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Aaron Swartz

aaron swartz, aaron swartz found dead

Aaron Hillel Swartz November 8, 1986 – January 11, 2013 was an American computer programmer, entrepreneur, writer, political organizer, and Internet hacktivist He was involved in the development of the web feed format RSS and the Markdown publishing format, the organization Creative Commons, the website framework webpy, and the social news site Reddit, in which he became a partner after its merger with his company, Infogami

Swartz's work also focused on civic awareness and activism He helped launch the Progressive Change Campaign Committee in 2009 to learn more about effective online activism In 2010, he became a research fellow at Harvard University's Safra Research Lab on Institutional Corruption, directed by Lawrence Lessig He founded the online group Demand Progress, known for its campaign against the Stop Online Piracy Act

On January 6, 2011, Swartz was arrested by MIT police on state breaking-and-entering charges, after connecting a computer to the MIT network in an unmarked and unlocked closet, and setting it to download academic journal articles systematically from JSTOR using a guest user account issued to him by MIT Federal prosecutors later charged him with two counts of wire fraud and eleven violations of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, carrying a cumulative maximum penalty of $1 million in fines, 35 years in prison, asset forfeiture, restitution, and supervised release

He committed suicide while under federal indictment for his alleged computer crimes Swartz declined a plea bargain under which he would have served six months in federal prison Two days after the prosecution rejected a counter-offer by Swartz, he was found dead in his Brooklyn apartment, where he had hanged himself

In June 2013, Swartz was inducted posthumously into the Internet Hall of Fame


  • 1 Life and works
    • 11 Entrepreneurship
    • 12 Activism
      • 121 Progressive Change Campaign Committee
      • 122 Demand Progress
      • 123 Stop Online Piracy Act
      • 124 Wikileaks
      • 125 PACER
    • 13 English Wikipedia
  • 2 Software developments
    • 21 RDF/XML at W3C
    • 22 Markdown
    • 23 Open Library
    • 24 Tor2web
    • 25 DeadDrop
    • 26 JSTOR
      • 261 Arrest and prosecution
  • 3 Death, funeral, and memorial gatherings
    • 31 Death
    • 32 Funeral and memorial gatherings
  • 4 Aftermath
    • 41 Family response and criticism
    • 42 In the press and the arts
      • 421 The Internet’s Own Boy: The Story of Aaron Swartz
    • 43 Killswitch
    • 44 Open Access
    • 45 Hacks
    • 46 MIT and the Abelson investigation
    • 47 Petition to the White House
    • 48 Congress
      • 481 Congressional investigations
      • 482 Amendment to Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
      • 483 Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act
    • 49 Commemorations
    • 410 Sci-Hub
  • 5 Publications
  • 6 Notes
  • 7 References
  • 8 Further reading
  • 9 Documentary video
  • 10 External links

Life and works

Swartz in 2002 with Lawrence Lessig at the launch party for Creative Commons Play media Swartz describes the nature of the shift from centralized one-to-many systems to the decentralized many-to-many topography of network communication San Francisco, April 2007 9:29

Swartz was born in Highland Park, Illinois a suburb of Chicago, the eldest son of Jewish parents Susan and Robert Swartz His father had founded the software firm Mark Williams Company Swartz immersed himself in the study of computers, programming, the Internet, and Internet culture He attended North Shore Country Day School, a small private school near Chicago, until 9th grade Swartz left high school in the 10th grade, and enrolled in courses at a Chicago area college

At age 13, Swartz won an ArsDigita Prize, given to young people who create "useful, educational, and collaborative" noncommercial websites At age 14, he became a member of the working group that authored the RSS 10 web syndication specification


Swartz attended Stanford University During his freshman year, Swartz applied to Y Combinator's very first Summer Founders Program proposing to work on a startup named Infogami designed as a flexible content management system to allow the creation of rich and visually interesting websites or a form of wiki for structured data After working on Infogami with co-founder Simon Carstensen over the summer of 2005, Aaron opted not to return to Stanford, choosing instead to continue to develop and seek funding for Infogami

As part of his work on Infogami, Swartz created the webpy web application framework because he was unhappy with other available systems in the Python programming language In early fall of 2005, Swartz worked with the founders of another nascent Y-Combinator firm Reddit, to rewrite their Lisp codebase using Python and webpy Although Infogami's platform was abandoned after Not A Bug was acquired, Infogami's software was used to support the Internet Archive's Open Library project and the webpy web framework was used as basis for many other projects by Swartz and many others

When Infogami failed to find further funding, Y-Combinator organizers suggested that Infogami merge with Reddit, which it did in November 2005 to form a new firm Not A Bug devoted to promoting both products Although both projects initially struggled to gain traction, Reddit began to make large gains in popularity in 2005 and 2006

In October 2006, based largely on the success of Reddit, Not A Bug was acquired by Condé Nast Publications, the owner of Wired magazine Swartz moved with his company to San Francisco to work on Wired Swartz found office life uncongenial, and he ultimately left the company

In September 2007, Swartz joined with Infogami co-founder Simon Carstensen to launch a new firm Jottit in another attempt to create another markdown driven content management system in Python


In 2008, Swartz founded Watchdognet, "the good government site with teeth," to aggregate and visualize data about politicians In the same year, he wrote a widely circulated Guerilla Open Access Manifesto; see #Open Access below for details

One of his more notorious works that supports activism is Deaddrop, now renamed to SecureDrop, a platform for secure communication between journalists and sources whistleblowers used at several news organizations, including ProPublica, The Intercept, The Guardian, and The Washington Post

Progressive Change Campaign Committee

In 2009, wanting to learn about effective activism, Swartz helped launch the Progressive Change Campaign Committee He wrote on his blog, "I spend my days experimenting with new ways to get progressive policies enacted and progressive politicians elected" Swartz led the first activism event of his career with the Progressive Change Campaign Committee, delivering thousands of "Honor Kennedy" petition signatures to Massachusetts legislators asking them to fulfill former Senator Ted Kennedy's last wish by appointing a senator to vote for health care reform

Demand Progress

In 2010, Swartz co-founded Demand Progress, a political advocacy group that organizes people online to "take action by contacting Congress and other leaders, funding pressure tactics, and spreading the word" about civil liberties, government reform, and other issues

During academic year 2010–11, Swartz conducted research studies on political corruption as a Lab Fellow in Harvard University's Edmond J Safra Research Lab on Institutional Corruption

Author Cory Doctorow, in his novel, Homeland, "dr on advice from Swartz in setting out how his protagonist could use the information now available about voters to create a grass-roots anti-establishment political campaign" In an afterword to the novel, Swartz wrote, "these tools can be used by anyone motivated and talented enough Now it's up to you to change the system Let me know if I can help"

Stop Online Piracy Act

Swartz in 2012 protesting against the Stop Online Piracy Act SOPA

Swartz was involved in the campaign to prevent passage of the Stop Online Piracy Act SOPA, which sought to combat Internet copyright violations but was criticized on the basis that it would have made it easier for the US government to shut down web sites accused of violating copyright and would have placed intolerable burdens on Internet providers Following the defeat of the bill, Swartz was the keynote speaker at the F2C:Freedom to Connect 2012 event in Washington, DC, on May 21, 2012 His speech was titled "How We Stopped SOPA" and he informed the audience:

This bill shut down whole websites Essentially, it stopped Americans from communicating entirely with certain groups
I called all my friends, and we stayed up all night setting up a website for this new group, Demand Progress, with an online petition opposing this noxious bill We 300,000 signers We met with the staff of members of Congress and pleaded with them And then it passed unanimously
And then, suddenly, the process stopped Senator Ron Wyden put a hold on the bill

He added, "We won this fight because everyone made themselves the hero of their own story Everyone took it as their job to save this crucial freedom" He was referring to a series of protests against the bill by numerous websites that was described by the Electronic Frontier Foundation as the biggest in Internet history, with over 115,000 sites altering their webpages Swartz also presented on this topic at an event organized by ThoughtWorks


On December 27, 2010, Swartz filed a Freedom of Information Act FOIA request to learn about the treatment of Chelsea Manning, alleged source for WikiLeaks


In 2008, Swartz downloaded about 27 million federal court documents stored in the PACER Public Access to Court Electronic Records database managed by the Administrative Office of the United States Courts

The Huffington Post characterized his actions this way: "Swartz downloaded public court documents from the PACER system in an effort to make them available outside of the expensive service The move drew the attention of the FBI, which ultimately decided not to press charges as the documents were, in fact, public"

