2016 Kaikoura earthquake


The 2016 Kaikoura earthquake was a magnitude 78 Mw earthquake in the South Island of New Zealand that occurred two minutes after midnight on 14 November 2016 NZDT 11:02 on 13 November UTC,[1] with the epicentre about 15 kilometres 9 mi north-east of Culverden and 60 kilometres 37 mi south-west of Kaikoura, and the hypocentre at a depth of approximately 15 kilometres 9 mi[2][6][7][8] The earthquake involved ruptures on multiple fault lines in a complex sequence that lasted for over one minute, and had a cumulative magnitude of 78[9][10]

Casualties have been reported in Culverden and Kaikoura, although the nature of the injuries is unknown[11] Two deaths have been reported: one in Kaikoura, and one in Mount Lyford[11]

Contents

  • 1 Earthquake
  • 2 Tsunami
  • 3 Casualties and damage
  • 4 Response
  • 5 Aftershocks
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References

Earthquake

The complex sequence of ruptures with a combined magnitude of 78 struck at 00:02:56 NZDT on 14 November 2016, 15 km 9 mi north-east of Culverden and 95 km 59 mi from Christchurch[10][12][13][11] Initial field surveys indicate motion on the Kekerengu Fault of up to 10 metres 33 ft, movement on the Hundalee Fault, a newly identified fault in Waipapa Bay, as well as minor motion on the Seaward segment of the Hope Fault[12] There were foreshocks dating back several days, including a magnitude 39 earthquake on 7 November, as well as a magnitude 36 earthquake on 28 October[citation needed]

Tsunami

At 01:32 NZDT on 14 November, The Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management MCDEM issued a tsunami warning for eastern coasts of the North and South Islands and the Chatham Islands[14] A wave hit the north-eastern tip of the South Island, but the threat level in Gisborne and the East Coast was later reduced,[15] as was the threat level from the South Island south of Banks Peninsula A wave of 25 m 8 ft was recorded at Kaikoura[13] A tsunami, estimated at five metres high, struck the north-facing Little Pigeon Bay on Banks Peninsula The bay contained just one building, an unoccupied holiday house that was pushed off its foundations and heavily damaged In neighbouring Pigeon Bay the tsunami was observed at about 2am but caused no damage[16]

Casualties and damage

Two deaths were reported in the earthquake: one victim suffered a heart attack, while the other victim was crushed when the historic Elms Farm homestead near Kaikoura collapsed Two people were rescued from the rubble of the house, including the victim's 100-year-old mother[17] Widespread damage to buildings occurred in Wellington, with power outages affecting many communities A high-rise office block on Molesworth Street in Wellington was cordoned off after the quake amidst fears that it could collapse[18]

Many major roads were closed in the South Island because of slips and damage to bridges, including State Highway 1 between Picton and Waipara, and State Highway 7 between Waipara and Springs Junction SH 65 turnoff The closure of SH1, the Inland Kaikoura Road and the Main North Line railway effectively cut off all land routes into Kaikoura[19][20] Most roads were cleared within 24 hours, but SH 1 between Seddon and Cheviot via Kaikoura and the Inland Kaikoura Road remained closed[21] Damage to docks at Wellington also impaired ferry traffic across the Cook Strait[15]

Schools and universities across the region were told to remain closed until the situation can be assessed,[22][23] affecting the end-of-year NCEA examinations for secondary school students[24]

The start of the first-class cricket fixture between Wellington and Central Districts in the Plunket Shield was cancelled, due to frequent aftershocks in the area[25] On 16 November, Association football club Wellington Phoenix announced that the Round 7 A-League match between Wellington Phoenix and Melbourne Victory at Westpac Stadium scheduled for Saturday 19 November 2016 had to be postponed because of repairs to the stadium after the earthquake[26]

Looting was reported in a few locations as thousands of people were evacuated from the South Island's eastern coast[27]

Response

The New Zealand Defence Force dispatched five Royal New Zealand Air Force helicopters four NH90s and one Agusta A109, a P-3 Orion, and a C-130 Hercules The aircraft were tasked to survey and provide essential emergency supplies to the most-severely affected areas around Kaikoura Kaikoura Aerodrome was too small to take larger multi-engine aircraft so landing was limited to helicopters and small aircraft The Royal New Zealand Navy's multi-role vessel HMNZS Canterbury and off-shore patrol vessel HMNZS Wellington were deployed to Kaikoura to provide aid supplies and evacuate people[28] HMCS Vancouver, HMAS Darwin and USS Sampson, in New Zealand waters for the RNZN's 75th birthday celebrations in Auckland, were redirected by their respective governments to assist[29] The Defence Force also deployed HMNZS Te Kaha and HMNZS Endeavour to support the operation[citation needed]

