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Achilles tendinitis

achilles tendonitis treatment, achilles tendonitis
Achilles tendinitis is tendinitis of the Achilles tendon, generally caused by overuse of the affected limb and is more common among athletes training under less than ideal conditions It should not be confused with xanthoma of the tendon, which is the accumulation of cholesterol in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia

Contents

  • 1 Signs and symptoms
  • 2 Cause
  • 3 Pathophysiology
  • 4 Prevention
  • 5 Diagnosis
  • 6 Treatment
  • 7 Epidemiology
  • 8 References

Signs and symptomsedit

Symptoms can vary from an ache or pain and swelling to the local area of the ankles, or a burning that surrounds the whole joint With this condition, the pain is usually worse during and after activity, and the tendon and joint area can become stiffer the following day as swelling impinges on the movement of the tendon Many patients report stressful situations in their lives in correlation with the beginnings of pain which may contribute to the symptoms

Causeedit

Walking gait cycle starting with the left leg demonstrated The loading cycle is where foot pronation naturally occurs Demonstration of the right foot in pronation, neutral and supinated subtalar joint placements Over-pronation excessive pronation occurs when the ankle begins to roll inward by more than 5 degrees, demonstrated with the arrows

Development of tendinitis depends on the type, frequency and severity of exercise or use; for example, rock climbers tend to develop tendinitis in their fingers, swimmers in their shoulders Achilles tendinitis is a common injury, particularly in sports that involve lunging and jumping It is also a known side effect of fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacincitation needed

Swelling in a region of micro-damage or partial tear can be detected visually or by touch Increased water content and disorganized collagen matrix in tendon lesions may be detected by ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging

Achilles tendinitis is thought to have physiological, mechanical, or extrinsic ie footwear or training causes Physiologically, the Achilles tendon is subject to poor blood supply through the synovial sheaths that surround it This lack of blood supply can lead to the degradation of collagen fibers and inflammation1 Tightness in the calf muscles has also been known to be involved in the onset of Achilles tendinitis2

During the loading phase of the running and walking cycle, the ankle and foot naturally pronate and supinate by approximately 5 degrees3 Excessive pronation of the foot over 5 degrees in the subtalar joint is a type of mechanical mechanism that can lead to tendinitis23

An overuse injury refers to repeated stress and strain, which is likely the case in endurance runners45 Overuse can simply mean an increase in running, jumping or plyometric exercise intensity too soon Another consideration would be the use of improper or worn-down footwear, which lack the necessary support to maintain the foot in the natural/normal pronation5

Pathophysiologyedit

The Achilles tendon does not have good blood supply or cell activity, so this injury can be slow to heal The tendon receives nutrients from the tendon sheath or paratendon When an injury occurs to the tendon, cells from surrounding structures migrate into the tendon to assist in repair Some of these cells come from blood vessels that enter the tendon to provide direct blood flow to increase healing With the blood vessels come nerve fibers Researchers including Alfredson and his team in Sweden 6 believe these nerve fibers to be the cause of the pain - they injected local anaesthetic around the vessels and this decreased significantly the pain from the Achilles tendon

Preventionedit

Deteriorating changes start to appear with age, but attempting to slow down these changes is key in the prevention of Achilles tendinitis Performing consistent physical activity will improve the elasticity and strength of the tendon, which will assist in resisting the forces that are applied7

It is essential to stretch and warm-up before beginning an exercise session in order to prepare and protect the tendon for work Warm-ups enhance the tendon's capability of being stretched, further aiding in protection from injury8 Prevention of recurrence includes following appropriate exercise habits and wearing low-heeled shoes In the case of incorrect foot alignment, orthotics can be used as a preventative way to properly position the feet7 Footwear that is specialized to provide shock-absorption can be utilized to defend the longevity of the tendon9 Achilles tendon injuries can be the result of exceeding the tendon's capabilities for loading, therefore it is important to gradually adapt to exercise if someone is inexperienced, sedentary, or is an athlete who is not progressing at a steady rate9