PACER was charging 8 cents per page for information that Carl Malamud, who founded the nonprofit group PublicResourceOrg, contended should be free, because federal documents are not covered by copyright The fees were "plowed back to the courts to finance technology, but the system a budget surplus of some $150 million, according to court reports," reported The New York Times PACER used technology that was "designed in the bygone days of screechy telephone modems put the nation's legal system behind a wall of cash and kludge" Malamud appealed to fellow activists, urging them to visit one of 17 libraries conducting a free trial of the PACER system, download court documents, and send them to him for public distribution

After reading Malamud's call for action, Swartz used a Perl computer script running on Amazon cloud servers to download the documents, using credentials belonging to a Sacramento library From September 4 to 20, 2008, it accessed documents and uploaded them to a cloud computing service He released the documents to Malamud's organization

On September 29, 2008, the GPO suspended the free trial, "pending an evaluation" of the program Swartz's actions were subsequently investigated by the FBI The case was closed after two months with no charges filed Swartz learned the details of the investigation as a result of filing a FOIA request with the FBI and described their response as the "usual mess of confusions that shows the FBI's lack of sense of humor" PACER still charges per page, but customers using Firefox have the option of saving the documents for free public access with a plug-in called RECAP

At a 2013 memorial for Swartz, Malamud recalled their work with PACER They brought millions of US District Court records out from behind PACER's "pay wall", he said, and found them full of privacy violations, including medical records and the names of minor children and confidential informants

We sent our results to the Chief Judges of 31 District Courts They redacted those documents and they yelled at the lawyers that filed them The Judicial Conference changed their privacy rules the bureaucrats who ran the Administrative Office of the United States Courts we were thieves that took $16 million of their property So they called the FBI found nothing wrong

Malamud penned a more detailed account of his collaboration with Swartz on the Pacer project in an essay that appears on his website

Writing in Ars Technica, Timothy Lee, who later made use of the documents obtained by Swartz as a co-creator of RECAP, offered some insight into discrepancies in reporting on just how much data Swartz had downloaded: "In a back-of-the-envelope calculation a few days before the offsite crawl was shut down, Swartz guessed he got around 25 percent of the documents in PACER The New York Times similarly reported Swartz had downloaded "an estimated 20 percent of the entire database" Based on the facts that Swartz downloaded 27 million documents while PACER, at the time, contained 500 million, Lee concluded that Swartz downloaded less than one percent of the database

English Wikipedia

Swartz at 2009 Boston Wikipedia Meetup

Swartz participated very actively as an editor at the English Wikipedia In 2006, he ran unsuccessfully for the Wikimedia Foundation's Board of Trustees

In 2006, Swartz wrote an analysis of how Wikipedia articles are written, and concluded that the bulk of the actual content comes from tens of thousands of occasional contributors, or "outsiders", each of whom may not make many other contributions to the site, while a core group of 500 to 1,000 regular editors tend to correct spelling and other formatting errors According to Swartz: "the formatters aid the contributors, not the other way around" His conclusions, based on the analysis of edit histories of several randomly selected articles, contradicted the opinion of Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales, who believed the core group of regular editors were providing most of the content while thousands of others contributed to formatting issues Swartz came to his conclusions by counting the total number of characters added by an editor to a particular article—while Wales counted the total number of edits

Software developments


In 2001, Swartz joined the RDFCore working group at the World Wide Web Consortium W3C, where he authored RFC 3870, Application/RDF+XML Media Type Registration The document described a new media type, "RDF/XML", designed to support the Semantic Web


Swartz was a major contributor to Markdown, a lightweight markup language for generating HTML, and author of its html2text translator The syntax for Markdown was influenced by Swartz's earlier atx language 2002, which today is primarily remembered for its syntax for specifying headers, known as atx-style headers:

# H1-header ## H2-header ###### H6-header

Markdown itself remains in widespread use

Open Library

Main article: Open Library

It was reported after his death that around 2006, Swartz acquired the Library of Congress's complete bibliographic dataset: the library charged fees to access this, but as a government document, it was not copyright-protected within the USA By posting the data on OpenLibrary, Swartz made it freely available The Library of Congress project was met with approval by the Copyright Office Other sources show that the file was donated to the Internet Archive from Plymouth State University's library system, Scriblio Regardless of the source, the file became the basis for the Open Library, with Swartz as chief designer


For more details on this topic, see Tor2web

In 2008, Swartz worked with Virgil Griffith to design and implement Tor2web, an HTTP proxy for Tor-hidden services The proxy was designed to provide easy access to Tor from a basic web browser


For more details on this topic, see SecureDrop

In 2011–2012, Swartz and Kevin Poulsen designed and implemented DeadDrop, a system that allows anonymous informants to send electronic documents without fear of disclosure In May 2013, the first instance of the software was launched by The New Yorker under the name Strongbox The Freedom of the Press Foundation has since taken over development of the software, which has been renamed SecureDrop


Main article: United States v Aaron Swartz See also: § Open Access

According to state and federal authorities, Swartz used JSTOR, a digital repository, to download a large number of academic journal articles through MIT's computer network over the course of a few weeks in late 2010 and early 2011 At the time, Swartz was a research fellow at Harvard University, which provided him with a JSTOR account Visitors to MIT's "open campus" were authorized to access JSTOR through its network

The authorities said Swartz downloaded the documents through a laptop connected to a networking switch in a controlled-access wiring closet at MIT The door to the closet was kept unlocked, according to press reports When discovered, JSTOR claims that its employees initially placed a video camera in the room to film Swartz and left Swartz's computer untouched Once video was captured of Swartz, the download was stopped and Swartz identified Rather than pursue a civil lawsuit against him, in June 2011 it reached a settlement wherein he surrendered the downloaded data

Arrest and prosecution

On the night of January 6, 2011, Swartz was arrested near the Harvard campus by MIT police and a US Secret Service agent He was arraigned in Cambridge District Court on two state charges of breaking and entering with intent to commit a felony

On July 11, 2011, Swartz was indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of wire fraud, computer fraud, unlawfully obtaining information from a protected computer, and recklessly damaging a protected computer

On November 17, 2011, Swartz was indicted by a Middlesex County Superior Court grand jury on state charges of breaking and entering with intent, grand larceny, and unauthorized access to a computer network On December 16, 2011, state prosecutors filed a notice that they were dropping the two original charges; the charges listed in the November 17, 2011, indictment were dropped on March 8, 2012 According to a spokesperson for the Middlesex County prosecutor, the state charges were dropped to permit a federal prosecution headed by Stephen P Heymann and supported by evidence provided by Secret Service agent Michael S Pickett to proceed unimpeded

On September 12, 2012, federal prosecutors filed a superseding indictment adding nine more felony counts, which increased Swartz's maximum criminal exposure to 50 years of imprisonment and $1 million in fines During plea negotiations with Swartz's attorneys, the prosecutors offered to recommend a sentence of six months in a low-security prison, if Swartz would plead guilty to 13 federal crimes Swartz and his lead attorney rejected that deal, opting instead for a trial in which prosecutors would have been forced to justify their pursuit of Swartz

The federal prosecution involved what was characterized by numerous critics such as former Nixon White House counsel John Dean as an "overcharging" 13-count indictment and "overzealous" prosecution for alleged computer crimes, brought by the US Attorney for Massachusetts Carmen Ortiz

Swartz committed suicide on January 11, 2013 After his death, federal prosecutors dropped the charges On December 4, 2013, due to a Freedom of Information Act suit by the investigations editor of Wired magazine, several documents related to the case were released by the Secret Service, including a video of Swartz entering the MIT network closet

Death, funeral, and memorial gatherings

External video
Aaron Swartz Memorial at The Great Hall of Cooper Union, transcript
Aaron Swartz Memorial at the Internet Archive, partial transcript
DC Memorial: Darrel Issa , Taren Stinebrickner-Kauffman, Alan Grayson


On the evening of January 11, 2013, Swartz was found dead in his Brooklyn apartment by his partner, Taren Stinebrickner-Kauffman A spokeswoman for New York's Medical Examiner reported that he had hanged himself No suicide note was found Swartz's family and his partner created a memorial website on which they issued a statement, saying: "He used his prodigious skills as a programmer and technologist not to enrich himself but to make the Internet and the world a fairer, better place"

