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2016 Nice attack

2016 nice attack, 2016 nice attack wikipedia
On the evening of 14 July 2016, a 19 tonne cargo truck was deliberately driven into crowds of people celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people2 and the injury of 458 others4 The driver was Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, a Tunisian resident of France56 The attack ended following an exchange of gunfire, during which Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was shot and killed by police

ISIL claimed responsibility for the attack, saying Lahouaiej-Bouhlel answered its "calls to target citizens of coalition nations that fight the Islamic State" On 15 July, François Molins, the prosecutor for the Public Ministry, which is overseeing the investigation, said the attack bore the hallmarks of jihadist terrorism7

On 15 July, French President François Hollande called the attack an act of Islamic terrorism, announced an extension of the state of emergency which had been declared following the November 2015 Paris attacks for a further three months, and announced an intensification of French airstrikes on ISIL in Syria and Iraq89 France later extended the state of emergency until 26 January 201710 The French government declared three days of national mourning starting on 16 July Thousands of extra police and soldiers were deployed while the government called on citizens to join the reserve forces

On 21 July, prosecutor François Molins said that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel planned the attack for months and had help from accomplices111213 By 1 August, six suspects had been taken into custody on charges of "criminal terrorist conspiracy", three of whom were also charged for complicity in murder in relation to a terrorist enterprise On 16 December three further suspects, allegedly involved in the supply of illegal weapons to Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, were charged141516

Contents

  • 1 Background
  • 2 Attack
    • 21 Immediate aftermath
  • 3 Perpetrator
    • 31 Personal life
    • 32 Motives
    • 33 Preparations
  • 4 Victims
  • 5 Investigation
    • 51 Arrests
    • 52 Alleged accomplices
  • 6 Reactions
    • 61 French government
      • 611 15 July
      • 612 16–17 July
      • 613 18 July and later
    • 62 French public ministry
    • 63 The Republicans
    • 64 National Front
    • 65 International
    • 66 Claim of ISIL responsibility
    • 67 Islamic and Christian responses
    • 68 Social media
  • 7 After-effects
    • 71 Cultural
    • 72 Financial markets
    • 73 Tourism
    • 74 Tensions between Muslims and non-Muslims
    • 75 Raids and house arrests under state of emergency
  • 8 See also
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 References
  • 11 External links

Backgroundedit

Bastille Day celebrations on beach below Promenade des Anglais, 2014

On the morning before the attack, French President François Hollande said the national state of emergency, put in place after the November 2015 Paris attacks, would end after the 2016 Tour de France finished on 26 July 201617 France had just finished hosting the Euro 2016 football tournament, during which the country had extensive security measures in place Some matches were played in Nice, ending with the England–Iceland match on 27 June18

On the evening of 14 July in Nice, the Bastille Day celebrations on the waterfront Promenade des Anglais, dubbed "Prom'Party" by the city of Nice,19 drew crowds of 30,000 and included an aerial display by the French Air Forcecitation needed

The Promenade des Anglais had been closed to traffic and, as in preceding years, a long section including the large hotels had been converted into a pedestrian zone The customary Bastille Day fireworks display took place between 22:00 and 22:2020212223

Attackedit

Timeline of attack 11 July:
  • Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel rented a 19 tonne Renault Midlum 270 cargo truck in Saint-Laurent-du-Var21242526

14 July:

  • 21:34 - Lahouaiej-Bouhlel reported to have arrived on bicycle in Auriol quarter of Nice to recover truck27
  • c 22:00 - Lahouaiej-Bouhlel reported to have arrived in Magnan quarter of Nice2128
  • 22:27 - Lahouaiej-Bouhlel reported to have sent SMS message concerning firearms293031
  • c 22:30 - Lahouaiej-Bouhlel turned truck eastward onto Promenade des Anglais near the Fondation Lenval Children's Hospital21323334
  • 22:33 - Municipal police at Centre Universitaire Méditerranéen report truck3536
  • 22:35:47 - The truck came to a halt next to the Palais de la Méditerranée hotel37
  • c 22:35 - Lahouaiej-Bouhlel shot dead by police52338
All times are CEST UTC+2 Annotated map showing course of attack along the Promenade des Anglais The white truck, a Renault Midlum,39 in the distanceclarification needed on the Promenade des Anglais on the morning after the attack A pair of shoes lie on the ground in the rush shortly after the attack

On 14 July in Nice, at approximately 22:30, just after the end of the Bastille Day fireworks display, a white 19 tonne Renault Midlum cargo truck emerged from the Magnan quarter of Nice turning eastward on to the Promenade des Anglais, then closed to traffic, near the Fondation Lenval Children's Hospital323840

Travelling at close to 90 kilometres 56 mi per hour and mounting onto the pavement as if out of control, it hit and killed numerous bystanders before passing the Centre Universitaire Méditerranéen, where it was first reported by municipal police364142 400 metres 1,300 ft from the children's hospital, at the intersection with Boulevard Gambetta, the truck accelerated and mounted on to the kerb to force its way through the police barriers—a police car, a crowd control barrier and lane separators43—marking the beginning of the pedestrianised zone44

Having broken through the barrier, the truck, driving in a zigzag fashion, knocked down random members of the crowd milling about on the pavement and in the three traffic lanes on the seaward side of the Promenade23 The driver tried to stay on the pavement—returning to the traffic lanes only when blocked by a bus shelter or pavilion—thus increasing the number of deaths45 After reaching the Hotel Negresco, the progress of the truck, already travelling more slowly, was further slowed down by a passing cyclist, whose attempts to open the cabin door were abandoned after being threatened with a gun through the window;46 followed by a motorcyclist, in pursuit from the Centre Universitaire Méditerranéen, who threw his scooter under the front wheels of the truck at the intersection with rue Meyerbeer, striking blows at the driver from the running board before being struck with the butt of the driver's gun, suffering moderate injuries from falling off the truck's side47484950 The driver fired several shots at police from his 765 mm firearm, close to the Hotel Negresco,51 as police arrived; they returned fire with their 9mm Sig Sauer handguns, gave chase to the vehicle and attempted to disable it4152

The truck travelled a further 200 metres 660 ft until, in a badly damaged state, it came to halt53 at 22:35 next to the Palais de la Méditerranée approximately five minutes after the start of the attack3238 There, two national police officers shot and killed the driver52338

Immediate aftermathedit

Multiple bullet holes were seen in the windscreen and cab of the truck385354 The entire attack took place over a distance of 17 kilometres 11 mi, between numbers 11 and 147 of the Promenade des Anglais, resulting in the deaths of 86 people and creating high levels of panic in the crowds55 Some were injured as a result of jumping onto the pebbled beach several metres below the Promenade56

In addition to the firearm used during the attack, an ammunition magazine, a fake pistol, a dummy grenade, a replica Kalashnikov rifle, and a replica M16 rifle were found in the cabin of the truck Also recovered were a mobile phone and personal documents, including an identity card, a drivers licence, and credit cards There were several pallets and a bicycle in the rear of the truck575859

Perpetratoredit

Main article: Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, on his residency permit

Personal lifeedit

French police identified the perpetrator as Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, a 31-year-old man of Tunisian nationality,60 born in Tunisia, with a French residency permit and living in Nice6 His parents live in Tunisia and rarely heard from him since he moved to France in 200561 His father said Lahouaiej-Bouhlel underwent psychiatric treatment before he moved to France62 He married a French-Tunisian cousin, living in Nice, with whom he had three children According to his wife's lawyer, he was repeatedly reported for domestic violence and the couple separated63

