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Basque Nationalist Party

basque nationalist party canada, basque nationalist party of america
The Basque Nationalist Party Basque: Euzko Alderdi Jeltzalea, EAJ; Spanish: Partido Nacionalista Vasco, PNV; French: Parti Nationaliste Basque, PNB; EAJ-PNV is a Christian democratic and Basque nationalist party It is both the oldest and largest Basque nationalist political party It is especially strong in Biscay but has a great sway in the entire Basque Autonomous Community and has a minor presence in Navarre where it is a member of the coalition Geroa Bai, formerly named Nafarroa Bai and a marginal one in the French Basque Country The party has led the Basque regional government for a long period from initial Basque autonomy in the early 1980s until 2009, and again from 2012 and 2016 The coalition Geroa Bai is currently leading the government in Navarre since 2016; the first time that EAJ-PNV took part in the government of this Autonomous Community It has also played an important role in the Spanish Congress, along other regional nationalist parties

In Basque it is called Euzko Alderdi Jeltzalea EAJ 'Basque Nationalist Party' and in Spanish it is called the Partido Nacionalista Vasco PNV In Spain it is commonly referred to as PNV whereas its French branch is the Parti Nationaliste Basque EAJ-PNB The party typically refers to itself as EAJ-PNV The current chairman of EAJ-PNV is Andoni Ortuzar The youth wing of the Basque Nationalist Party is called EGI Euzko Gaztedi Indarra 'Basque Youth Force'

The party also has offices among the Basque diaspora, mainly in Venezuela, Argentina, Mexico, Uruguay, Chile and the United States

Since 1932, EAJ-PNV celebrates on Easter the Aberri Eguna 'Homeland Day' Also, since 1977, the party celebrates Alderdi Eguna 'Party Day' The party's social offices are called batzokis, of which there are over 200 throughout the world

Currently a member of the European Democratic Party, the Basque Nationalist Party was previously a member of the European Free Alliance from 1999 to 2004 Even earlier it had been affiliated with the European People's Party from which it resigned before the European Parliament election of 1999, and the Christian Democrat International until its expulsion in 2000


  • 1 Origins and early history
  • 2 The Second Spanish Republic
    • 21 1934–1935
  • 3 The Spanish civil war and Franco's rule
    • 31 Civil War
    • 32 Exile during the post-war
    • 33 Generational conflict and new alliances
  • 4 A Basque Statute
  • 5 Position in recent referendums
  • 6 Presidents of the party since 1895
  • 7 JeL
  • 8 Alderdi Eguna
  • 9 Electoral performance
    • 91 Basque Parliament
    • 92 Cortes Generales
      • 921 Spain
      • 922 Basque Country
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
  • 12 Bibliography
  • 13 External links

Origins and early history

Basque Country
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In 1898, the party opened its second batzoki eu 'meeting place', a club and bar in Barakaldo

The party was founded in 1895 by Sabino de Arana Goiri as a Catholic conservative party agitating for the restoration of self-government and the defense of Juramento de Larrazabal Basque traditional values and identity Currently, it describes itself as Basque, democratic, participatory, plural, and humanist It is a moderate nationalist party which favours greater autonomy, for the Basque nation EAJ-PNV opposes political violence

In its beginnings, the party established a requirement for its members to prove Basque ancestry by having a minimum number of Basque surnames

In 1921, the Arana movement split into the traditionalist Comunión Nacionalista Vasca "Basque Nationalist Communion" and the independentist Aberri "Homeland"

During the single party dictatorship rule of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, the nationalist parties were outlawed and persecuted However, its activity continued under the guise of mountain mendigoizale and folklore clubs

At the end of 1930, Aberri and CNV reunited under the old name of EAJ-PNV However, a small group formed Acción Nacionalista Vasca "Basque Nationalist Action" It was on the moderate nationalist left, non-confessional and open to alliances with the republican and socialist parties fighting against the dictatorship

The Second Spanish Republic

PNV sticker Text: "Euzkadi´k bear zaitu" Euzkadi needs you It is inspired by Alfred Leete's British poster for Kitchener's Army