Days before Swartz's funeral, Lawrence Lessig eulogized his friend and sometime client in an essay, Prosecutor as Bully He decried the disproportionality of Swartz's prosecution and said, "The question this government needs to answer is why it was so necessary that Aaron Swartz be labeled a 'felon' For in the 18 months of negotiations, that was what he was not willing to accept" Cory Doctorow wrote, "Aaron had an unbeatable combination of political insight, technical skill, and intelligence about people and issues I think he could have revolutionized American and worldwide politics His legacy may still yet do so"

Funeral and memorial gatherings

Swartz's funeral services were held on January 15, 2013, at Central Avenue Synagogue in Highland Park, Illinois Tim Berners-Lee, creator of the World Wide Web, delivered a eulogy The same day, the Wall Street Journal published a story based in part on an interview with Stinebrickner-Kauffman She told the Journal that Swartz lacked the money to pay for a trial and "it was too hard for him to make that part of his life go public" by asking for help He was also distressed, she said, because two of his friends had just been subpoenaed and because he no longer believed that MIT would try to stop the prosecution

Several memorials followed soon afterward On January 19, hundreds attended a memorial at the Cooper Union, speakers at which included Stinebrickner-Kauffman, Open Source advocate Doc Searls, Creative Commons' Glenn Otis Brown, journalist Quinn Norton, Roy Singham of ThoughtWorks, and David Segal of Demand Progress On January 24, there was a memorial at the Internet Archive with speakers including Stinebrickner-Kauffman, Alex Stamos, Brewster Kahle and Carl Malamud On February 4, a memorial was held in the Cannon House Office Building on Capitol Hill; speakers at this memorial included Senator Ron Wyden and Representatives Darrell Issa, Alan Grayson and Jared Polis, and other lawmakers in attendance included Senator Elizabeth Warren and Representatives Zoe Lofgren and Jan Schakowsky A memorial also took place on March 12 at the MIT Media Lab

Swartz's family recommended GiveWell for donations in his memory, an organization that Swartz admired, had collaborated with, and was the sole beneficiary of his will


Family response and criticism

Aaron's death is not simply a personal tragedy It is the product of a criminal justice system rife with intimidation and prosecutorial overreach Decisions made by officials in the Massachusetts US Attorney's office and at MIT contributed to his death

Statement by family and partner of Aaron Swartz

On January 12, 2013, Swartz's family and partner issued a statement, criticizing the prosecutors and MIT Speaking at his son's funeral on January 15, Robert Swartz said, "Aaron was killed by the government, and MIT betrayed all of its basic principles"

Mitch Kapor posted the statement on Twitter Tom Dolan, husband of US Attorney for Massachusetts Carmen Ortiz, whose office prosecuted Swartz's case, replied with criticism of the Swartz family: "Truly incredible that in their own son's obit they blame others for his death and make no mention of the 6-month offer" This comment triggered widespread criticism; Esquire writer Charlie Pierce replied, "the glibness with which her husband and her defenders toss off a ‘mere' six months in federal prison, low-security or not, is a further indication that something is seriously out of whack with the way our prosecutors think these days"

In the press and the arts

Aaron Swartz mural by Brooklyn graffiti artist BAMN

The Huffington Post reported that "Ortiz has faced significant backlash for pursuing the case against Swartz, including a petition to the White House to have her fired" Other news outlets reported similarly

Reuters news agency called Swartz "an online icon" who "help to make a virtual mountain of information freely available to the public, including an estimated 19 million pages of federal court documents" The Associated Press AP reported that Swartz's case "highlights society's uncertain, evolving view of how to treat people who break into computer systems and share data not to enrich themselves, but to make it available to others," and that JSTOR's lawyer, former US Attorney for the Southern District of New York, Mary Jo White, had asked the lead prosecutor to drop the charges

As discussed by editor Hrag Vartanian in Hyperallergic, Brooklyn, NY muralist BAMN "By Any Means Necessary" created a mural of Swartz "Swartz was an amazing human being who fought tirelessly for our right to a free and open Internet," the artist explained "He was much more than just the ‘Reddit guy'"

In 2013, Kenneth Goldsmith dedicated his "Printing out the Internet" exhibition to Swartz

Aaron Swartz's legacy has been reported as strengthening the "open access" to scholarship movement In Illinois, his home state, Swartz's influence led state university faculties to adopt policies in favor of open access

The Internet’s Own Boy: The Story of Aaron Swartz

Main article: The Internet's Own Boy: The Story of Aaron Swartz

On January 11, 2014, marking the first anniversary of his death, a sneak preview was released from The Internet's Own Boy: The Story of Aaron Swartz, a documentary about Swartz, the NSA and SOPA The film was officially released at the January 2014 Sundance Film Festival Democracy Now! covered the release of the documentary, as well as Swartz's life and legal case, in a sprawling interview with director Brian Knappenberger, Swartz's father and brother, and his attorney The documentary is released under a Creative Commons License; it debuted in theaters and on-demand in June 2014

Mashable called the documentary "a powerful homage to Aaron Swartz" Its debut at Sundance received a standing ovation Mashable printed, "With the help of experts, The Internet's Own Boy makes a clear argument: Swartz unjustly became a victim of the rights and freedoms for which he stood" The Hollywood Reporter described it as a "heartbreaking" story of a "tech wunderkind persecuted by the US government", and a must-see "for anyone who knows enough to care about the way laws govern information transfer in the digital age"


Main article: Killswitch film

In October 2014, Killswitch, a film featuring Aaron Swartz, as well as Lawrence Lessig, Tim Wu, and Edward Snowden received its World Premiere at the Woodstock Film Festival, where it won the award for Best Editing The film focuses on Swartz' integral role in the battle to control the Internet

In February 2015, Killswitch was invited to screen at the Capitol Visitor's Center in Washington DC by Congressman Alan Grayson The event was held on the eve of the Federal Communications Commission's historic decision on Net Neutrality Congressman Grayson, Lawrence Lessig, and Free Press CEO Craig Aaron spoke about Swartz and his fight on behalf of a free and open Internet at the event

Congressman Grayson states that Killswitch is "One of the most honest accounts of the battle to control the Internet – and access to information itself" Richard von Busack of the Metro Silicon Valley, writes of Killswitch, "Some of the most lapidary use of found footage this side of The Atomic Café" Fred Swegles of the Orange County Register, remarks, "Anyone who values unfettered access to online information is apt to be captivated by Killswitch, a gripping and fast-paced documentary" Kathy Gill of GeekWire asserts that "Killswitch is much more than a dry recitation of technical history Director Ali Akbarzadeh, producer Jeff Horn, and writer Chris Dollar created a human centered story A large part of that connection comes from Lessig and his relationship with Swartz"

Open Access

See also: § JSTOR

A long-time supporter of Open Access, Swartz wrote in his Guerilla Open Access Manifesto:

The world's entire scientific heritage is increasingly being digitized and locked up by a handful of private corporations

The Open Access Movement has fought valiantly to ensure that scientists do not sign their copyrights away but instead ensure their work is published on the Internet, under terms that allow anyone to access it

Supporters of Swartz responded to news of his death with an effort called #PDFTribute to promote Open Access On January 12, Eva Vivalt, a development economist at the World Bank, began posting her academic articles online using the hashtag #pdftribute as a tribute to Swartz Scholars posted links to their works

Swartz's death prompted calls for more open access to scholarly data eg, open science data

The Think Computer Foundation and the Center for Information Technology Policy CITP at Princeton University announced scholarships awarded in memory of Aaron Swartz

In 2013, Swartz was posthumously awarded the American Library Association's James Madison Award for being an "outspoken advocate for public participation in government and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed scholarly articles"

In March, the editor and editorial board of the Journal of Library Administration resigned en masse, citing a dispute with the journal's publisher, Routledge One board member wrote of a "crisis of conscience about publishing in a journal that was not open access" after the death of Aaron Swartz

In 2002, Swartz had stated that when he died, he wanted all the contents of his hard drives made publicly available


On January 13, 2013, members of Anonymous hacked two websites on the MIT domain, replacing them with tributes to Swartz that called on members of the Internet community to use his death as a rallying point for the open access movement The banner included a list of demands for improvements in the US copyright system, along with Swartz's Guerilla Open Access Manifesto