After this separation, Lahouaiej-Bouhlel had a wild sex life according to the prosecutor64 and had had sexual relations with both men and women according to an unnamed source65 He was known to French police for five prior criminal offences; notably for threatening behaviour, violence, and petty theft66 Neighbours reported that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel rarely spoke to them67

François Molins, the prosecutor leading the inquiry into the possible involvement of organised Islamist terrorism, announced on 18 July that information gathered since the attack suggested that, except for a short period leading up to the attack, Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was "a young man completely uninvolved in religious issues and not a practising Muslim, who ate pork, drank alcohol, took drugs and had an unbridled sex life"68

Lahouaiej-Bouhlel sent small sums of money regularly to his family in Tunisia, according to his brother However, days before the attack, in a surprising move, Lahouaiej-Bouhlel persuaded some friends to smuggle bundles of cash worth 100,000 euros illegally to his family69

Motivesedit

The investigation suggested that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel became radicalised shortly before the attack Prosecutor Molins said that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel had a "clear, recent interest in the radical jihadist movement"70 Newspapers reported, on the authority of investigators, that evidence found on Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's cellphone showed he may have been in contact6971 with individuals in his neighborhood who were known to the French intelligence agencies as Islamic radicals However, an intelligence source cautioned that this "could just be a coincidence, given the neighbourhood where he lived Everyone knows everyone there He seems to have known people who knew Omar Diaby", a known local Islamist believed to be linked with Al Nusra Front69

Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's computer showed he had carried out Internet searches on the topics "terrible fatal accidents", "horrible fatal accidents", and "shocking video, not for sensitive people"7273 and consulted news articles on fatal accidents,73 including on 1 January 2016 an article7374 or a photo7275 from a local newspaper about a car crash74 with the caption: "He deliberately crashes onto the terrace of a restaurant"727374

According to French authorities, friends of Lahouaiej-Bouhlel said he began attending a mosque in April 201676 Prosecutor Molins said Lahouaiej-Bouhlel had expressed admiration for ISIL to one of the now-interrogated suspects7277 A few months before the attack, Lahouaiej-Bouhlel had shown friends an ISIL beheading video on his phone,78 and had said to one of the now-arrested suspects, "I'm used to seeing that"72 Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's computer contained photos of ISIL fighters and ISIL beheadings,72 of dead bodies, of Osama bin Laden, Algerian jihadist Mokhtar Belmokhtar, the Islamic State flag, a cover of Charlie Hebdo, and images linked to radical Islamism78

In the weeks before the attack, Lahouaiej-Bouhlel consulted many websites with treatises on Quranic Surahs, sites with Islamic religious chants, and sites of ISIL propaganda72 He also expressed extremist views, friends told the police76 An uncle of Lahouaiej-Bouhlel in Tunisia said that his nephew had been indoctrinated about ten days before the attack by an Algerian ISIL member in Nice79 Lahouaiej-Bouhlel grew a beard only eight days before the attack, for "religious reasons", he told friends7378 An eyewitness interviewed by the newspaper Nice-Matin recounted hearing, from his balcony, "Allahu Akbar" being shouted three times during the attack;8081 similar claims were circulated on social media and in the press828384 Officials have not confirmed the shouting of "Allahu Akbar", while the BBC reported that the rumours about it on social media were "fake"83

Preparationsedit

Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's mobile phone, found in the truck after he was shot by police, gave police information about his preparations85 On 12 and 13 July 2016, Bouhlel returned several times to the Promenade des Anglais, the site of the attack, surveying the area in the rented truck On 12 July, he took some selfies on the Promenade, as Molins confirmed on 18 July728687 Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's brother said he received images of Lahouaiej-Bouhlel laughing among the holiday crowds in Nice hours before the attack88

Victimsedit

The attacker killed 84 people instantly and injured 434,8979091 52 critically; 25 remained on life support the next day; an 85th person died from injuries three weeks after the attack,2 and an 86th three weeks later3 On 17 July, 65 injured were still in hospital, 18 in critical condition492 At least ten of the dead were children The figure of 434 indicates the total number of people admitted into hospital with injuries due to the attack; some of whom were not admitted immediatelycitation needed Of the 86 dead, 43 were French nationals and the remaining 43 were nationals of 18 countries other than France,93 the most recent victim's nationality is unconfirmed3

By 19 July, French authorities had formally identified the then 84 victims, with detailed lists published by Agence France-Presse Two days later, the Hôtel de Ville in Nice was draped with two long black banners recording the names of these 84 victims9394

Nationalities of victims

Investigationedit

Hotel Negresco on the Promenade des Anglais was used for triage of the victims51

Late on 14 July, the ministère public of Paris,136 which has national responsibility for combating terrorism, opened an inquiry into "murder and attempted murder by an organised gang connected to a terrorist organisation" and "criminal terrorist conspiracy"23137 The investigations for the inquiry were assigned to the Central Directorate of the Judicial Police DCPJ and the General Directorate for Internal Security DGSI23

  • On 15 July, prosecutor François Molins of the ministère public in Paris23 said that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel appeared to have not been known to French or Tunisian intelligence agencies to have ties to terror groups,791138 nor was he registered as a national security risk fiche "S" with French authorities60
  • On 17 July, Minister of the Interior Cazeneuve said he believed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel had been radicalised quickly, and Molins said Lahouaiej-Bouhlel had a "clear, recent interest in the radical jihadist movement"70
  • On 18 July, Molins said the attack could be described as "terrorism" as defined by French law73
  • On 21 July, Molins announced that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel seemed to have planned the attack for several months and to have received assistance75

Arrestsedit

Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's estranged wife was arrested on 15 July,66139 but was then released two days later140 Also, a man was arrested on 15 July66139 On 16 July, three more men were arrested66139 On 17 July, a man and a woman, both Albanians, were arrested in Nice following a police raid on the previous day141142

On 25 July, two additional men were arrested after photographs of them were found on Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's mobile phone143144145 One of these men was released after five days,146 while the other was charged with conspiracy in relation to a terrorist enterprise, just like five of the people arrested on 15–17 July75

Alleged accomplicesedit

By 21 July, three men with Tunisian origins and an Albanian couple, all previously unknown to the French intelligence agencies, had been charged by the ministère public with "criminal conspiracy in relation to a terrorist enterprise"75 The three men were also charged with complicity in murder in relation to a terrorist enterprise A sixth male suspect was later charged with conspiracy in relation to a terrorist enterprise

  • Ramzi A, a French-Tunisian born in Nice, aged 2175 He was suspected, of having "participated in supplying the automatic pistol of the killer"75147 While under arrest, he disclosed the location of a Kalashnikov rifle On the night of the attack, at 22:27, he received a text message from Lahouaiej-Bouhlel: "I wanted to tell you that the pistol you brought me yesterday was very good, so bring five more from your friend's place They're for Chokri and his friends"75148 Molins, the French prosecutor, disclosed that Ramzi A had a previous police record for petty crime and drugs149
  • Mohamed Walid G, a French-Tunisian born in Tunisia, aged 4075 or 41150 In January 2015, shortly after the attack on Charlie Hebdo, this suspect allegedly sent a text message to Lahouaiej-Bouhlel saying, "I am not Charlie I am happy, they have brought soldiers of Allah to finish the job"b151 Between July 2015 and July 2016, Bouhlel and this suspect contacted each other by telephone 1,278 times13 Photos on Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's telephone, dated 11 and 13 July, showed him with Bouhlel in the truck used for the attack75 Molins, the French prosecutor, said that the suspect filmed the scene of the attack on the Promenade des Anglais during the night of 14–15 July, when it was filled with emergency services and journalists, before taking a selfie1521531375
  • Chokri C, a Tunisian aged 37153 This suspect allegedly sent Lahouaiej-Bouhlel a Facebook message in April 2016, which read, "Load the truck with 2,000 tons of iron release the brakes my friend, and I will watch"c75 Fingerprints of this suspect were found on the passenger door of Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's truck,151 and CCTV footage showed him seated next to Lahouaiej-Bouhlel as he drove the truck along the Promenade des Anglais on the evening of 12 July75
  • Artan H, an Albanian, aged 38; and his Albanian-born wife Enkeledgia Z, aged 42, who had dual French-Albanian nationality75 This couple were suspected of "participating in supplying the automatic pistol of the killer",75147 and breaking the law on weapons in relation to a terrorist enterprised150154155
  • Hamdi Z, a Tunisian, aged 36 He was arrested on 25 July and charged with conspiracy in relation to a terrorist enterprisee He had been recorded on Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's mobile phone in a selfie with Lahouaiej-Bouhlel taken next to the truck146 He was transferred to Paris on 1 August for further questioning156157

