot, Olivier; Chaté, Hugues 2010-08-23 "Collective Motion of Vibrated Polar Disks" Physical Review Letters 105 9: 098001 arXiv:10041499 Bibcode:2010PhRvL105i8001D doi:101103/PhysRevLett105098001
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