The New Zealand Fire Service dispatched urban search and rescue teams to Wellington and Kaikoura Paramedics were also dispatched from St John[22]

Prime Minister John Key surveyed the damage from the air and later described the scenes as "utter devastation" and estimated that reconstruction would take months and cost billions of dollars[30]

Nearly 200 people had been airlifted out of Kaikoura by late evening on 15 November, with about 1,000 still to be evacuated on the following morning[31] Stranded tourists with health issues and travel plans were put on a flight priority list[32]

Aftershocks

Magnitude of Kaikoura earthquakes Source: Geonet

See also

  • Disasters portal
  • Earthquakes portal
  • New Zealand portal
  • 1888 North Canterbury earthquake, the last 7+ magnitude quake on the Hope Fault
  • 1901 Cheviot earthquake, a similar event of weaker magnitude
  • Earthquakes in New Zealand
  • List of earthquakes in New Zealand
  • Marlborough Fault System
  • Tsunamis affecting New Zealand

References

  1. ^ a b "M78 – 53km NE of Amberley, New Zealand" United States Geological Survey 13 November 2016 Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  2. ^ a b "Magnitude 78, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:02:56 am NZDT" GeoNet Retrieved 16 November 2016 
  3. ^ http://wwwstuffconz/national/86506586/earthquake-aftershocks-pass-1500-mark
  4. ^ "Deaths, damage after quake" 
  5. ^ "As it happened: A second day of aftershocks as evacuations began in earthquake-hit Kaikoura" TVNZ 14 November 2016 
  6. ^ "Tsunami hits N Zealand after powerful earthquake, aftershocks" RT Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  7. ^ "Region by region: severe quake hits" Stuff Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  8. ^ Taylor, Matthew 13 November 2016 "Tsunami hits New Zealand east coast after 75-magnitude earthquake" The Guardian Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  9. ^ "Kaikoura earthquake update: Magnitude revised" GeoNet 16 November 2016 Retrieved 16 November 2016 
  10. ^ a b "M75 Kaikoura Quake: What we know so far" GeoNet 15 November 2016 Retrieved 16 November 2016 
  11. ^ a b c Kitching, Chris; Walker, Marc; Elvey, Suz 13 November 2016 "New Zealand tsunami: Live updates as families warned to flee coast 'immediately' after 78-magnitude earthquake" Daily Mirror Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  12. ^ a b "M75 Kaikoura Earthquake: Latest updates" GeoNet [dead link]
  13. ^ a b "New Zealand earthquake: Tsunami arrives after powerful tremor hits" BBC 13 November 2016 Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  14. ^ "Current emergencies" Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management 
  15. ^ a b "Two dead, major damage after quake" Stuff Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  16. ^ McDonald, Liz 14 November 2016 "Little Pigeon Bay cottage smashed by tsunami waves" Stuff Retrieved 16 November 2016 
  17. ^ "Tragic rescue: 100-year-old pulled from rubble after son killed in devastating quake" The New Zealand Herald 14 November 2016 
  18. ^ Earthquake: Damage to quake-hit Wellington building is getting 'incrementally worse'", stuffconz, 16 November 2016 Retrieved 16 November 2016
  19. ^ "North Canterbury 75 quake: Roads damaged and blocked, public transport disrupted" Stuff 14 November 2016 Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  20. ^ "Insane photos show bitumen uprooted from quake-ravaged Kaikoura road" Television New Zealand 14 November 2016 Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  21. ^ "Alternative route between Christchurch and Picton established" Stuffconz 14 November 2016 Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  22. ^ a b "Live: 75 magnitude earthquake strikes near Hanmer Springs in South Island, tsunami warning for many New Zealand coastal areas" The New Zealand Herald 13 November 2016 Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  23. ^ "Earthquake: Schools, universities closed, exams disrupted" Stuffconz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  24. ^ Jones, Nicholas 14 November 2016 "Unfair to make many students sit NCEA exams today – John Key" The New Zealand Herald Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  25. ^ "Aftershocks force abandonment of Plunket Shield match in Wellington" ESPN Cricinfo Retrieved 15 November 2016 
  26. ^ "to reschedule Hyundai A-League Round 7 fixture with Melbourne Victory" Wellington Phoenix 15 November 2016 Retrieved 16 November 2016 
  27. ^ "Deadly earthquake: Looters ransack evacuated home in tsunami zone" The New Zealand Herald 13 November 2016 Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  28. ^ "HMNZS Canterbury sent to Kaikoura" The New Zealand Herald 14 November 2016 Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  29. ^ "Fleet of international warships to help out with earthquake response" New Zealand Herald 15 November 2016 ISSN 1170-0777 Retrieved 15 November 2016 
  30. ^ Bradford, Katie 14 November 2016 "'Billions' needed to repair Kaikoura roads after 75 earthquake, says PM" Television New Zealand Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  31. ^ "NZ quake: Nearly 200 people airlifted from Kaikoura as evacuations continue" Yahoo! New Zealand 16 November 2016 Retrieved 16 November 2016 
  32. ^ "Kaikoura evacuation: Sickness and travel plans determine who goes first" NZ Herald 15 November 2016 Retrieved 16 November 2016 