Reactionsedit

French governmentedit

French flag at half-mast in Tours on the day after the attack, which was followed by three days of national mourning Memorial at the site of the attack Tributes on the Promenade des Anglais

15 Julyedit

French President François Hollande said that he had consulted his Prime Minister Manuel Valls and Minister of the Interior Bernard Cazeneuve, and was returning to Paris from Avignon, expecting to arrive in the French capital at 01:15h to have an emergency Interior Ministry meeting regarding the attacks158

At 00:59h, Cazeneuve initiated the ORSEC plan, the French emergency plan for disasters159

At 03:47h, Hollande addressed the French nation in a televised broadcast from Paris78 He assessed that "the terrorist nature of this attack can’t be denied"8160 and linked the attack to Islamic terrorism:8 "all of France is being menaced by fundamentalist Islamic terrorism"9 He announced a three-month extension of the state of emergency, previously due to end on 26 July,7 announced an intensification of the French military attacks on ISIL in Syria and Iraq,8 and announced that more security personnel would be deployedcitation needed

Prime Minister Manuel Valls later that day announced three days of national mourning on 16–18 July7

Valls said in the France 2 television's evening news programme at 8:00 pm on 15 July, Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was "probably linked to radical Islam one way or another"161162163 Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve said, on the coinciding television news of TF1:163 "We have an individual who was not known to intelligence services for activities linked to radical Islam", when asked whether he could confirm the attacker’s motives were linked to jihadism he replied: "No"7163

16–17 Julyedit

On 16 July French Defence Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian said: "I remind you that Daesh's ideologue, Abu Muhammad al-Adnani, has for several weeks repeated calls to attack directly, even individually, Frenchmen, in particular, or Americans, wherever they are, by any means necessary … It is murder, and Daesh’s claim of responsibility comes later, as has happened in other recent events"164

Bernard Cazeneuve on 16 July, after ISIL had claimed the attacker as one of its soldiers, said: if Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was radicalised, "It seems that he was radicalised very quickly — in any case these are the elements that have come up from the testimony of the people around him"165

Cazeneuve on 16 or 17 July announced plans to increase security in response to the attack by calling 12,000 police reservists to add to the 120,000 person force He urged "all patriotic citizens" to join the reserve forces to boost security following the attacks166

18 July and lateredit

On 18 July, France observed a one-minute silence in remembrance of those killed in the attack In Nice, as the Prime Minister arrived to observe the silence, the crowd booed him and some shouted for his resignation, with some calling him a murderer167168 President Hollande was similarly booed by crowds when visiting Nice the day after the attack169 The booing was described by BBC as "unprecedented", who commented that it was "a stark warning of how the mood in the country has changed" in comparison to public responses after other recent major terrorist attacks in France168

On 21 July, the state of emergency was formally extended until 31 January 2017170

A week after the attack, the anti-terror directorate of the National Police SDAT requested that the local authorities in Nice destroy CCTV footage of the attack, arguing that leaked images would compromise the dignity of victims and could be used as propaganda by terrorist organizations The request has been refused by local authorities who have argued that the CCTV footage might provide evidence that the National Police had placed inadequate security measures on the Promenade des Anglais on 14 July171172

On 26 July, three Nice residents who had chased the truck during the attack were presented with medals for bravery by the local authorities in Nice48

French public ministryedit

François Molins, prosecutor of the ministère public le parquet in Paris23 – the authority 'public ministry' responsible for defending French society with regard to terrorism – stated on 15 July that the Nice attack bore the hallmarks of jihadist terrorism7 On 18 July, Molins said the attack could be described as "terrorism" as defined by French law73

The Republicansedit

On 15 July, Alain Juppé, former prime minister of France and one of the final two candidates173 to become the Republican candidate for the April–May 2017 presidential election; and Christian Estrosi, former Nice mayor, raised the question of whether more could have been done to prevent the attack174

In September 2016, François Fillon, the other Republican candidate in the French presidential election, published a book titled "Defeating Islamic Totalitarianism" Vaincre le totalitarisme islamique, in which he advocated a stricter state surveillance on the Muslim community and more attention to the French identity175176 He also wrote that France was "at war" with radical Islam175

National Frontedit

Marine Le Pen, president of the National Front party and candidate for the April–May 2017 presidential election, said in a Le Figaro interview, "I'm furious, because I hear the same words, notice the same reflexes in the political class, but see no action that contributes one ounce of supplemental security"f177 She judged it "urgent to attack the ideology that is the basis of this terrorism" and regretted that "nothing" was decided for the closing down of the salafist mosques177

Internationaledit

US Secretary of State John Kerry and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov lay flowers near French embassy in Moscow, 15 July 2016

Leaderships of 49 countries and five supranational bodies expressed abhorrence of the attack and condolences for families and for France US President Barack Obama labelled the attack as possible terrorism,7178179 as did German Chancellor Angela Merkel180

Claim of ISIL responsibilityedit

On 16 July, the Amaq News Agency, called Lahouaiej-Bouhlel "a soldier of the Islamic State" It cited an "insider source" which said Lahouaiej-Bouhlel "executed the operation in response to calls to target citizens of coalition nations, which fight the Islamic State"181182

Later that same day, ISIL's official al-Bayan radio station said the attacker executed a "new, special operation using a truck" and "the crusader countries know that no matter how much they enforce their security measures and procedures, it will not stop the mujahideen from striking"183184

Islamic and Christian responsesedit

The first Islamic funeral ceremony of victims of the attack took place on 19 July in the Ar-Rahma The Mercifulness mosque, the oldest in Nice and the largest in Alpes-Maritimes Last honours of the Islamic community were rendered to a 23-year-old Tunisian woman, her 4-year-old child, and a young man Rector and imam Otmane Aïssaoui said in his sermon, "The sole frontier for which one should halt is this: the respect for a man, for a woman, irrespective of their colour of skin, their origin A truth one can find in the Gospel, in the Torah, even in Buddhism!" Citing a Quranic verse, he said, "At the Last Judgment, Lahouaiej-Bouhlel will be asked: 'why did you kill that little child of four years old'"185

Also invited to speak was the priest of nearby Catholic186 church Saint-Pierre d'Ariane Father Patrick Bruzzone said, "My brothers  I say 'my brothers' because, today more than ever, when one man is hurt, the whole of humanity is hurt" He proceeded to the coffins and bent over them, as if embracing them Those in the gathering responded in unison, Allahu akbar185