The division between autonomism and independentism appeared again during the second Spanish Republic Headed by Eli Gallastegi, a small group of independentists, gathered around the weekly Jagi-Jagi and the Mountaineer Federation of Biscay, left the party They rejected the autonomy that PNV was working for

The Spanish civil war and Franco's rule

Civil War

After the coup d'état of 18 July 1936, the party felt torn It shared the rebel side's Catholicism and there was pressure from the Vatican to keep away from the Republic, but the promised autonomy and their anti-Fascist ideology led them to side with the republican government

The Biscayne and Gipuzkoan branches, the more important in number, declared support for the Republic, democracy and anti-Fascism in the ensuing Spanish Civil War and were key in balancing those provinces to the Republican side In the territory seized by the rebels, PNV members faced tough times During the military uprising in Navarre, the Basque nationalist mayor of Estella-Lizarra Fortunato Aguirre was arrested by the Spanish nationalist rebels 18 July 1936, and killed in September Some Basque nationalists could flee north to Basque areas loyal to the Republic, or France However, some members of the Alavese and Navarrese committees, ahead of an official decision, published notes refusing support to the Republic Notwithstanding their initial ambiguous position in certain areas, the party premises and press in Álava and Navarre were closed in that month of July

Some PNV sympathizers and members joined the Carlist battalions, either out of conviction or to avoid attacks By October 1936, a war front had been established at the northern tip of Álava and to the west of Donostia Initially, the Defence Committees in Biscay and Gipuzkoa were dominated by the Popular Front After hard negotiations, eventually Basque autonomy was granted within the Second Spanish Republic in late 1936, and the new autonomous government immediately organized the Basque Army, consisting of militias recruited by each of the political organizations, including PNV

The autonomous government avoided chaos in Biscay and western Gipuzkoa, and took the reins of the coordination and provision of military resistance On occupation of the territories loyal to the Republic, the Francoist repression was focused on leftists, but Basque nationalists were also targeted, facing prison, humiliation, and death As the rebel troops approached Biscay, the Carlist press in Pamplona even called for the extermination of Basque nationalists

José Antonio Aguirre, the party leader, became in October 1936 the first lendakari Basque president of the wartime multipartite Basque Government, ruling the unconquered parts of Biscay and Gipuzkoa In April 1937, the city of Guernica was bombed by German airplanes Jose Antonio de Aguirre stated that "the German planes bombed us with a brutality that had never been seen before for two and a half hours" Pablo Picasso made a painting in remembrance of the massacre named after the city that year

When Bilbao, the most populated town in the Basque Country, was taken by Franco's troops the Basque nationalists decided to keep untouched all heavy manufacturing industry of Bilbao, steel processing and shipping, thinking that they had the responsibility of securing the prosperity of their people in the future This decision made available to the fascist rebels that important industry

In July 1937, having lost all the Basque territory, the Basque army retreated towards Santander Out of their land and without help from the Republic, the Basque Army surrendered to the Italian Corpo Truppe Volontari through the so-called Santoña Agreement The heads of the EAJ-PNV stayed with the soldiers to follow their men's same fate Prison and executions ordered by the fascists followed The Basque government then moved to Barcelona until the fall of Catalonia, and on out of Spain into permanent exile, first to France where they organized the camps and services with the president heading it personally Aguirre was in Belgium when Hitler occupied that country, starting a long travel to Berlin under a false identity

Under the protection of a Panamanian ambassador, Aguirre got to reach Sweden, and dodging the SS German intelligence, he arrived in Brazil and Uruguay where his dignity was reinstated and given visa to New York There he settled down under the protection of American Basques as teacher of Columbia University

Exile during the post-war

The president of the Basque Government in exile was always a PNV member and even the sole Spanish representative in the United Nations was the Basque appointee Jesús de Galíndez until his murder in an obscure episode regarding his PhD Thesis about Dominican Republic's dictator Trujillo He also decided to put the large Basque exiles' network at the service of the Allied side and collaborated with the US Secretary of State and the CIA during the Cold War to fight Communism in Spanish America

