Acer campestre


Acer campestre, known as the field maple,2 is a flowering plant species in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae It is native to much of Europe, the British Isles, southwest Asia from Turkey to the Caucasus, and north Africa in the Atlas Mountains It has been widely planted, and is introduced outside its native range in Europe and areas of USA and Western Australia with suitable climate

Contents

  • 1 Description
  • 2 Distribution
  • 3 Ecology
  • 4 Cultivation
    • 41 Cultivars
  • 5 Bonsai
  • 6 References
  • 7 Further reading
  • 8 External links

Descriptionedit

It is a deciduous tree reaching 15–25 m 49–82 ft tall, with a trunk up to 1 m 3 ft 3 in in diameter, with finely fissured, often somewhat corky bark The shoots are brown, with dark brown winter buds The leaves are in opposite pairs, 5–16 cm 20–63 in long including the 3–9 cm 12–35 in petiole and 5–10 cm 20–39 in broad, with five blunt, rounded lobes with a smooth margin Usually monoecious, the flowers are produced in spring at the same time as the leaves open, yellow-green, in erect clusters 4–6 cm 16–24 in across, and are insect-pollinated The fruit is a samara with two winged achenes aligned at 180°, each achene is 8–10 mm 031–039 in wide, flat, with a 2 cm 079 in wing34

The two varieties, not accepted as distinct by all authorities, are:35

  • A c var campestre - downy fruit
  • A c var leiocarpum Opiz Wallr syn A c subsp leiocarpum - hairless fruit

The closely related Acer miyabei replaces it in eastern Asia3

Distributionedit

The native range of field maple includes much of Europe, including Denmark, Poland and Belarus, England north to southern Scotland where it is the only native maple, southwest Asia from Turkey to the Caucasus, and north Africa in the Atlas Mountains3456789 In many areas, the original native range is obscured by widespread planting and introductions10 In North America it is known as hedge maple1112 and in Australia, it is sometimes called common maple13 In Nottinghamshire, England it was known locally as dog oak14

Ecologyedit

Maple field tree, Weinsberg

Field maple is an intermediate species in the ecological succession of disturbed areas; it typically is not among the first trees to colonise a freshly disturbed area, but instead seeds in under the existing vegetation It is very shade-tolerant during the initial stages of its life, but it has higher light requirements during its seed-bearing years It exhibits rapid growth initially, but is eventually overtaken and replaced by other trees as the forest matures It is most commonly found on neutral to alkaline soils, but more rarely on acidic soil9

Diseases include a leaf spot fungus Didymosporina aceris, a mildew Uncinula bicornis, a canker Nectria galligena, and verticillium wilt Verticillium alboatrum The leaves are also sometimes damaged by gall mites in the genus Aceria, and the aphid Periphyllus villosus15

Cultivationedit

Maple field illustration

The field maple is widely grown as an ornamental tree in parks and large gardens The wood is white, hard and strong, and used for furniture, flooring, wood turning and musical instruments,16 though the small size of the tree and its relatively slow growth make it an unimportant wood3

It is locally naturalised in parts of the United States11 and more rarely in New Zealand17 The hybrid maple Acer × zoeschense has A campestre as one of its parents4

The tree has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit18

Cultivarsedit

Over 30 cultivars of Acer campestre are known, selected for their foliage or habit, or occasionally both; several have been lost to cultivation19

  • 'Carnival'
  • 'Commodore'
  • 'Compactum'
  • 'Eastleigh Weeping'
  • 'Elegant'
  • 'Elsrijk'
  • 'Evenly Red'
  • 'Fastigiatum'
  • 'Green Weeping'
  • 'Leprechaun'
  • 'Lienco'
  • 'Marjolein'
  • 'Nanum'
  • 'Pendulum'
  • 'Postelense'
  • 'Pulverulentum'
  • 'Punctatissimum'
  • 'Puncticulatum'
  • 'Queen Elisabeth'
  • 'Red Shine'
  • 'Royal Ruby'
  • 'Ruby Glow'
  • 'Schwerinii'
  • 'Senator'
  • 'Silver Celebration'
  • 'Silver Dawn'
  • 'Streetwise'
  • 'Tauricum'
  • 'Tomentosum'
  • 'William Caldwell'
  • 'Zorgvlied'

Bonsaiedit

Leaf

A campestre and the similar A monspessulanum are popular among bonsai enthusiasts The dwarf cultivar 'Microphyllum' is especially useful in this regard A campestre bonsai have an appearance distinct from those selected from some other maples such as A palmatum with more frilly, translucent, leaves The shrubby habit and smallish leaves of A campestre respond well to techniques encouraging ramification and leaf reduction2021

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Stevens, P F 2001 onwards Angiosperm Phylogeny Website Version 9, June 2008 and more or less continuously updated since
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007" Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland 
  3. ^ a b c d e Rushforth, K 1999 Trees of Britain and Europe Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9
  4. ^ a b c Mitchell, A F 1974 A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6
  5. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Acer campestre Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Acer campestre" Flora Europaea Retrieved August 29, 2007 
  7. ^ Flora of NW Europe: Acer campestre
  8. ^ Den virtuella floran: Acer campestre distribution map
  9. ^ a b Nagy, L; Ducci, F 2004 "Acer campestre - Field maple" PDF EUFORGEN Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use: 6 p 
  10. ^ "Online atlas of the British and Irish flora, Acer campestre Field maple" Biological Records Centre and Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland 
  11. ^ a b "Acer campestre" USDA Plants Profile Retrieved August 29, 2007 
  12. ^ "Acer campestre" Ohio State University Retrieved August 29, 2007 
  13. ^ Department of Agriculture, Western Australia: Pests and Diseases Image Library
  14. ^ Wright, Joseph The English dialect dictionary 6 London: Oxford University Press p 109 
  15. ^ Field maple images and diseases
  16. ^ "Field maple_Woodland Trust" 
  17. ^ Trans and Proc Roy Soc New Zealand 36: 203-225 Plants naturalised in the County of Ashburton
  18. ^ RHS Plant Selector Acer campestre AGM / RHS Gardening
  19. ^ van Gelderen, CJ; van Gelderen, DM 1999 Maples for Gardens: A Color Encyclopedia 
  20. ^ "A campestre" Bonsai Club International Archived from the original on November 11, 2006 Retrieved November 26, 2006 
  21. ^ D'Cruz, Mark "Ma-Ke Bonsai Care Guide for Acer campestre" Ma-Ke Bonsai Retrieved April 15, 2011 

Further readingedit

  • Chybicki, Igor J; Waldon-Rudzionek, Barbara; Meyza, Katarzyna December 2014 "Population at the edge: increased divergence but not inbreeding towards northern range limit in Acer campestre" Tree Genetics and Genomes 10 6: 1739–1753 doi:101007/s11295-014-0793-2 

External linksedit

  • Abies campestre - distribution map, genetic conservation units and related resources European Forest Genetic Resources Programme EUFORGEN


Acer campestre Information about


Acer campestre
Acer campestre
Acer campestre viewing the topic.
Acer campestre what, Acer campestre who, Acer campestre explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video



Random Posts

Social Accounts

Facebook Twitter VK
Copyright © 2014. Search Engine