On 21 July, a commemoration was held for "people of all religions and even beyond that" in Catholic church Saint-Pierre d'Arène, located near the area where the attack had taken place The priest and the vicar called for "the calming down, necessary for taking at hand our common future in this torn city and in the whole country To contemplate together, in order to solidly reconstruct the social ties that now are increasingly crumbled and largely ruined"185

On 24 September, Pope Francis met 800 family members of the victims of the attack in Rome187

Social mediaedit

Immediately after the attack, while it still remained unclear whether the threat had ended, people used social media, particularly Twitter, to help others find shelter, using the hashtag #PortesOuvertesNice Open Doors Nice, a variation of a hashtag used in other recent attacks in France188

On 14 and 15 July, the French government urged social media users to only share reliable information from official sources, while false rumours circulated that hostages had been taken, that the Eiffel Tower had been attacked and set on fire, and that Cannes had also been attacked83

After-effectsedit

Culturaledit

Organisers of the 20th Nice Jazz Festival, scheduled to begin on 16 July, cancelled the event in the wake of the attack189 Rihanna cancelled a concert scheduled as a part of her Anti World Tour for 15 July at Nice's Allianz Riviera190 At London's Royal Albert Hall on 15 July, the opening night of the 2016 Proms Festival paid tribute to the people of Nice, with the BBC Symphony Orchestra performing a rendition of La Marseillaise191

In August, the European Cycling Union decided to move the 2016 European Road Championships, which were to be hosted on 14–18 September in Nice, to Plumelec in the northwest of France, due to security concerns in Nice after the 14 July attack192

Financial marketsedit

European stocks opened lower and then closed mixed on Friday 15 July the day after the attacks as investor sentiment was dampened by the attack in France The pan-European STOXX 600 was down by 038%, the French CAC 40 by 04%, and German DAX by 04% The British FTSE 100 fell by 02% before closing down at 032% in STOXX 600, 06% in CAC 40, and 001% in DAX; it closed down at 022% up in FTSE 100193 Airlines, along with other travel share, were some of the hardest hit companies, with Flybe and EasyJet down by around 37 per cent and three per cent respectively194

Tourismedit

The ailing tourism sector of France, already reeling from the January and November 2015 attacks in Paris, suffered a further hit following the Nice attack After the attack, the Association of British Travel Agents Abta urged British tourists to follow the instructions of French authorities, who cancelled events and closed the promenade and a number of public beaches in Nice195unreliable source Cancellations and last-minute changes to European holidays rose in the summer, with travellers increasingly concerned about the threat of terrorism Other terrorist attacks in Belgium and Turkey prompted holidaymakers to cancel their bookings or seek out other destinations perceived to be safe The Nice attack, along with the recent failed coup in Turkey, were expected to add to the pressure "This is not going to be a good year," European Tour Operators Association chief executive Tom Jenkins said "There is a real suppression of demand for destinations like Belgium and France"196

Tensions between Muslims and non-Muslimsedit

On the week after 14 July, some Nice inhabitants noticed and deplored increasing anti-Muslim and racist rhetoric in their quarters Some non-Muslims said that their view on Muslims had changed "We're in Europe and I think some of the oriental rites are somehow incompatible," a local man said197

Before the attack, on 8 June, the carcass of a pig had been found in front of a mosque in Nice Two suspected men were charged and the court's judgement was expected to be filed on 12 October On the morning of 11 October, the imam of that same mosque found the head and pelt of a pig mounted before the mosque's entrance198

Raids and house arrests under state of emergencyedit

As of August 2016, under the state of emergency put in force since November 2015 and extended after the Nice attack,8170 around 3,600 houses had been raidedneeds update The raids resulted in six terrorism-related inquiries, only one of which led to prosecution Most raids were reportedly connected with narcotics, not with terrorism, implying misuse of the new powers of emergency199 Previously, as of May 2016, under the emergency law, house arrest had been imposed on 404 people, mostly Muslims of North African descent Many French citizens that were placed under house arrest allegedly lost jobs or employment opportunities as a result199 By mid-November 2016, some people had been under house arrest for nearly a year during which no judicial inquiry against them had been started200

On 15 November, President Hollande announced his intention to prolong the state of emergency until the French presidential elections on 23 April and 7 May 2017200

See alsoedit

  • 2016 Berlin attack – A vehicle attack that took place in Berlin in December 2016
  • 2017 Westminster attack – A vehicle attack that took place in London in March 2017
  • 2017 Stockholm attack – A vehicle attack that took place in Stockholm in April 2017
  • List of Islamist terrorist attacks
  • List of massacres in France
  • Vehicle-ramming attack

Notesedit

  1. ^ a b Including: 2 dual Estonian-Russian citizens
  2. ^ Je ne suis pas Charlie Je suis content Ils ont ramené les soldats d’Allah pour finir le travail, a reference to the phrase Je suis Charlie
  3. ^ Charge le camion, met dedans 2000 tonnes de fer, et nique, coupe lui les freins mon ami, et moi je regarde
  4. ^ "infractions à la législation sur les armes en relation avec une entreprise terroriste"
  5. ^ "association de malfaiteurs en relation avec une entreprise terroriste criminelle"
  6. ^ "Je suis très en colère, parce que j’entends les mêmes mots, constate les mêmes réflexes dans la classe politique, mais ne vois aucun acte apportant une once de sécurité supplémentaire"