  33. ^ "Magnitude 75, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:02:56 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  34. ^ "Magnitude 56, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:16:10 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  35. ^ "Magnitude 59, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:19:32 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  36. ^ "Magnitude 56, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:24:17 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  37. ^ "Magnitude 50, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:30:25 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  38. ^ "Magnitude 62, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:32:06 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  39. ^ "Magnitude 55, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:33:49 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  40. ^ "Magnitude 56, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:41:48 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  41. ^ "Magnitude 62, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:52:44 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  42. ^ "Magnitude 52, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 1:03:53 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  43. ^ "Magnitude 53, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 1:04:21 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  44. ^ "Magnitude 50, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 1:20:41 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  45. ^ "Magnitude 52, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 1:25:55 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  46. ^ "Magnitude 52, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 1:27:59 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  47. ^ "Magnitude 52, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 1:37:43 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  48. ^ "Magnitude 53, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 1:38:38 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  49. ^ "Magnitude 51, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 1:52:18 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  50. ^ "Magnitude 57, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 2:21:11 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  51. ^ "Magnitude 60, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 2:31:26 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  52. ^ "Magnitude 51, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 2:50:01 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  53. ^ "Magnitude 51, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 3:04:04 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  54. ^ "Magnitude 53, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 4:33:03 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  55. ^ "Magnitude 51, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 6:17:39 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  56. ^ "Magnitude 52, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 7:34:26 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  57. ^ "Magnitude 54, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 7:58:45 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  58. ^ "Magnitude 52, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 7:59:10 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  59. ^ "Magnitude 50, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 8:09:14 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  60. ^ "Magnitude 51, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 8:28:44 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  61. ^ "Magnitude 50, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 9:21:27 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  62. ^ "Magnitude 50, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 9:22:14 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 13 November 2016 
  63. ^ "Magnitude 51, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 9:51:21 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  64. ^ "Magnitude 54, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 11:19:32 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  65. ^ "Magnitude 52, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:17:32 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  66. ^ "Magnitude 52, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:49:11 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  67. ^ "Magnitude 50, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 12:54:43 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  68. ^ "Magnitude 57, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 1:33:51 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  69. ^ "Magnitude 63, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 1:34:22 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  70. ^ "Magnitude 53, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 2:28:22 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  71. ^ "Magnitude 53, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 2:30:14 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  72. ^ "Magnitude 50, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 6:16:31 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  73. ^ "Magnitude 56, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 7:43:00 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  74. ^ "Magnitude 57, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 7:47:52 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  75. ^ "Magnitude 58, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 8:21:04 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 14 November 2016 
  76. ^ "Magnitude 50, Mon, Nov 14 2016, 10:49:56 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 15 November 2016 
  77. ^ "Magnitude 51, Tue, Nov 15 2016, 12:16:42 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 15 November 2016 
  78. ^ "Magnitude 50, Tue, Nov 15 2016, 8:17:33 am NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 15 November 2016 
  79. ^ "Magnitude 58, Tue, Nov 15 2016, 2:34:45 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 15 November 2016 
  80. ^ "Magnitude 52, Tue, Nov 15 2016, 2:43:52 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 15 November 2016 
  81. ^ "Magnitude 54, Tue, Nov 15 2016, 6:09:27 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 15 November 2016 
  82. ^ "Magnitude 58, Tue, Nov 15 2016, 7:30:33 pm NZDT" geonetorgnz Retrieved 15 November 2016 


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