When the United States decided to back Franco in 1952 Aguirre went to France anew where the Basque Government in exile was established Also, he learned there that the pro-Nazi French government of Vichy confiscated the Basque Government's building and that the anti-Nazi De Gaulle maintained it as a Spanish Government's possession, given that the Basque Government has never had any international consideration other than representatives of a region in Spain at most The building today is the Instituto Cervantes premises where French people can learn any of the Spanish languages, including Basque

Generational conflict and new alliances

In 1959 ETA was created by young undergraduates from the area of Bilbao organization EKIN lured by Basque nationalist ideology, but increasingly disgruntled at the ineffective political action of the PNV, largely daunted by after-war repression and scattered in exile In addition, the new generation resented an attempt of PNV to pull the strings of their movement and PNV's youth wing Euzko Gaztedi EGI, with whom they had merged in the mid-50s, as well as showing a more modern stance, stressing for one the language as the centre of Basqueness, instead of race

In the 1950s and 60s the party looked for alliances abroad, expecting at first that the defeat of the Axis in World War II would encourage USA's support for an eventual overthrow of Franco's hold on power, which didn't happen In addition, it was a founder party of the Christian Democrat International, but now the party is an active member of the European Democratic Party, with the French Union pour la Démocratie Française, etc

In the late 60s and early 70s, contacts started with other Spanish parties to assert PNV's position in a new post-Francoist order At the same time, the Basque Nationalist Party confirmed its stance against ETA in a period when its violent actions saw a surge and its influence in society was very apparent, especially in street protests Juan de Ajuriaguerra paved the way for PNV's comeback to Basque politics from exile, and started to negotiate their participation in the new status-quo, with special attention to a new Statute

A Basque Statute

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PNV's good results in 1977 and 1978 confirmed PNV's central position in Basque politics While PNV advocated for abstention in the referendum on the Spanish Constitution for its lack of Basque input, the party supported the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, approved in December 1978, and paved the way to its success in the first elections held in the Basque Autonomous Community, once Navarre was left out

In the transition years after Franco's death in 1975, Xabier Arzallus came to prominence, who masterminded the so-called "Spirit of Arriaga" to accommodate the party to the new Spanish democracy Despite some internal tensions, the former priest and Jesuit came up reinforced and was chosen undisputed party leader PNV found in Biscay its main and strongest support base, while in Navarre PNV was next to non-existent

Carlos Garaikoetxea spearheaded the new autonomous government after being elected with 388% of the votes and during this first term the Basque Nationalist Party held office without outside support During this period, PNV's challenges were closely associated to its position in the Basque Government: defense of the Statute, devolution of powers from Madrid, discrediting of political violence, restructuring of manufacturing industry steeped in crisis

As of 1985 tensions inside the party spurred the formation of a splinter group with a stronghold in Gipuzkoa, which in turn led to a new party in 1987, when dissenters from the PNV formed Eusko Alkartasuna "Basque Solidarity" Carlos Garaikoetxea was then elected as the first president of the rival party The split from the PNV was mainly based on:

  • A personality clash between the lehendakari Garaikoetxea, who went to form Eusko Alkartasuna EA, and the PNV leader Xabier Arzalluz
  • The configuration of the Basque Country:
    • A strong Basque government and weak provinces EA
    • Strong provinces PNV

Afterwards, some ideological differences also came out EA adopted a social-democratic ideology, while the PNV remained more attached to its Christian-democratic ideas The split was particularly bitter given that it was headed by the lehendakari premier himself Many PNV political bars batzoki eu, "meeting place" became alkartetxe eu "meeting house"

Since 1991, as time has eased the bitter split helped by the fact that both Arzalluz and Garaikoetxea have gone into political retirement, both parties agreed to form an electoral coalition in a number of local elections as a means to maximize the nationalist votes, which eventually led to reunite both candidatures in a joint list again for the regional governments of Navarra and the Basque Autonomous Community in 1998 Thus, EA has participated in several PNV-led Basque governments, including the 2006 government of President Juan José Ibarretxe Markuartu Still, EA decided to run by itself in the municipal elections held in May 2007