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Breeden, Aurelien 15 July 2016 "News of the Attack in Nice, France" The New York Times Archived from the original on 20 July 2016 Retrieved 20 July 2016 In the truck's cabin, officials said, the police discovered an automatic 765 mm pistol, a cartridge clip, several used and unused 765 mm cartridges, as well as a fake automatic pistol, two fake assault rifles — a replica AK-47 and a replica M-16 — a grenade, a mobile phone and documents CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown link
  2. ^ a b c "Death toll from France truck attack rises to 85" BNO News 4 August 2016 Retrieved 4 August 2016 
  3. ^ a b c "Nice truck attack claims 86th victim" Star Tribune 19 August 2016 Archived from the original on 21 August 2016 Retrieved 23 August 2016 
  4. ^ a b "Le bilan de l’attentat de Nice porté à 86 morts" The results of the Nice attack increased to 86 dead in French 19 August 2016 Retrieved 4 September 2016 dead link
  5. ^ a b c "Attentat de Nice : ce que l'on sait du chauffeur, Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel" Nouvel Obs in French Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  6. ^ a b "Attentat à Nice : le suspect a été formellement identifié" in French Europe1 Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "France lorry attack: As it happened all updates from start until 15 July, 21:54" BBC Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  8. ^ a b c d e f in French ‘Attentat de Nice : les responsables politiques, entre émotion et colère’ Attack of Nice: politicians between emotion and rage lemondefr, 15 July 2016 Retrieved 20 July 2016
  9. ^ a b in Dutch 'Om te doden, te verpletteren en af te slachten' ‘To kill, shatter, slaughter’ Speech President Hollande, early 15 July 2016 Nrcnl, 15 July 2016 Retrieved 16 July 2016
  10. ^ "Temporary Reintroduction of Border Control" European Commission Retrieved 15 September 2016 
  11. ^ "Nice attacker plotted for months with 'accomplices'" CNN 21 July 2016 
  12. ^ "Nice attack: Prosecutor says suspect had accomplices" BBC 21 July 2016 Archived from the original on 21 July 2016 Retrieved 21 July 2016 
  13. ^ a b c "Nice truck killer had support, accomplices for carefully planned attack" France24 21 July 2016 Retrieved 21 July 2016 
  14. ^ "Truck attack in Nice: Three more people charged with helping killer" Sky News 17 December 2016 Retrieved 27 December 2016 
  15. ^ "Attentat de Nice: trois suspects présentés à la justice" Libération in French 16 December 2016 Archived from the original on 8 January 2017 Retrieved 27 December 2016 
  16. ^ "Attentat de Nice: trois suspects mis en examen et écroués" La Dépêche du Midi in French 18 December 2016 Retrieved 27 December 2016 
  17. ^ "Hollande confirme la fin de l'état d'urgence après le Tour de France" Hollande confirms the end of a state of emergency after the Tour de France in French France 24 Retrieved 14 July 2016 
  18. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique "Euro 2016 fan zones in spotlight as France finalises huge security operation" The Guardian Retrieved 16 July 2016 
  19. ^ "Sécurité à Nice : les questions en suspens après l’attentat du 14 juillet" Le Monde in French 22 July 2016 Retrieved 24 July 2016 
  20. ^ Higgins, Andrew 14 July 2016 "In Nice, a Vibrant Celebration Gives Way to a Trail of Death" The New York Times Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  21. ^ a b c d "Nice attack: What we know of the Bastille Day killings" BBC 15 July 2016 Retrieved 23 August 2016 
  22. ^ Pierre Alonso 17 July 2016 "La sécurité autour du feu d'artifice de Nice était-elle suffisante " liberationfr 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h "Ce que l'on sait de l'attentat commis à Nice" What we know of the attack in Nice lemondefr in French 14 July 2016 Retrieved 29 September 2016 
  24. ^ "The mile-long site where a truck hit hundreds in Nice, France" The Washington Post 16 July 2016 Retrieved 17 July 2016 
  25. ^ "Nice Attack: What do we know" UK Defence Journal 15 July 2016 
  26. ^ "Un camión descatalogado convertido en arma letal" Diario Sur 16 July 2016 
  27. ^ "Ce que l'on sait de l'auteur présumé de l'attentat mis à jour" Nice-Matin 16 July 2016 Retrieved 26 July 2016 
  28. ^ "Le témoignage de cette femme qui aurait vu le camion fou dès 22 heures" Nice-Matin 15 July 2015 Retrieved 23 August 2016 
  29. ^ "Attentat de Nice: ces intrigants SMS que le tueur aurait envoyés avant de passer à l'acte" rtbfbe 17 July 2016 
  30. ^ Kirschbaum, Erik 17 July 2016 "Perpetrator of Nice terror attack asked for 'more weapons' before rampage began, authorities say" Los Angeles Times Retrieved 22 July 2016 
  31. ^ Seelow, Soren 22 July 2016 "Attaque de Nice: un projet " mûri depuis plusieurs mois " et plusieurs complices" Le Monde Retrieved 25 July 2016 
  32. ^ a b c "Exclusif : la chronologie de l'attentat du 14-Juillet établie par la policière de Nice" Marianne 24 July 2016 Retrieved 27 July 2016 
  33. ^ "Timeline: The Bastille Day attack in Nice" Reuters 17 July 2016 
  34. ^ "Tracing the Nice rampage: ‘There was an awful panic, people were running everywhere’" National Post 15 July 2016 
  35. ^ "French minister sues police officer over Nice Bastille Day claims" The Guardian 24 July 2016 
  36. ^ a b "La policière responsable de la vidéosurveillance à Nice : "On m'a mise en ligne avec le ministère de l'Intérieur"" leJDD 24 July 2016 
  37. ^ "Attentat de Nice : les faits plutôt que les polémiques" L'Obs 26 July 2016 
  38. ^ a b c d e "Bastille Day attack: 'Hysterical crowds were running from death'" The Guardian 15 July 2016 Retrieved 24 July 2016 
  39. ^ "Attentat : le camion n'avait pas le droit de circuler dans Nice en raison d'un arrêté préfectoral et municipal" franceinfofr 19 July 2016 
  40. ^ "Comment le camion a-t-il pu circuler sur la promenade des Anglais pourtant fermée à la circulation " francetvinfofr 15 July 2016 
  41. ^ a b Grégoire Biseau; Sylvain Mouillard; Willy Le Devin; Ismaël Halissat 20 July 2016 "Sécurité à Nice 370 mètres de questions" liberationfr Archived from the original on 23 July 2016 
  42. ^ Moore, Jack 18 July 2016 "Nice Attack: Final Moments of Muslim Grandmother Who Was First Victim" Newsweek Retrieved 23 July 2016 
  43. ^ Pierre Alonso 17 July 2016 "La sécurité autour du feu d'artifice de Nice était-elle suffisante " liberationfr Archived from the original on 20 July 2016 
  44. ^ "EN DIRECT Attentat de Nice: le camion a forcé le passage" challengesfr 16 July 2016 
  45. ^ Auffray, Alain; Vaulerin, Arnaud; Alonso, Pierre; Harounyan, Stéphanie; Bretton, Laure; Frénois, Mathilde; Quentel, Amélie 15 July 2016 "Nice, la nuit de l'apocalypse" liberationfr 
  46. ^ "Ce Niçois raconte comment il a tenté d'ouvrir la porte du camion quand le terroriste l'a braqué" Nice-Matin 18 July 2016 Retrieved 28 July 2016 
  47. ^ "Le héros au scooter raconte: "J’étais prêt à mourir pour l'arrêter"" Nice-Matin in French 22 July 2016 Retrieved 28 July 2016 
  48. ^ a b "La ville de Nice a honoré Franck, Gwenaël et Alexandre, ses trois héros de l'attentat" Nice-Matin in French 26 July 2016 Retrieved 28 July 2016 
  49. ^ Mélanie Faure 16 July 2016 "Nice: le motard qui a poursuivi le poids lourd a-t-il également essayé de le désarmer " lcitf1fr 
  50. ^ Willgress, Lydia; Samuel, Henry "Hero motorcyclist attempted to stop Nice terror attacker" The Telegraph Retrieved 16 July 2016 
  51. ^ a b "Nice attack: Lorry driver confirmed as Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel" BBC News Retrieved 16 July 2016 