This photo demonstrates a calf raise exercise that can be performed to strengthen two of the major ankle plantar flexor muscles, the gastrocnemius and the soleus This exercise can be performed with minimal to no equipment A step can be added under the foot to enhance range of motion and weights can be added to increase the resistance 10

Preventive exercises are aimed at strengthening the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, typically by eccentric strengthening exercises11 This eccentric training method is especially important for individuals with chronic Achilles Tendinosis which is classified as the degeneration of collagen fibers9 Eccentric exercises improve the tensile strength of the tendon and lengthen the muscle-tendon junction, decreasing the amount of strain experienced with ankle joint movements9 These involve repetitions of slowly raising and lowering the body while standing on the affected leg, using the opposite arm to assist balance and support if necessary, and starting with the heel in a hyperextended position Hyperextension is typically achieved by balancing the forefoot on the edge of a step, a thick book, or a barbell weight so that the point of the heel is a couple of inches below the forefoot

Diagnosisedit

Calcification deposits forming an enthesophyte within the Achilles tendon at its calcaneal insertion The Achilles tendon is wider than normal, further suggesting inflammation

Achilles tendinitis is mainly diagnosed by a medical history taking and a physical examination Projectional radiography shows calcification deposits within the tendon at its calcaneal insertion in approximately 60 percent of cases12 Magnetic resonance imaging MRI can determine the extent of tendon degeneration, and may show differential diagnoses such as bursitis12

Treatmentedit

Treatment is possible with ice, cold compression therapy, wearing heel pads to reduce the strain on the tendon, and an exercise routine designed to strengthen the tendon see eccentric strengthening, above Some people have reported vast improvement after applying light to medium compression around ankles and lower calf by wearing elastic bandages throughout the day Using these elastic bandages while sleeping can reduce morning stiffness but care must be taken to apply very light compression during sleep Compression can inhibit healing by hindering circulation13 Seeing a professional for treatment as soon as possible is important, because this injury can lead to an Achilles tendon rupture with continued overuse Other treatments may include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, ultrasound therapy, manual therapy techniques, a rehabilitation program, and in rare cases, application of a plaster cast Steroid injection is sometimes used, but must be done after very careful, expert consideration because it can increase the risk of tendon rupture14 There has recently been some interest in the use of autologous blood injections; however the results have not been highly encouraging and there is little evidence for their use1516

More specialised therapies include prolotherapy sclerosant injection into the neovascularity and extracorporeal shockwave therapy may have some additional benefit17 The evidence is however limited

Epidemiologyedit

The prevalence of Achilles tendinitis fluctuates greatly among different ages and groups of people However, Achilles tendinitis is most commonly found in individuals aged 30–4018 A study was conducted in 1981 on recreational and competitive runners and what type of injury they were most likely to suffer from Out of the 232 runners, 25 11% complained that their Achilles bothered them18

A study conducted in the city of Oulu found that a peak incidence of 18 injured Achilles occurred in 1994 and was highest in the male group aged 30–39 The study also found that 90% of the injuries occurred while playing a sport19

Risk factors include participating in a sport or activity that involves running, jumping, bounding, and change of speed Although Achilles tendinitis is mainly diagnosed in runners, it does occur in basketball, volleyball, dancing, gymnastics and other athletic activities18 Other risk factors include gender, age, improper stretching, overuse, and conditions which the individual may be born with20 Congenital conditions occur when an individual’s legs rotate abnormally, which in turn causes the lower extremities to overstretch and contract; this puts stress on the Achilles tendon and will eventually cause Achilles tendinitis20