On the night of January 18, 2013, MIT's e-mail system was taken out of action for ten hours On January 22, e-mail sent to MIT was redirected by hackers Aush0k and TibitXimer to the Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology All other traffic to MIT was redirected to a computer at Harvard University that was publishing a statement headed "RIP Aaron Swartz," with text from a 2009 posting by Swartz, accompanied by a chiptunes version of The Star-Spangled Banner MIT regained full control after about seven hours

In the early hours of January 26, 2013, the US Sentencing Commission website, USSCgov, was hacked by Anonymous The home page was replaced with an embedded YouTube video, Anonymous Operation Last Resort The video statement said Swartz "faced an impossible choice"

A hacker downloaded "hundreds of thousands" of scientific-journal articles from a Swiss publisher's website and republished them on the open Web in Swartz's honor a week before the first anniversary of his death

MIT and the Abelson investigation

MIT maintains an open-campus policy along with an "open network" Two days after Swartz's death, MIT President L Rafael Reif commissioned professor Hal Abelson to lead an analysis of MIT's options and decisions relating to Swartz's "legal struggles" To help guide the fact-finding stage of the review, MIT created a website where community members could suggest questions and issues for the review to address

Swartz's attorneys have requested that all pretrial discovery documents be made public, a move which MIT opposed Swartz allies have criticized MIT for its opposition to releasing the evidence without redactions

On July 26, 2013, the Abelson panel submitted a 182-page report to MIT president, L Rafael Reif, who authorized its public release on July 30 The panel reported that MIT had not supported charges against Swartz and cleared the institution of wrongdoing However, its report also noted that despite MIT's advocacy for open access culture at the institutional level and beyond, the university never extended that support to Swartz The report revealed, for example, that while MIT considered the possibility of issuing a public statement about its position on the case, it never materialized

Petition to the White House

See also: Carmen Ortiz and Stephen Heymann

After Swartz's death, more than 50,000 people signed an online petition to the White House calling for the removal of Ortiz, "for overreach in the case of Aaron Swartz" A similar petition was submitted calling for prosecutor Stephen Heymann's firing

In January 2015, two years after Swartz’s death, the White House declined both petitions


Several members of the US House of Representatives — Republican Darrell Issa and Democrats Jared Polis and Zoe Lofgren — all on the House Judiciary Committee, have raised questions regarding the government's handling of the case Calling the charges against him "ridiculous and trumped up," Polis said Swartz was a "martyr", whose death illustrated the need for Congress to limit the discretion of federal prosecutors Speaking at a memorial for Swartz on Capitol Hill, Issa said

Ultimately, knowledge belongs to all the people of the world Aaron understood that Our copyright laws were created for the purpose of promoting useful works, not hiding them

Massachusetts Democratic Senator Elizabeth Warren issued a statement saying " advocacy for Internet freedom, social justice, and Wall Street reform demonstrated the power of his ideas" In a letter to Attorney General Eric Holder, Texas Republican Senator John Cornyn asked, "On what basis did the US Attorney for the District of Massachusetts conclude that her office's conduct was ‘appropriate'" and "Was the prosecution of Mr Swartz in any way retaliation for his exercise of his rights as a citizen under the Freedom of Information Act"

Congressional investigations

Issa, who chairs the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, announced that he would investigate the Justice Department's actions in prosecuting Swartz In a statement to the Huffington Post, he praised Swartz's work toward "open government and free access to the people" Issa's investigation has garnered some bipartisan support

On January 28, 2013, Issa and ranking committee member Elijah Cummings published a letter to US Attorney General Holder, questioning why federal prosecutors had filed the superseding indictment

On February 20, WBUR reported that Ortiz was expected to testify at an upcoming Oversight Committee hearing about her office's handling of the Swartz case

On February 22, Associate Deputy Attorney General Steven Reich conducted a briefing for congressional staffers involved in the investigation They were told that Swartz's Guerilla Open Access Manifesto played a role in prosecutorial decision-making Some are reported to have been left with the impression that prosecutors believed Swartz had to be convicted of a felony carrying at least a short prison sentence in order to justify having filed the case against him in the first place

Excoriating the Department of Justice as the "Department of Vengeance", Stinebrickner-Kauffman told the Guardian that the DOJ had erred in relying on Swartz's Guerilla Open Access Manifesto as an accurate indication of his beliefs by 2010 "He was no longer a single issue activist," she said "He was into lots of things, from healthcare, to climate change to money in politics"

On March 6, Holder testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee that the case was "a good use of prosecutorial discretion" Stinebrickner-Kauffman issued a statement in reply, repeating and amplifying her claims of prosecutorial misconduct Public documents, she wrote, reveal that prosecutor Stephen Heymann "instructed the Secret Service to seize and hold evidence without a warrant lied to the judge about that fact in written briefs withheld exculpatory evidence for over a year," violating his legal and ethical obligations to turn it over

On March 22, Senator Al Franken wrote Holder a letter expressing concerns Franken said, "charging a young man like Mr Swartz with federal offenses punishable by over 35 years of federal imprisonment seems remarkably aggressive — particularly when it appears that one of the principal aggrieved parties did not support a criminal prosecution"

Amendment to Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

Main article: Aaron's Law

In 2013, Rep Zoe Lofgren D-Calif introduced a bill, Aaron's Law HR 2454, S 1196 to exclude terms of service violations from the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and from the wire fraud statute

Lawrence Lessig wrote of the bill, "this is a critically important change The CFAA was the hook for the government's bullying This law would remove that hook In a single line: no longer would it be a felony to breach a contract" Professor Orin Kerr, a specialist in the nexus between computer law and criminal law, wrote that he had been arguing for precisely this sort of reform of the Act for years The ACLU, too, has called for reform of the CFAA to "remove the dangerously broad criminalization of online activity" The EFF has mounted a campaign for these reforms

Lessig's inaugural Chair lecture as Furman Professor of Law and Leadership was entitled Aaron's Laws: Law and Justice in a Digital Age; he dedicated the lecture to Swartz

The Aaron's Law bill stalled in committee since May 2014, reportedly due to Oracle Corporation's financial interests

Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act

The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act FASTR is a bill that would mandate earlier public release of taxpayer-funded research FASTR has been described as "The Other Aaron's Law"

Senator Ron Wyden D-Ore and Senator John Cornyn R-Tex introduced the Senate version, in 2013 and again in 2015, while the bill was introduced to the House by Reps Zoe Lofgren D-Calif, Mike Doyle D-Pa and Kevin Yoder R-Kans Senator Wyden wrote of the bill, "the FASTR act provides that access to taxpayer funded research should never be hidden behind a paywall"

While the legislation has not passed as of October 2015, it has helped to prompt some motion toward more open access on the part of the US administration Shortly after the bill's original introduction, the Office of Science and Technology Policy directed "each Federal agency with over $100 million in annual conduct of research and development expenditures to develop a plan to support increased public access to the results of research funded by the Federal Government"

External video
IHoF Induction Ceremony – Aaron Swartz on YouTube


On August 3, 2013, Swartz was posthumously inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame There was a hackathon held in Swartz' memory around the date of his birthday in 2013 Over the weekend of November 8–10, 2013, inspired by Swartz's work and life, a second annual hackathon was held in at least 16 cities around the world PreliminarHuby topics worked on at the 2013 Aaron Swartz Hackathon were privacy and software tools, transparency, activism, access, legal fixes, and a low-cost book scanner In January 2014, Lawrence Lessig led a walk across New Hampshire in honor of Swartz, rallying for campaign finance reform


Following Aaron's example Kazakh computer scientist and neuro-researcher Alexandra Elbakyan founded the website Sci-Hub Sci-Hub gives access to paywalled articles through its repository without paying, as of 2016 holding over 50 million articles Elbakyan has frequently been compared to Swartz in her solid criticism of paywalls and her dedication to Sci-Hub which she says will not be brought down regardless of lawsuits