  52. ^ "Attentat de Nice: ce que l'on sait du chauffeur du camion" tempsreelnouvelobscom 15 July 2016 
  53. ^ a b "Nice terrorist attack on Bastille Day: everything we know so far on Monday" The Daily Telegraph 18 July 2016 Retrieved 1 August 2016 
  54. ^ "Nice attack: What we know about the Bastille Day killings" BBC News 16 July 2016 Retrieved 1 August 2016 
  55. ^ "Attaque à Nice : au moins 77 morts, un suspect abattu" Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  56. ^ "A Nice des scènes d'horreur sur la promenade des Anglais" leprogresfr 16 July 2016 
  57. ^ "Nice attack: Lorry driver confirmed as Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel" BBC News 15 July 2016 Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  58. ^ "Nice terror attack: Truck driver who killed 84 named - the news as it unfolded on Friday, 15 July" The Telegraph 16 July 2016 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  59. ^ "Nice attack: Who was the driver in the lorry attack" AlJazeera 15 July 2016 Retrieved 2 August 2016 
  60. ^ a b "Attentat de Nice: ce que l'on sait du tueur du 14 juillet" Atlantico in French 15 July 2016 Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  61. ^ "Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel: who was the Bastille Day truck attacker" The Guardian 15 July 2016 Retrieved 16 July 2016 
  62. ^ "Nice attack: Father of lorry killer speaks out as police make arrests" London Evening Standard 16 July 2016 Retrieved 16 July 2016 
  63. ^ "Nice: les auditions des amants et maîtresses de Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel émergent" Huffington Post-Le Monde AFP Retrieved 21 July 2016 
  64. ^ "The Nice attacker's road to terror" France24 18 July 2016 Retrieved 7 October 2016 
  65. ^ Sellami, Stéphane "Attentat de Nice: le sidérant profil du terroriste" Le Parisien in French Retrieved 19 July 2016 
  66. ^ a b c d Payton, Matt 15 July 2016 "Nice terror attack: Police arrest killer Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel's wife" The Independent Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  67. ^ Walt, Vivienne 16 July 2016 "Nice Attack: Was Truck Driver Really a Jihadist" Time Retrieved 18 July 2016 
  68. ^ Marciano, Catherine; de Montvalon, Martin 18 July 2016 "Lahouaiej Bouhlel, dragueur impénitent et ultraviolent à l’intérêt récent pour le jihadisme" La Nouvelle République in French AFP Retrieved 19 July 2016 Les témoignages recueillis par les enquêteurs depuis l'attentat commis jeudi soir sur la Promenade des Anglais permettent de brosser le portrait d’un jeune homme «très éloigné des considérations religieuses, ne pratiquant pas la religion musulmane, mangeant du porc, buvant de l’alcool, consommant de la drogue et ayant une vie sexuelle débridée», a détaillé lundi le procureur de la République de Paris, François Molins 
  69. ^ a b c "Bastille Day terrorist was radicalised within months and sent £84,000 to his Tunisian family days before attack" The Telegraph 17 July 2016 Retrieved 23 August 2016 
  70. ^ a b "Nice attacker had 'clear' interest in radical Islam" The Local 18 July 2016 Retrieved 18 July 2016 
  71. ^ "Perpetrator of Nice terror attack asked for 'more weapons' before rampage began, authorities say" Los Angeles Times 17 July 2016 
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h in French ""Un attentat prémédité influencé par l'islamisme radical" Attentat du 14-Juillet à Nice" La Depeche 19 July 2016 Retrieved 5 October 2016 
  73. ^ a b c d e f g "Nice attacker grew beard in week before truck rampage – prosecutor" The Guardian 18 July 2016 Retrieved 23 August 2016 
  74. ^ a b c 'Strategisch, nicht spontan' Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 22 July 2016 Retrieved 10 October 2016
  75. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Attaque de Nice: un projet "mûri depuis plusieurs mois" avec des complices" Le Monde 21 July 2016 Retrieved 22 July 2016 
  76. ^ a b "Nice killer Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel 'only started going to mosque this April'" The Sydney Morning Herald 17 July 2016 Retrieved 18 July 2016 
  77. ^ Elena Berton; Kim Hjelmgaard 18 July 2016 "Paris prosecutor: Nice attacker searched online for Islamic State" USA Today Retrieved 18 July 2016 Paris prosecutor François Molins said Monday that the truck driver who killed 84 people here last week had expressed support for the Islamic State 
  78. ^ a b c "Attack on Nice: Who was Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel" BBC News 19 August 2016 Retrieved 19 July 2016 
  79. ^ "Uncle says France attacker was recruited by Algerian Islamic State member" Chicago Tribune 18 July 2016 Retrieved 23 August 2016 
  80. ^ "'On a entendu plusieurs fois Allah akbar', les témoins racontent après l'attentat de Nice" Nice-Matin in French Archived from the original on 18 July 2016 Retrieved 18 July 2016 
  81. ^ Henderson, Barney; Graham, Chris; Gurney-Read, Josie 14 July 2016 "84 killed in Nice by lorry during Bastille Day celebrations – how the attack unfolded" The Telegraph Retrieved 15 July 2016 2:19 am 'Driver was 31-year-old from Nice' The local newspaper, Nice-Matin, said the man driving the truck was a 31-year-old Nice resident of Tunisian origin The truck driver was said to have shouted 'Allahu Akbar' – God is greatest – before being shot dead by police 
  82. ^ Wellman, Alex 15 July 2016 "Crazed terrorist 'shouted Allahu Akbar' as he mowed people down 'like skittles'" The Daily Mirror Retrieved 7 December 2016 
  83. ^ a b c Sini, Rozina 15 July 2016 "Nice lorry attack sparks false rumours on social media" BBC News Retrieved 15 July 2016 This tweeter suggests he can hear Allahu Akbar in the seventh second of this video of the Nice attack", the BBC reported in reference to a tweet sent out shortly after the attack 
  84. ^ Napoléon 14 July 2016 "#Nice06 On entend clairement le terroriste qui conduit le camion crier "#Allah Akbar" à la 7ème seconde de la vidéo" Twitter 
  85. ^ in French "Ce que les enquêteurs ont trouvé dans le portable de Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel" BFMTV Retrieved 10 October 2016 
  86. ^ "L'auteur de l'attentat de Nice avait effectué des repérages sur la Promenade des Anglais quelques jours avant l'attentat" in French Europe1 Retrieved 17 July 2016 
  87. ^ "Nice attack: Driver 'researched route' earlier in week" BBC News Retrieved 17 July 2016 
  88. ^ "Exclusive: Brother of Nice attacker says he sent 'laughing' photo amid crowds" Reuters Retrieved 17 July 2016 
  89. ^ "Nice killer visited Italy's 'Little Calais' as he was radicalised over a year before July 14 massacre" The Telegraph 14 October 2016 
  90. ^ "Attentat à Nice: au moins 84 personnes tuées" Paris Match in French Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  91. ^ a b Rubin, Alissa J; Blaise, Lilia; Nossiter, Adam; Breeden, Aurelien 15 July 2016 "France Says Truck Attacker Was Tunisia Native With Record of Petty Crime" The New York Times Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  92. ^ "Nice attack: Who were the victims" BBC News Retrieved 18 July 2016 
  93. ^ a b "Les 84 victimes de l'attentat de Nice identifiées, qui sont-elles" Huffington Post-Le Monde AFP 21 July 2016 Retrieved 23 July 2016 , List of the 84 victims
  94. ^ "Les noms des 84 victimes affichés sur la façade de la mairie" Nice-Matin 22 July 2016 Retrieved 23 July 2016 , The banners
  95. ^ "Attentat de Nice, qui sont les victimes" Direct Matin in French Retrieved 17 July 2016 