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Fenwick S A; Hazleman B L; Riley G P 2002 "The vasculature and its role in the damaged and healing tendon" Arthritis Research 4 4: 252–260 
  2. ^ a b Maffulli N; Sharma P; Luscombe K L 2004 "Achilles tendinopathy: aetiology and management" Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 97 10: 472–476 doi:101258/jrsm9710472 
  3. ^ a b Hintermann B, Nigg B M 1998 "Pronation in runners" Sports Medicine 26 3: 169–176 PMID 9802173 doi:102165/00007256-199826030-00003 
  4. ^ Kannus P 1997 "Etiology and pathophysiology of chronic tendon disorders in sports" Scandinavian Journal of Sports Medicine 7 2: 78–85 
  5. ^ a b McCrory J L; Martin D F; Lowery R B; Cannon D W; Curl W W; Read Jr H M; Hunter DM; Craven T; Messier S P 1999 "Etiologic factors associated with Achilles tendinitis in runners" Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31 10: 1374–1381 doi:101097/00005768-199910000-00003 
  6. ^ Alfredson, H; Ohberg, L; Forsgren, S Sep 2003 "Is vasculo-neural ingrowth the cause of pain in chronic Achilles tendinosis An investigation using ultrasonography and colour Doppler, immunohistochemistry, and diagnostic injections" Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 11 5: 334–8 PMID 14520512 doi:101007/s00167-003-0391-6 
  7. ^ a b Hess GW 2009 "Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Review of Etiology, Population, Anatomy, Risk Factors, and Injury Prevention" Foot & Ankle Specialist 3 1: 29–32 doi:101177/1938640009355191 
  8. ^ Leppilahti J, Orava S 1998 "Total Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Review" PDF Sports Medicine 2: 79–100 
  9. ^ a b c d Alfredson H, Lorentzon R 2012 "Chronic Achilles Tendinosis: Recommendations for Treatment and Prevention" Sports Medicine 29: 135–146 doi:102165/00007256-200029020-00005 permanent dead link
  10. ^ Floyd, RT 2009 Manual of Structural Kinesiology New York, NY: McGraw Hill
  11. ^ G T Allison, C Purdam Eccentric loading for Achilles tendinopathy — strengthening or stretching Br J Sports Med 2009;43:276-279
  12. ^ a b "Insertional Achilles Tendinitis" American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Retrieved 2017-01-17 
  13. ^ Christopoulos DG, Nicolaides AN, Szendro G, Irvine AT, Bull M, Eastcott HH 1987 "Air-plethysmography and the effect of elastic compression on venous hemodynamics of the leg" J Vasc Surg 5 1: 148–59 PMID 3795381 doi:101067/mva1987avs0050148 
  14. ^ Nannini CC 2012 "Achilles Tendon Rupture" emedicinehealthcom Retrieved February 12, 2012 
  15. ^ "JBJS | Limited Evidence Supports the Effectiveness of Autologous Blood Injections for Chronic Tendinopathies" jbjsorg 2012 Retrieved February 12, 2012 
  16. ^ de Vos RJ, van Veldhoven PL, Moen MH, Weir A, Tol JL, Maffulli N 2012 "Autologous growth factor injections in chronic tendinopathy: a systematic review" bmboxfordjournalsorg Retrieved February 12, 2012 
  17. ^ Maffulli N, Longo UG, Denaro V Nov 3, 2010 "Novel approaches for the management of tendinopathy" The Journal of bone and joint surgery American volume 92 15: 2604–13 PMID 21048180 doi:102106/JBJSI01744 
  18. ^ a b c Leach R E; James S; Wasilewski S 1981 "Achilles tendinitis" The American journal of sports medicine 9 2: 93–98 doi:101177/036354658100900204 
  19. ^ Leppilant J; Puranen J; Orava S 1996 "Incidence of Achilles Tendon Injury" Acta Orthopaedica 67 3: 277–79 
  20. ^ a b Kainberger, F; Fialka, V; Breitenseher, M; Kritz, H; Baldt, M; Czerny, C; Imhof, H 1996 "Differential diagnosis of diseases of the Achilles tendon A clinico-sonographic concept" Der Radiologe 36 1: 38–46 PMID 8820370 

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    29.10.2014


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