  • Swartz, Aaron; Lucchese, Adriano November 2014, Raw Thought, Raw Nerve: Inside the Mind of Aaron Swartz PDF/ePub, New York, NY: Discovery Publisher 
  • Swartz, Aaron; Hendler, James October 2001, "The Semantic Web: A network of content for the digital city", Proceedings of the Second Annual Digital Cities Workshop, Kyoto, JP: Blogspace 
  • Swartz, Aaron January–February 2002 "MusicBrainz: A Semantic Web service" PDF IEEE Intelligent Systems UMBC 17 1: 76–77 doi:101109/5254988466 ISSN 1541-1672 
  • Gruber, John; Swartz, Aaron December 2004, Markdown definition, Daring Fireball 
  • Swartz, Aaron July 2008 "Guerilla Open Access Manifesto" 
  • Swartz, Aaron; James Hendler 2009 Building programmable Web sites SF: Morgan & Claypool ISBN 1-59829-920-4 
  • Swartz, Aaron Interviewee We can change the world Video YouTube 
  • Swartz, Aaron Speaker May 21, 2012 Keynote address at Freedom To Connect 2012: How we stopped SOPA Video DC: YouTube 
  • Swartz, Aaron February 2013 Aaron Swartz's A programmable Web: An unfinished work PDF San Francisco: Morgan & Claypool Lay summary To Dan Connolly, who not only created the Web but found time to teach it to me 
  • Swartz, Aaron January 2016 The Boy Who Could Change the World: The Writings of Aaron Swartz The New Press 


^ Swartz has been identified as a cofounder of Reddit, but the title is a source of controversy With the merger of Infogami and Reddit, Swartz became a co-owner and director of parent company Not A Bug, Inc, along with Reddit cofounders Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian Swartz has been referred to as "cofounder" in the press and by investor Paul Graham who recommended the merger; Ohanian describes him as "co-owner" ^ The MIT network administration office told MIT police that "approximately 70 gigabytes of data had been downloaded, 98% of which was from JSTOR" The first federal indictment alleged "approximately 48 million articles", "17 million" of which "were made available by independent publishers for purchase through JSTOR's Publisher Sales Service" The subsequent DOJ press release alleged "over four million articles" The superseding indictment removed the estimates and instead characterized the amount as "a major portion of the total archive in which JSTOR had invested"