  96. ^ Frequente, Salvatore; Montefiori, Stefano; Ottolina, Paolo; Montini, Beatrice 14 July 2016 "Attentato Nizza: camion sulla folla e spari, 84 morti "10 bambini uccisi" È stato un nizzardo di origini tunisine" Corriere della Sera in Italian Retrieved 19 July 2016 
  97. ^ "Strage di Nizza, la Farnesina conferma: sei italiani tra le vittime" la Repubblica in Italian 19 July 2016 Archived from the original on 1 September 2016 Retrieved 19 July 2016 
  98. ^ "Algeria: Nice Attack - Fifth Algerian Victim Identified, 4-Year-Old Boy Seriously Injured" allAfrica 18 July 2016 Retrieved 23 July 2016 
  99. ^ "At Least Three Moroccans Killed in Nice Attack" Morocco World News Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  100. ^ "Chetyre kazakhstanki pogibli" Nurkz in Russian 18 August 2016 Retrieved 31 August 2016 
  101. ^ a b c "Nice Terror Attack Victims' Names And Nationalities Revealed After France Bastille Day Massacre" International Business Times Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  102. ^ "What We Know About The Victims of the Attack in Nice" The Huffington Post Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  103. ^ "Terror in Nice: Details of victims emerge" WUSA Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  104. ^ "Who were the victims of the Nice truck rampage" The Local France Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  105. ^ "Two Estonian nationals killed in Nice" ERR Retrieved 19 July 2016 
  106. ^ "Kaljurand infotunnis: Nice'is on haiglaravil kolm Eesti elanikku" Kaljurand in briefing: Three residents of Estonia hospitalised in Nice Postimees in Estonian Archived from the original on 24 July 2016 Retrieved 19 July 2016 
  107. ^ a b "Venemaa konsul: Nice'i rünnakus sai kannatada kaks Eesti-Vene topeltkodakondsusega last" Russian Consul: Two children with Estonian-Russian dual citizenship among the injured Postimees in Estonian Archived from the original on 24 July 2016 Retrieved 19 July 2016 
  108. ^ Müzell, Lúcia 15 July 2016 "Pelo menos dois brasileiros ficaram feridos em atentado em Nice" At least two Brazilians injured in Nice attack in Portuguese RFI Brasil Retrieved 17 July 2016 
  109. ^ "Brasileiro é atingido na perna e ficará um mês sem andar, diz mãe" Brazilian had a leg injury and will stay one month on wheelchair, says mother Folha de SPaulo in Portuguese Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  110. ^ "Corpo de brasileira desaparecida em Nice é encontrado" Body of Brazilian missing in Nice is found O Globo 18 July 2016 Retrieved 18 July 2016 Registration required help 
  111. ^ "Who are the victims of the Nice terror attack" The Daily Telegraph 15 July 2016 
  112. ^ "Французская полиция подтвердила гибель еще одной россиянки в Ницце" RIA Novosti 19 July 2016 
  113. ^ Oliphant, Vickiie 18 July 2016 "Third American killed in Nice attack named as 20-year-old 'promising' university student" Expresscouk Retrieved 23 July 2016 
  114. ^ "Dwie Polki wśród ofiar zamachu w Nicei Znamy szczegóły" Onetpl in Polish 
  115. ^ "Copilul român rănit în atacul de la Nisa, găsit într-un spital Părinţii lui sunt încă dispăruţi" Realitatea TV in Romanian 16 July 2016 
  116. ^ Andrei Luca Popescu 19 July 2016 "Românul dispărut în atacul de la Nisa, găsit mort" Gândul 
  117. ^ "Attentat à Nice – Deux Malgaches tués, quatre autres blessés" L'Express de Madagascar in French 16 July 2016 Retrieved 17 July 2016 
  118. ^ "Кількість постраждалих українців у теракті в Ніцці збільшилась" The number of victims of the terrorist attack Ukrainian increased in Nice Ukrayinska Pravda in Ukrainian 15 July 2016 
  119. ^ "MacEwan confirms student among those killed in Nice attack" CTV Edmonton 20 July 2016 Retrieved 20 July 2016 
  120. ^ a b c "Dozens killed during Bastille Day celebrations" BBC News 15 July 2016 
  121. ^ a b "One Belgian among the victims in Nice" De Redactie Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  122. ^ "The Latest: French author decries attack" WFIE 15 July 2016 Archived from the original on 15 July 2016 Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  123. ^ https://mobilenytimescom/2016/07/19/us/nicolas-leslie-berkeley-attack-nicehtml
  124. ^ "Attaque de Nice: le point sur l'identité des victimes" Est Republicain in French Retrieved 16 July 2016 
  125. ^ "Nice attack: Julie Bishop confirms three Australians injured in 'horrific' terrorist assault" Australian Broadcasting Corporation Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  126. ^ Jones, Lloyd 16 July 2016 "Australia lucky again in Nice: ambassador" News Corp Australia 
  127. ^ "Uma família de três portugueses escapou por pouco ao ataque de Nice" A family of three Portuguese barely escaped Nice attack Público in Portuguese Retrieved 20 July 2016 
  128. ^ "Derde Nederlandse gewonde na aanslag Nice" Nederlandse Omroep Stichting in Dutch 16 July 2016 Retrieved 17 July 2016 
  129. ^ "Two Chinese injured in Nice attack" Xinhua News Agency Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  130. ^ "Žádní Češi nezemřeli při útoku v Nice Jedna Češka je zraněná" in Czech Zpravytiscalicz Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  131. ^ "A külügyminisztérium egy magyar sérültről tud Nizzában" Origohu in Hungarian Retrieved 18 July 2016 
  132. ^ "Nice: 'Serious concerns' over Irishman caught up in attack" BBC News Retrieved 23 August 2016 
  133. ^ "Malaysian student injured in Nice attack" The Star Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  134. ^ Staff 15 July 2016 "One Singaporean injured in Nice after attack: MFA" Today Retrieved 16 July 2016 
  135. ^ "Nice attack: At least one UK national injured" BBC 15 July 2016 Retrieved 23 August 2016 
  136. ^ nearest English equivalent: director of public prosecutions
  137. ^ "France Reveals Details on Attacker in Nice" Wall Street Journal 15 July 2016 Retrieved 21 July 2016 
  138. ^ "Here's What We Know About The Suspect in the Nice Attack" BuzzFeed 15 August 2016 Retrieved 31 August 2016 
  139. ^ a b c "Police make arrests over deadly truck attack in Nice" Deutsche-Welle 16 July 2016 Retrieved 17 July 2016 
  140. ^ "Ex-wife of Nice attacker released from police custody" ITV News 17 July 2016 
  141. ^ "Nice attack: Two more arrested by French police" BBC News Retrieved 17 July 2016 
  142. ^ "Two More Detained in France Attack Probe" The Wall Street Journal 17 July 2016 
  143. ^ "Two more arrested in Nice in connection with Bastille Day attack" France24 26 July 2016 Retrieved 27 July 2016 
  144. ^ "Deux nouvelles interpellations dans l'enquête sur l'attentat de Nice" Le Figaro 26 July 2016 Retrieved 27 July 2016 
  145. ^ "Attentat de Nice: deux hommes placés en garde à vue" Nice-Matin 26 July 2016 Retrieved 27 July 2016 
  146. ^ a b "Attentat de Nice: une sixième personne mise en examen" Le Monde in French 1 August 2016 Retrieved 10 August 2016 
  147. ^ a b "Attentat-Nice Un acte prémédité et des complices Vidéos" VSD 21 July 2016 Retrieved 22 July 2016 
  148. ^ Je voulais te dire que le pistolet que tu m’as ramené hier, c’était très bien, alors on ramène 5 de chez ton copain C’est pour Chokri et ses amis
  149. ^ "Attentat de Nice: ce que l'on sait des cinq suspects mis en examen" France24 in French 22 July 2016 Retrieved 23 July 2016 
  150. ^ a b "Nice attacker 'plotted for months and had accomplices'" The Guardian 21 July 2016 Retrieved 21 July 2016 
  151. ^ a b "Attentat de Nice: le tueur "a bénéficié de soutiens et de complicités"" Le Figaro 21 July 2016 Retrieved 22 July 2016 
  152. ^ "Nice attacker 'had planned truck rampage for nearly a year'" The Telegraph 22 July 2016 Retrieved 22 July 2016 