Former president Juan José Ibarretxe spearheaded a call for the reform of the Statute of Autonomy that governs the Basque Country Autonomous Community, through a proposal widely known as the Ibarretxe Plan, passed by the Basque Parliament but not even accepted for discussion by the Spanish Cortes Generales

In 2009 PNV was expelled from office by an alliance of the Spanish Socialists' Basque branch, the PSE, and the Spanish conservatives PP, taking advantage of a distorted parliament representation issued from the outlawing of leftist Basque nationalists Until that moment, the PNV dominated every administration of the Basque government In Navarre, EA and PNV formed the coalition Nafarroa Bai—'Yes to Navarre'—along with Aralar and Batzarre, but a split within the coalition led to its revamp as Geroa Bai In terms of ideology, by November 2016 the Basque Nationalist Party shifted its rhetoric to make the autonomous community of Euskadi the subject of the Basque nation

Position in recent referendums

PNV called for:

  • Abstention in the Referendum for Spanish Constitution in 1978
  • Gave freedom to vote yes or no to permanence of Spain in the NATO in 1986 The Yes won the vote in Spain, but the No was the first choice among the electors of the Basque Country
  • Yes to the European Constitution proposal in the referendum held in Spain on 21 February 2005; and supported the Lisbon Treaty in the Spanish Cortes Generales

Presidents of the party since 1895

Note: The National Council of the Basque Nationalist Party Euzkadi-Buru-Batzar was created in 1911 Therefore, Sabino Arana and Ángel Zabala were only presidents of the Regional Council of Biscay Bizkai-Buru-Batzar

  • 1895-1903 Sabino de Arana y Goiri
  • 1903-1906 Ángel Zabala Ozamiz
  • 1906-1908 Deputation formed by Santiago Alda, Alipio Larrauri, Antonio Arroyo, Vicente Larrinaga and Eduardo Arriaga
  • 1911-1916 Luis de Arana y Goiri
  • 1916-1920 Ramón Bikuña
  • 1920-1930 Ignacio Rotaeche Comunión Nacionalista Vasca
  • 1922-1930 Luis de Arana y Goiri Aberri
  • 1930 Ceferino de Jemein Aberri
Josu Jon Imaz in white shirt and Iñigo Urkullu in black shirt in 2007
  • 1931-1932 Ramón Bikuña
  • 1932-1933 Luis de Arana y Goiri
  • 1933-1934 Jesús Doxandabaratz
  • 1934-1935 Isaac López Mendizábal
  • 1935-1951 Doroteo Ciáurriz
  • 1951-1953 Juan Ajuriaguerra
  • 1957-1962 José Aguerre
  • 1975-1977 Ignacio Unceta
  • 1977-1980 Carlos Garaikoetxea
  • 1980-1984 Xabier Arzalluz
  • 1984-1985 Román Sudupe
  • 1985-1986 Jesús Insausti
  • 1986-2004 Xabier Arzalluz
  • 2004-2008 Josu Jon Imaz
  • 2008-2013 Iñigo Urkullu
  • 2013- Andoni Ortuzar


JeL Jaungoikoa eta Lagi-zaŕa, "God and the old law" in Basque, Lege-zaharra in Standard Basque is the motto of the party The "old laws" referred to are the fueros, the traditional laws of the Basque provinces, observed by the kings of Castille, and later Spain, until the Carlist Wars The motto of Basque Carlists was Dios, patria, fueros, rey "God, Country, Fueros, king" Separatist nationalism in parts of Spain is related in some of these areas with former Carlist background

JEL is the origin of jelkide "JEL-companion", EAJ-PNV member and jeltzale "TZALE-follower", as in the gloss of EAJ, Eusko Alderdi Jeltzalea

Alderdi Eguna

Alderdi Eguna "Party Day" is the national holiday of the Basque Nationalist Party which is annually celebrated on the last Sunday of September, the Sunday closest to the feast day of Saint Michael, the patron saint of Euskal Herria and of the Basque Nationalist Party