  1. ^ a b c Yearwood, Pauline February 22, 2013 "Brilliant life, tragic death" Chicago Jewish News p 1 Archived from the original on 2013-10-17 Aaron Hillel Swartz was not depressed or suicidal a rabbi’s wife who has known him since he was a child says At age 13 he won the ArsDigita Prize, a competition for young people who create noncommercial websites 
  2. ^ a b Skaggs, Paula January 16, 2013 "Aaron Swartz Remembered as Internet Activist who Changed the World" Patch 
  3. ^ "RSS creator Aaron Swartz dead at 26" Harvard Magazine January 14, 2013 Swartz helped create RSS—a family of Web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works blog entries, news headlines, in a standardized format—at the age of 14 
  4. ^ a b "Markdown" Aaron Swartz: The Weblog March 19, 2004 
  5. ^ Lessig, Lawrence January 12, 2013 "Remembering Aaron Swartz" Creative Commons Aaron was one of the early architects of Creative Commons As a teenager, he helped design the code layer to our licenses 
  6. ^ a b Grehan, Rick August 10, 2011 "Pillars of Python: Webpy Web framework" InfoWorld Webpy, the brainchild of Aaron Swartz, who developed it while working at Redditcom, describes itself as a ‘minimalist’s framework’ Test Center Scorecard: Capability 7; Ease of Development 9; Documentation 7; ; Overall Score 76, Good 
  7. ^ Swartz, Aaron "Sociology or Anthropology" Raw Thought Retrieved January 16, 2013 
  8. ^ Swartz, Aaron May 13, 2008 "Simplistic Sociological Functionalism" Raw Thought Retrieved January 16, 2013 
  9. ^ a b Seidman, Bianca July 22, 2011 "Internet activist charged with hacking into MIT network" Arlington, Va: Public Broadcasting Service was in the middle of a fellowship at Harvard's Edmond J Safra Center for Ethics, in its Lab on Institutional Corruption 
  10. ^ a b "Lab Fellows 2010–2011: Aaron Swartz" Edmond J Safra Center for Ethics Harvard University 2010 Archived from the original on 2013-05-29 During the fellowship year, he will conduct experimental and ethnographic studies of the political system to prepare a monograph on the mechanisms of political corruption 
  11. ^ a b Gerstein, Josh July 22, 2011 "MIT also pressing charges against hacking suspect" Politico alleged use of MIT facilities and Web connections to access the JSTOR database resulted in two state felony charges for breaking into a ‘depository' and breaking & entering in the daytime, according to local prosecutors 
  12. ^ a b c d e Commonwealth v Swartz, 11-52CR73 & 11-52CR75, MIT Police Incident Report 11-351 Mass Dist Ct nolle prosequi December 16, 2011 “Captain Albert P and Special Agent Pickett were able to apprehend the suspect at 24 Lee Street He was arrested for two counts of Breaking and Entering in the daytime with the intent to commit a felony”
  13. ^ a b c d e f g "Indictment, USA v Swartz, 1:11-cr-10260, No 2 DMass July 14, 2011" MIT July 14, 2011 Retrieved January 23, 2013  Superseded by "Superseding Indictment, USA v Swartz, 1:11-cr-10260, No 53 DMass September 12, 2012" Docketalarmcom September 12, 2012 Retrieved January 23, 2013 
  14. ^ US Attorney's Office District of Massachusetts July 19, 2011 "Alleged Hacker Charged With Stealing Over Four Million Documents from MIT Network" Press release Archived from the original on 2012-05-26 Retrieved January 17, 2013 
  15. ^ a b "Aaron Swartz, Tech Prodigy and Internet Activist, Is Dead at 26" Time January 13, 2013 Retrieved January 13, 2013 
  16. ^ "Aaron Swartz, internet freedom activist, dies aged 26" BBC News January 13, 2013 Retrieved January 13, 2013 
  17. ^ a b Press release from the Internet Hall of Fame
  18. ^ a b "Internet Hall of Fame Announces 2013 Inductees" Internet Hall of Fame June 26, 2013 Retrieved August 3, 2013 
  19. ^ http://wwwrollingstonecom/culture/news/the-brilliant-life-and-tragic-death-of-aaron-swartz-20130215page=2
  20. ^ a b Nelson, Valerie J January 12, 2013 "Aaron Swartz dies at 26; Internet folk hero founded Reddit" Los Angeles Times 
  21. ^ a b c Swartz, Aaron September 27, 2007 "How to get a job like mine" blog Aaron Swartz We negotiated for months I started going crazy from having to think so much about money The company almost fell apart before the deal went through 
  22. ^ "Reddit co-creator Aaron Swartz dies from suicide" Chicago Tribune January 13, 2013 
  23. ^ Skaggs, Paula January 15, 2013 "Internet activist Aaron Swartz's teachers remember 'brilliant' student" Patch Northbrook, Ill Swartz attended North Shore Country Day School through 9th grade 
  24. ^ Swartz, Aaron January 14, 2002 "It's always cool to run" Weblog Aaron Swartz I would have been in 10th grade this year Now I'm taking a couple classes at a local college 
  25. ^ "Second ArsDigita Prize 2000 Finalists and Winners" December 1, 2001 Archived from the original on December 1, 2001 Retrieved 2016-03-06 
  26. ^ Schofield, Jack January 13, 2013 "Aaron Swartz obituary" The Guardian London At 13 won an ArsDigita prize for creating The Info Network 
  27. ^ a b Ryan, Singel September 13, 2005 "Stars Rise at Startup Summer Camp" Wired Retrieved 2014-12-19 
  28. ^ https://dklinkedincom/in/simoncarstensen
  29. ^ a b Swartz, Aaron 2007 "Introducing Infogami" Infogami CondeNet Archived from the original on December 24, 2007 
  30. ^ "A passion for your users brings good karma: Interview with Alexis Ohanian, co-founder of redditcom" StartupStories November 11, 2006 Archived from the original on August 23, 2007 
  31. ^ a b Singel, Ryan July 19, 2011 "Feds Charge Activist as Hacker for Downloading Millions of Academic Articles" Wired Retrieved January 12, 2013 
  32. ^ "Breaking News: Condé Nast/Wired Acquires Reddit" Techcrunch October 31, 2006 
  33. ^ Lenssen, Philipp 2007 "A Chat with Aaron Swartz" Google Blogoscoped Archived from the original on April 27, 2010 Retrieved May 11, 2010 
  34. ^ "Aaron Swartz's Jottit has been officially released" Reddit 2007 Retrieved 2015-10-20 
  35. ^ Klein, Sam July 24, 2011 "Aaron Swartz vs United States" The Longest Now Weblogs at Harvard Law School He founded watchdognet to aggregate data about politicians – including where their money comes from 
  36. ^ "The team" Watchdognet Founder Aaron Swartz We’re funded by a grant from the Sunlight Network and the Sunlight Foundation 
  37. ^ Norton, Quinn March 3, 2013 "Life inside the Aaron Swartz investigation" The Atlantic DC Retrieved March 8, 2013 
  38. ^ a b c McVeigh, Karen, Aaron Swartz's partner accuses US of delaying investigation into prosecution, The Guardian, March 1, 2013 Retrieved May 20, 2015
  39. ^ a b Swartz, Aaron July 2008 "Guerilla Open Access Manifesto" PDF Internet Archive We need to buy secret databases and put them on the Web We need to download scientific journals and upload them to file sharing networks 
  40. ^ Murphy, Samantha July 22, 2011 "'Guerilla activist' releases 18,000 scientific papers" MIT Technology Review In a 2008 ‘Guerilla Open Access Manifesto,' Swartz called for activists to ‘fight back' against services that held academic papers hostage behind paywalls 
  41. ^ "ProPublica SecureDrop Server" ProPublica Retrieved 2016-05-27 
  42. ^ "Become a source" The Intercept Retrieved 2016-05-27 
  43. ^ "The Guardian SecureDrop Server" The Guardian Retrieved 2016-05-27 
  44. ^ "SecureDrop - The Washington Post" The Washington Post Retrieved 2016-05-27 
  45. ^ "Progressive Change Campaign Committee Statement on the Passing of Aaron Swartz" Retrieved November 19, 2014 
  46. ^ How to Get a Job Like Mine Aaron Swartz's Raw Thought
  47. ^ Victory! HonorKennedycom – YouTube
  48. ^ Eckersley, Peter "Farewell to Aaron Swartz, an Extraordinary Hacker and Activist" Deeplinks Blog Electronic Frontier Foundation 
  49. ^ Matthews, Laura July 19, 2011 "Who is Aaron Swartz, the JSTOR MIT Hacker" International Business Times Retrieved January 13, 2013 
  50. ^ "Our Mission" blog Demand Progress Retrieved May 30, 2015 
  51. ^ a b Sleight, Graham February 1, 2013 "'Homeland,' by Cory Doctorow" The Washington Post As Doctorow made clear in his eloquent obituary, he drew on advice from Swartz in setting out how his protagonist could use the information now available about voters to create a grass-roots anti-establishment political campaign One of the book's two afterwords is by Swartz 
  52. ^ a b c Wagner, Daniel; Verena Dobnik January 13, 2013 "Swartz' death fuels debate over computer crime" Associated Press JSTOR's attorney, Mary Jo White — formerly the top federal prosecutor in Manhattan — had called the lead Boston prosecutor in the case and asked him to drop it, said Peters 
  53. ^ a b Swartz, Aaron May 21, 2012 "How we stopped SOPA" video Keynote address at the Freedom To Connect 2012 conference New York: Democracy Now! he ‘Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeiting Act' was introduced on September 20th, 2010 And it began being called PIPA, and eventually SOPA 
  54. ^ a b Aaron Swartz interviewee & Amy Goodman May 21, 2012 Freedom to Connect: Aaron Swartz 1986–2013 on victory to save open Internet, fight online censors Video NYC: Democracy Now 
  55. ^ "Bill Killed: SOPA death celebrated as Congress recalls anti-piracy acts", Russian Times, January 19, 2012 
  56. ^ Swartz, Aaron August 16, 2012 "How we stopped SOPA" video Speech at ThoughtWorks New York Yahoo! 
  57. ^ Leopold, Jason January 18, 2013 "Aaron Swartz's FOIA Requests Shed Light on His Struggle" The Public Record Retrieved January 23, 2013 
  58. ^ "FOI Request: Records related to Bradley Manning" Muckrock Retrieved January 23, 2013 
  59. ^ a b c Lee, Timothy B,The inside story of Aaron Swartz's campaign to liberate court filings, Ars Technica, February 8, 2013 Retrieved March 8, 2013
  60. ^ Will Wrigley February 7, 2013 "Darrell Issa Praises Aaron Swartz, Internet Freedom At Memorial" Huffingtonpostcom Retrieved February 21, 2013 
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  63. ^ Johnson, Bobbie November 11, 2009 "Recap: Cracking open US courtrooms" The Guardian London 
  64. ^ Malamud, Carl January 24, 2013 Aaron’s Army Speech Memorial for Aaron Swartz at the Internet Archive San Francisco 
  65. ^ Malamud, Carl March 30, 2013 "On Crime and Access to Knowledge: An Unpublished Essay" 
  66. ^ "Timothy Lee Bio" Retrieved May 6, 2016 
  67. ^ "Wikimedia Foundation elections/Board elections/2006/Results/en" Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees Election September 24, 2006 6th - 423 18% - AaronSw Aaron Swartz 
  68. ^ a b c Swartz, Aaron September 4, 2006 "Who Writes Wikipedia" Raw Thought Retrieved January 12, 2013 
  69. ^ Blodget, Henry January 3, 2009 "Who The Hell Writes Wikipedia, Anyway" Business Insider Retrieved January 12, 2013 
  70. ^ "RDFCore Working Group Membership" W3 December 1, 2002 Retrieved January 15, 2013 
  71. ^ Swartz, A September 2004 "Request for Comments No 3870, 'application/rdf+xml' Media Type Registration" Network Working Group The Internet Society A media type for use with the Extensible Markup Language serialization of the Resource Description Framework  allows RDF consumers to identify RDF/XML documents 
  72. ^ Gruber, John "Daring Fireball: Markdown" Daring Fireball Archived from the original on April 2, 2004 Retrieved April 25, 2014 
  73. ^ "atx, the true structured text format" 
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  75. ^ F, G January 13, 2013, "Commons man: Remembering Aaron Swartz", The Economist 
  76. ^ a b "Video of Lawrence Lessig's lecture, Aaron's Laws: Law and Justice in a Digital Age" Youtubecom February 20, 2013 Retrieved March 24, 2013 
  77. ^ "MARC Records from Scriblio 2007" Internet Archive 
  78. ^ Aaron, Swartz "In Defense of Anonymity" Retrieved February 4, 2014 
  79. ^ Zetter, Kim December 12, 2008 "New Service Makes Tor Anonymized Content Available to All" wiredcom Retrieved February 22, 2014 
  80. ^ "tor2web brings anonymous Tor sites to the "regular" web" arstechnicacom Retrieved February 22, 2014 
  81. ^ Poulsen, Kevin "Strongbox and Aaron Swartz" The New Yorker Retrieved May 16, 2013 
  82. ^ Davidson, Amy May 15, 2013 "Introducing Strongbox" The New Yorker Retrieved June 20, 2013 
  83. ^ Kassner, Michael May 20, 2013 "Aaron Swartz legacy lives on with New Yorker's Strongbox: How it works" TechRepublic Retrieved June 20, 2013 
  84. ^ Charlton, Alistair October 16, 2013 "Aaron Swartz-Designed Whistleblower Tool SecureDrop Launched by Press Freedom Foundation" International Business Times IBT Media 
  85. ^ "Terms and Conditions of Use" JSTOR New York: ITHAKA January 15, 2013 JSTOR's integrated digital platform is a trusted digital repository providing for long-term preservation and access to scholarly materials: journal issues ; manuscripts and monographs; ; spatial/geographic information systems data; plant specimens;  
  86. ^ a b c MacFarquhar, Larissa March 11, 2013 "Requiem for a dream: The tragedy of Aaron Swartz" The New Yorker wrote a script that instructed his computer to download articles continuously, something that was forbidden by JSTOR's terms of service He spoofed the computer's address This happened several times MIT traced the requests to his laptop, which he had hidden in an unlocked closet 
  87. ^ Lindsay, Jay July 19, 2011 "Feds: Harvard fellow hacked millions of papers" Boston Associated Press Retrieved January 15, 2013 
  88. ^ "JSTOR Statement: Misuse Incident and Criminal Case" JSTOR Retrieved January 12, 2013 
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  90. ^ Peters, Justin February 7, 2013 "The Idealist: Aaron Swartz wanted to save the world Why couldn't he save himself" Slate NYC 6 The superseding indictment claimed that Swartz had ‘contrived to break into a restricted-access wiring closet at MIT' But the closet door had been unlocked—and remained unlocked even after the university and authorities were aware that someone had been in there trying to access the school's network 