  153. ^ a b "François Molins révèle plusieurs avancées notables sur les complices et la longue préméditation de Mohamed Lahouaiej Boulhel dans l'attentat de Nice" Huffington Post 21 July 2016 Retrieved 1 October 2016 
  154. ^ "Nice truck attack: Five suspected accomplices charged" BBC News 22 July 2016 Retrieved 22 July 2016 
  155. ^ "Attentat de Nice: ce que l'on sait des cinq suspects mis en examen" France24 in French 22 July 2016 Retrieved 23 July 2016 
  156. ^ "Un suspect de l'attentat de Nice présenté ce lundi à un juge" Nice-Matin in French 1 August 2016 Retrieved 1 August 2016 
  157. ^ "Attentat de Nice : une personne va être transférée à Paris, une autre relâchée" Le Parisien in French 30 July 2016 Retrieved 30 July 2016 
  158. ^ in French "Nice: Hollande rentre d'Avignon et se rend directement à la cellule de crise place Beauvau" Nice: Hollande returns from Avignon and goes directly to the Crisis Centre, at Place Beauvau France 3 14 July 2016 Retrieved 14 July 2016 
  159. ^ in French "Le plan Orsec 'nombreuses victimes' déclenché, annonce le ministère de l'Intérieur" the Orsec plan for incidents with 'numerous victims' put into force, announces the Minister of the Interior L'Obs 14 July 2016 Retrieved 14 July 2016 
  160. ^ "France's Hollande says Nice attack undeniably of 'terrorist nature'" Reuters 15 July 2016 
  161. ^ "France's Valls says Nice attacker linked 'one way or another' to radical Islam" Reuters 15 July 2016 He is a terrorist probably/undoubtedly linked to radical Islam one way or another 
  162. ^ in French "Manuel Valls: le terroriste est 'sans doute lié à l’islamisme radical'" 'Manuel Valls: the terrorist is "probably linked to radical Islam", le figarofr, 15 July 2016; retrieved 7 August 2016
  163. ^ a b c in Dutch ‘Was de dader jihadist, gestoord of allebei’ 'Was the perpetrator jihadist, mentally disordered, or both', NRC Handelsblad, 18 July 2016; retrieved 19 July 2016
  164. ^ "ISIS Claims Truck Attacker in France Was Its 'Soldier'" The New York Times 16 July 2016 Retrieved 7 August 2016 
  165. ^ "Any radicalisation of Nice attacker must have been quick-interior minister" Reuters 16 July 2016 Retrieved 7 August 2016 
  166. ^ "Nice attack: France calls up 12,000 reservists" BBC 17 July 2016 Retrieved 7 August 2016 
  167. ^ "France observes minute of silence in honour of Nice attack victims" France 24 18 July 2016 Retrieved 18 July 2016 
  168. ^ a b "Attack on Nice: Why the French PM was booed" BBC 18 July 2016 
  169. ^ "François Hollande faces political backlash after Nice attack" The Guardian 15 July 2016 
  170. ^ a b in French "Huit jours après Nice, Hollande muscle la riposte contre l’EI" Libération 22 July 2016 Retrieved 23 July 2016 
  171. ^ "Nice attack: City refuses police call to delete CCTV images" BBC News 22 July 2016 Retrieved 23 July 2016 
  172. ^ "Nice officials reject request to delete truck attack surveillance footage" The Guardian Associated Press 22 July 2016 Retrieved 23 July 2016 
  173. ^ NRC Handelsblad, 21 November 2016
  174. ^ Dan Stewart 15 July 2016 "French Politicians Say Nice Attack Might Have Been Avoided" Time Retrieved 6 September 2016 
  175. ^ a b "François Fillon, Thatcherite with a thing for Russia" Politico 21 November 2016 Retrieved 30 November 2016 
  176. ^ NRC Handelsblad, 28 November 2016
  177. ^ a b "La droite à l'offensive contre l'exécutif" Right-wing on the offensive against the President Le Figaro 15 July 2016 Retrieved 21 July 2016 
  178. ^ 'Statement by President Obama on the Attack in Nice, France' twittercom/WhiteHouse, 14 July 2016 16:55 Californian time Retrieved 29 August 2016 Archived 22 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine on 15 July 2016 Retrieved 29 August 2016
  179. ^ "Statement by the President on the Attack in Nice, France" White House 14 July 2016 Retrieved 29 August 2016 
  180. ^ "Merkel condemns attack in Nice, says will win 'fight against terrorism'" Reuters 15 July 2016 Retrieved 8 September 2016 
  181. ^ Williams, Richard A L 16 July 2016 "Nice terror attack: Isis claims responsibility for lorry massacre in French coastal city" The Independent Retrieved 23 August 2016 
  182. ^ "En direct: l'EI revendique l'attentat de Nice via son agence Amaq" in French France 24 Retrieved 16 July 2016 
  183. ^ "Attacker in Nice is said to have radicalized ‘very rapidly’" The Washington Post 16 July 2016 
  184. ^ "Isis claims responsibility for Nice attack" The Local/AFP 16 July 2016 
  185. ^ a b c 'Attentat de Nice: le temps des obsèques' 'Attack of Nice: time for the funerals', Le Monde, 21 July 2016; retrieved 9 August 2016in French
  186. ^ in French homepage Paroisse Saint-Pierre de l'Ariane Parish of Saint Peter, in quarter Ariane in Nice; retrieved 10 August 2016
  187. ^ "Pope meets Nice victims' families" The Catholic Herald 30 September 2016 p 12 
  188. ^ Mezzofiore, Gianluca 15 July 2016 "#PortesOuvertesNice offers accommodation for survivors of Nice attack" Mashable Retrieved 15 July 2016 
  189. ^ "Jazz Articles: 2016 Nice Jazz Festival Cancelled" Jazz Times 15 July 2016 Retrieved 16 July 2016 
  190. ^ "Nice attack: Rihanna cancels concert as entertainment figures mourn" BBC News BBC 15 July 2016 Retrieved 16 July 2016 
  191. ^ "BBC Proms: First Night opens with tribute to Nice victims" BBC News BBC 15 July 2016 Retrieved 16 July 2016 
  192. ^ "European Championships to be moved from Nice due to security concerns" Cyclingnewscom 7 September 2016 Retrieved 15 September 2016 
  193. ^ "European Equity Benchmarks Close Mixed, Travel Stocks Hit by Terror Attack in France; Inflation Edges Up" Nasdaq 15 July 2016 
  194. ^ "Travel share prices plunge after Nice terror attack" Express 15 July 2016 
  195. ^ "Nice terror attack sees holidaymakers cancel bookings" Daily Mail 16 July 2016 
  196. ^ "Terror attacks hit European summer travel" Gulf News 21 July 2016 
  197. ^ "Nice: la parole raciste se libère apres l'attentat" Nice: racist speech liberates itself after the attack France Info in French 21 July 2016 Retrieved 19 November 2016 
  198. ^ "Nice: une tête de sanglier de nouveau déposée devant la mosquée En-Nour" Nice: again a pig's head deposited in front of mosque En-Nour France Info 11 October 2016 Retrieved 19 November 2016 
  199. ^ a b Kassem, Ramzi 4 August 2016 "France’s real state of emergency" The New York Times ISSN 0362-4331 Retrieved 19 November 2016 
  200. ^ a b "Jean-Marc Sauvé: 'L'état d'urgence ne peut être renouvelé indéfiniment'" Jean-Marc Sauvé: 'The state of emergency cannot be renewed infinitely' Le Monde 18 November 2016 Retrieved 19 November 2016 

External linksedit

  • Media related to 2016 Attack in Nice at Wikimedia Commons
  • News related to 2016 Nice attack at Wikinews
  • Quotations related to 2016 Nice attack at Wikiquote
  • 2010s portal
  • France portal
  • Terrorism portal
  • Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant portal

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Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall

Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall

The Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall is an indoor sports venue located in the Magdalena Mixhuca S...
My Everything (The Grace song)

My Everything (The Grace song)

"My Everything" was Grace's 3rd single under the SM Entertainment, released on November 6, 2006 Unli...
Turkish Straits

Turkish Straits

The Turkish Straits Turkish: Türk Boğazları are a series of internationally significant waterways in...