  91. ^ a b Merritt, Jeralyn January 14, 2013 "MIT to conduct internal probe on its role in Aaron Swartz case" TalkLeft blog Att'y Jeralyn Merritt The wiring closet was not locked and was accessible to the public If you look at the pictures supplied by the Government, you can see graffiti on one wall 
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  93. ^ "Aaron Swartz, Internet Pioneer, Found Dead Amid Prosecutor 'Bullying' In Unconventional Case" The Huffington Post January 12, 2013 
  94. ^ Hak, Susana; Paz, Gabriella January 26, 2011 "Compilation of December 15, 2010 – January 20, 2011" PDF Hak–De Paz Police Log Compilations MIT Crime Club p 6 January 6, 2:20 pm, Aaron Swartz, was arrested at 24 Lee Street as a suspect for breaking and entering 
  95. ^ Singel, Ryan February 27, 2011 "Rogue academic downloader busted by MIT webcam stakeout, arrest report says" Wired NYC Swartz is accused of stealing the articles by attaching a laptop directly to a network switch in a ‘restricted' room, though neither the police report nor the indictment a door lock or signage indicating the room is off-limits 
  96. ^ Bilton, Nick July 19, 2011 "Internet Activist Charged in Data Theft" Boston: Bits Blog, The New York Times Company Retrieved July 19, 2011 registration required help 
  97. ^ Hawkinson, John November 18, 2011 "Swartz indicted for breaking and entering" The Tech MIT p 11 Swartz was indicted in Middlesex Superior Court for breaking and entering, larceny over $250, and unauthorized access to a computer network 
  98. ^ "Cambridge man indicted on breaking & entering charges, larceny charges in connection with data theft" Press release Middlesex District Attorney November 17, 2011 Swartz was indicted today on charges of Breaking and Entering with Intent to Commit a Felony, Larceny over $250, and Unauthorized Access to a Computer Network by a Middlesex Superior Grand Jury 
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  169. ^ Two RECAP Grants Awarded in Memory of Aaron Swartz | RECAP The Law
  170. ^ Kopstein, Joshua March 13, 2013 "Aaron Swartz to receive posthumous 'Freedom of Information' award for open access advocacy" The Verge Retrieved March 24, 2013 
  171. ^ "James Madison Award" Alaorg January 17, 2013 Retrieved March 24, 2013 
  172. ^ Entire library journal editorial board resigns, citing 'crisis of conscience' after death of Aaron Swartz | The Verge
  173. ^ New, Jake March 26, 2013 "Journal's Editorial Board Resigns in Protest of Publisher's Policy Toward Authors" The Chronicle of Higher Education Retrieved 2015-05-30 
  174. ^ "It was just days after Aaron Swartz' death, and I was having a crisis of conscience about publishing in a journal that was not open access" Feral Librarian Retrieved November 19, 2014 
  175. ^ Swartz, Aaron "If I get hit by a truck" Archived from the original on 2003-01-17 Retrieved 2016-05-29 
  176. ^ "Aaron Swartz" Economistcom January 19, 2013 Retrieved January 20, 2013 
  177. ^ "Anonymous hacks MIT Web sites to post Aaron Swartz tribute, call to arms" The Washington Post Retrieved January 13, 2013 
  178. ^ Kao, Joanna January 19, 2013 "MIT email was down for 10 hours last night, Mystery Hunt temporarily affected" Tech Blogs MIT A mail loop caused by a series of malformed email messages led to an exhaustion of system resources 
  179. ^ Aush0k; TibitXimer January 22, 2013 "RIP Aaron Swartz" Archived from the original on January 23, 2013 hacked by aush0k and tibitximer 
  180. ^ Swartz, Aaron August 2, 2009 "Life in a world of pervasive immorality: The ethics of being alive" Raw Thought: Aaron Swartz's Weblog Is there sense in following rules or are they just another example of the world's pervasive immorality 
  181. ^ Kao, Joanna January 23, 2013 "MIT DNS hacked; traffic redirected" The Tech MIT p 1 From 11:58 am to 1:05 pm, MIT's DNS was redirected to CloudFlare, where the hackers had configured servers to return a Harvard IP address By 7:15 pm, CloudFlare removed the ‘mailmitedu' record, which referred to the machine at KAIST 
  182. ^ Reported by Sabari Selvan "United States Sentencing Commissionusscgov hacked and defaced by Anonymous | Hacking News | Security updates" Ehackingnewscom Retrieved January 29, 2013 
  183. ^ "Hackers take over sentencing commission website" Associated Press January 26, 2013 ‘Two weeks ago today, a line was crossed,' the statement said 
  184. ^ Aarons ArkAngel January 26, 2013 "Anonymous Operation Last Resort: Anonymous hacked USSCGOV" Flash video YouTube 
  185. ^ "Anonymous hackers target US agency site" BBC News January 26, 2013 The hackers said the site was chosen for symbolic reasons ‘The federal sentencing guidelines enable prosecutors to cheat citizens of their constitutionally guaranteed right to a fair trial ,' the video statement said 
  186. ^ Stanza, Arrow January 6, 2014 "Springer Link hacked in honor of Aaron Swartz" Press release Slashdot The material is published in honor of Aaron Swartz in springer-ltaconf 
  187. ^ "Swartz' death fuels debate over computer crime" Usatodaycom January 14, 2013 Retrieved January 29, 2013 
  188. ^ Smith, Gerry January 15, 2013 "Aaron Swartz case 'snowballed out of MIT's hands,' source says" Huffington Post Retrieved January 16, 2013 
  189. ^ "President Reif writes to MIT community regarding Aaron Swartz" Press release MIT January 13, 2013 I have asked Abelson to lead a thorough analysis of MIT's involvement from the time that we first perceived unusual activity on our network in fall 2010 
  190. ^ "homepage" Swartz Review MIT January 23, 2013 Archived from the original on 2013-02-06 IS&T has created this web site so can suggest questions and issues to guide the review What questions should MIT be asking at this stage of the Aaron Swartz review 
  191. ^ Nanos, Janelle January 24, 2013 "MIT prof announces plans for Swartz review: A website is launched allowing for discussion of how his case was handled" Boston Magazine 
  192. ^ "MIT and Aaron Swartz's lawyers argue over releasing evidence" Techdirt March 20, 2013 Retrieved March 24, 2013 
  193. ^ Rebecca Greenfield March 19, 2013 "MIT's peace offering of Aaron Swartz documents still won't be enough" The Atlantic Wire Retrieved March 24, 2013 
  194. ^ "Report Details MIT's Involvement in the Aaron Swartz Case" alummitedu August 2013 Retrieved September 7, 2016 
  195. ^ Schwartz, John July 30, 2013 "MIT Releases Report on Its Role in the Case of Aaron Swartz" The New York Times Retrieved July 30, 2013 registration required help 
  196. ^ "MIT releases report on its actions in the Aaron Swartz case" MIT news MIT News Office July 30, 2013 Retrieved July 30, 2013 
  197. ^ "Report to the President: MIT and the Prosecution of Aaron Swartz" PDF Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2013 Retrieved July 30, 2013 
  198. ^ "Petition: "Remove United States District Attorney Carmen Ortiz from office for overreach in the case of Aaron Swartz"" Whgov January 12, 2013 Retrieved January 20, 2013 
  199. ^ Smith, Gerry January 13, 2013 "Were The Charges Against Internet Activist Aaron Swartz Too Severe" Huffington Post 
  200. ^ "Fire Assistant US Attorney Steve Heymann" Whgov petition January 12, 2013 Retrieved January 29, 2013 
  201. ^ Glenn Greenwald January 16, 2013 "Carmen Ortiz and Stephen Heymann: accountability for prosecutorial abuse | Glenn Greenwald | Comment is free | guardiancouk" London: Guardian Retrieved January 29, 2013 
  202. ^ "Convicted hacker Stephen Watt on Aaron Swartz: 'It's just not justice'" VentureBeat January 25, 2013 Retrieved January 29, 2013 
  203. ^ Fung, Brian; Peterson, Andrea January 8, 2015 "After long delay, Obama declines to rule on petition calling for firing of DOJ officials over Aaron Swartz's suicide" The Washington Post Retrieved March 13, 2015 
  204. ^ a b Sasso, Brendan; Jennifer Martinez January 15, 2013 "Lawmakers slam DOJ prosecution of Swartz as 'ridiculous, absurd'" Hillicon Valley The Hill 
  205. ^ a b Reilly, Ryan J January 15, 2013 "Darrell Issa Probing Prosecution Of Aaron Swartz, Internet Pioneer Who Killed Himself" Huffingtonpostcom Retrieved January 20, 2013 
  206. ^ http://wwwcornynsenategov/public/a=FilesServe&File_id=74c0afb3-1bc2-49f5-9150-0a8f004ef438 pdf
  207. ^ Pearce, Matt January 18, 2013 "Aaron Swartz suicide has US lawmakers scrutinizing prosecutors" latimescom Retrieved January 20, 2013 
  208. ^ Carter, Zach January 18, 2013 "John Cornyn Criticizes Eric Holder Over Aaron Swartz's Death" Huffingtonpostcom Retrieved January 20, 2013 
  209. ^ "Top senator scolds Holder over Reddit founder's suicide" Washington Times January 18, 2013 Retrieved January 20, 2013 
  210. ^ "Issa letter to Holder on Aaron Swartz case" PDF Retrieved February 1, 2013 
  211. ^ Boeri, David and David Frank, Ortiz Under Fire: Critics Say Swartz Tragedy Is Evidence Of Troublesome Pattern, WBUR, February 20, 2013 Retrieved February 24, 2013
  212. ^ a b c Reilly, Ryan J, Aaron Swartz Prosecutors Weighed 'Guerilla' Manifesto, Justice Official Tells Congressional Committee, Huffington Post, February 22, 2013 Retrieved March 2, 2013
  213. ^ a b c Masnick, Mike, DOJ Admits It Had To Put Aaron Swartz In Jail To Save Face Over The Arrest, techdirt, February 25, 2013 Retrieved March 2, 2013
  214. ^ Masnick, Mike March 7, 2013 "Holder: DOJ used discretion in bullying Swartz, press lacked discretion in quoting facts" Techdirt 
  215. ^ Masnick, Mike March 8, 2013 "Aaron Swartz's partner accuses DOJ of lying, seizing evidence without a warrant & withholding exculpatory evidence" Techdirt 
  216. ^ Carter, Zach March 22, 2013 "Al Franken Sends Eric Holder Letter Over 'Remarkably Aggressive' Aaron Swartz Prosecution" Huffingtonpostcom Retrieved March 24, 2013 
  217. ^ HR 2454; HR 2454 at GovTrack; HR 2454 Archived November 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine at OpenCongress S 1196; S 1196 at GovTrack; S 1196 Archived November 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine at OpenCongress
  218. ^ Musil, Steven November 30, 2011 "New 'Aaron's Law' aims to alter controversial computer fraud law" Internet & Media News CNET Retrieved January 16, 2013 
  219. ^ Greenberg, Andrew ‘Andy' January 16, 2013 "'Aaron's Law' Suggests Reforms To Computer Fraud Act But Not Enough To Have Protected Aaron Swartz" Forbes Retrieved January 16, 2013 
  220. ^ Kerr, Oren, Aaron's Law, Drafting the Best Limits of the CFAA, And A Reader Poll on A Few Examples Volokh Conspiracy, January 27, 2013 Retrieved April 23, 2013
  221. ^ "Help Protect The Next Aaron Swartz" Acluorg January 11, 2013 Retrieved February 7, 2013 
  222. ^ "Reform Draconian Computer Crime Law" Actionefforg Retrieved February 7, 2013 
  223. ^ Lawrence Lessig "the next words: A Lecture on Aaron's Law" Lessig Retrieved February 21, 2013 
  224. ^ "Transcript: Lawrence Lessig on 'Aaron's Laws: Law and Justice in a Digital Age'" 
  225. ^ "Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review – A summary of Lawrence Lessig's Chair Lecture at Harvard Law School" Harvardcrclorg January 14, 2013 Retrieved May 30, 2015 
  226. ^ Dekel, Jonathan May 1, 2014 "Swartz doc director: Oracle and Larry Ellison killed Aaron's Law" Postmedia 
  227. ^ Peterson, Andrea February 16, 2013 "How FASTR Will Help Americans" Thinkprogressorg Retrieved March 24, 2013 
  228. ^ "Wyden Bill Makes Taxpayer Funded Research Available to the Public | Press Releases | US Senator Ron Wyden" Wydensenategov February 14, 2013 Retrieved March 24, 2013 
  229. ^ "White House Issues Public Access Directive" Publishers Weekly February 22, 2013 Retrieved 2013-05-28 
  230. ^ Rosenblatt, Seth November 9, 2013 "Call to action kicks off second Aaron Swartz hackathon" CNET News Retrieved November 10, 2013 
  231. ^ Guthrie Weissman, Cale November 8, 2013 "Tonight begins the second annual Aaron Swartz hackathon" Pando Daily Retrieved November 10, 2013 
  232. ^ "Aaron Swartz Hackathon" Archived from the original on March 29, 2014 Retrieved November 9, 2013 
  233. ^ Higgins, Parker November 6, 2001 "Aaron Swartz Hackathons This Weekend to Continue his Work" Electronic Frontier Foundation EFF Retrieved November 10, 2013 
  234. ^ Rocheleau, Matt October 21, 2013 "In Aaron Swartz' memory, hackathons to be held across globe, including at MIT, next month" Boston Retrieved November 10, 2013 
  235. ^ "Worldwide Aaron Swartz Memorial Hackathon Series" Noisebridge Retrieved November 9, 2013 
  236. ^ "Aaron projects" Noisebridge Retrieved November 9, 2013 
  237. ^ Lessig, Lawrence January 10, 2014 "Aaron's Walk: The New Hampshire Rebellion" Huffington Post Retrieved September 5, 2014 
  238. ^ Boyko, Brian January 11, 2014 "It Begins Thank you" Retrieved September 5, 2014 
  239. ^ a b Murphy, Kate 2016-03-12 "Should All Research Papers Be Free" The New York Times ISSN 0362-4331 Retrieved 2016-08-23 
  240. ^ McNutt, Marcia "Science Magazine" Science 
  241. ^ "A spiritual successor to Aaron Swartz is angering publishers all over again" Retrieved 2016-08-23 
  242. ^ "Not A Bug, Inc: Private company information" Bloomberg Business October 31, 2006 Retrieved May 30, 2015 The company owns and operates portals that allow users to post contents and create Websites As of October 31, 2006, is a subsidiary of CondéNet, Inc Key Executives for Not A Bug, Inc: Huffman, President and Director; Swartz, Treasurer and Director; Ohanian, Secretary and Director 
  243. ^ "There was a third 'co-founder' of reddit", Today I Learned, Reddit, October 18, 2010, Aaron isn’t a founder of reddit 

Further reading

  • Nanos, Janelle January 2014 "Losing Aaron" Boston 
  • Peters, Justin 2016 The Idealist: Aaron Swartz and the Rise of Free Culture on the Internet Scribner ISBN 978-1476767727  Biography of Swartz
  • Poulsen, Kevin "MIT Moves to Intervene in Release of Aaron Swartz's Secret Service File" Wired July 18, 2013

Documentary video

  • Brian Knappenberger Producer and Director, The Internet's Own Boy: The Story of Aaron Swartz Participant Media: 2014 Via The Internet Archive, wwwarchiveorg/ Run time: 105 minutes
  • Ali Akbarzadeh Director, Killswitch: The Battle to Control the Internet, Akorn Entertainment: 2014

External links

  • Official website
  • English Wikipedia userpage 2004–2013
  • Aaron Swartz on Twitter
  • Remembrances 2013– , with obituary and official statement from family and partner
  • The Internet's Own Boy: The Story of Aaron Swartz, The Documentary Network, June 29, 2014, a film by Brian Knappenberger - Luminant Media
  • The Aaron Swartz Collection at Internet Archive 2013–  podcasts, e-mail correspondence, other materials
  • Guerilla Open Access Manifesto
  • Aaron Swartz at the Internet Movie Database
  • Posting about Swartz as Wikipedia contributor 2013, at The Wikipedian
  • Case Docket: US v Swartz
  • Report to the President: MIT and the Prosecution of Aaron Swartz
  • JSTOR Evidence in United States vs Aaron Swartz – A collection of documents and events from JSTOR's perspective Hundreds of emails and other documents they provided the government concerning the case
  • Federal law enforcement documents about Aaron Swartz, released under the Freedom of Information Act

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