The central act of this celebration is a political meeting of leading nationalists, but the celebration begins in the morning with a traditional festival in which the different municipal organizations from the party set up stands to sell drinks and their more typical products, all brightened up by traditional music Dances and traditional sports are also enjoyed The celebration takes place in an open air arena currently in Foronda, Álava, and lasts until nightfall

Electoral performance

Basque Parliament

Date Votes Seats Status Size
#  % ±pp # ±
1980 349,102 380% 25 / 60 Government 1st
1984 451,178 418% +38 32 / 75 7 Government 1st
1986 271,208 236% –182 17 / 75 15 Government 2nd
1990 289,701 283% +47 22 / 75 1 Government 1st
1994 304,346 293% +10 22 / 75 0 Government 1st
1998 350,322 276% –17 21 / 75 1 Government 1st
2001 604,222 424% +148 33 / 75 12 Government 1st
2005 468,117 384% –40 29 / 75 4 Government 1st
2009 399,600 381% –03 30 / 75 1 Opposition 1st
2012 384,766 342% –39 27 / 75 3 Government 1st
2016 398,168 374% +32 28 / 75 1 Government 1st
  • Leading the government, although being the smaller coalition party
  • Alliance with EA

Cortes Generales


Congress of Deputies
Date Votes Seats Status Size Notes
#  % ±pp # ±
1977 314,272 17% 8 / 350 Opposition 8th
1979 296,597 16% –01 7 / 350 1 Opposition 8th
1982 395,656 19% +03 8 / 350 4 Opposition 7th
1986 309,610 15% –04 6 / 350 2 Opposition 6th
1989 254,681 12% –03 5 / 350 1 Opposition 6th
1993 291,448 12% ±00 5 / 350 0 Opposition 4th government support 1993–95
1996 318,951 13% +01 5 / 350 0 Opposition 5th government support 1996–98
2000 353,953 15% +02 7 / 350 2 Opposition 5th
2004 420,980 16% +01 7 / 350 0 Opposition 6th
2008 306,128 12% −04 6 / 350 1 Opposition 5th
2011 324,317 13% +01 5 / 350 1 Opposition 7th
2015 302,316 12% −01 6 / 350 2 Opposition 8th
2016 287,014 12% ±00 5 / 350 1 Opposition 7th
Date Seats Size
# ±
1977 6 / 207 5th
1979 8 / 208 2 4th
1982 7 / 208 1 4th
1986 7 / 208 0 4th
1989 4 / 208 3 4th
1993 3 / 208 1 5th
1996 4 / 208 1 4th
2000 6 / 208 2 5th
2004 6 / 208 0 4th
2008 2 / 208 4 5th
2011 4 / 208 2 5th
2015 6 / 208 2 6th
2011 5 / 208 1 5th

Basque Country

Congress of Deputies
Date Votes Seats Size
#  % ±pp # ±
1977 296,193 293% 8 / 21 1st
1979 275,292 276% –17 7 / 21 1 1st
1982 379,293 317% +41 8 / 21 1 1st
1986 304,675 278% –39 6 / 21 2 1st
1989 252,119 228% –50 5 / 21 1 1st
1993 287,908 241% +13 5 / 19 0 2nd
1996 315,793 250% +09 5 / 19 0 1st
2000 347,417 304% +54 7 / 19 2 1st
2004 420,980 337% +33 7 / 19 0 1st
2008 306,128 271% –66 6 / 18 1 2nd
2011 324,317 274% +03 5 / 18 1 1st
2015 302,316 247% –27 6 / 18 1 2nd
2016 287,014 249% +02 5 / 18 1 2nd
Date Seats Size
# ±
1977 6 / 12 1st
1979 8 / 12 2 1st
1982 7 / 12 1 1st
1986 7 / 12 0 1st
1989 4 / 12 3 1st
1993 3 / 12 1 2nd
1996 4 / 12 1 2nd
2000 6 / 12 2 1st
2004 6 / 12 0 1st
2008 2 / 12 4 2nd
2011 4 / 12 2 1st
2015 6 / 12 2 1st
2016 5 / 12 1 1st

See also

  • Basque Republic
  • Euzkadi
  • History of the Basques Late Modern Period
  • Luis María Bandrés


  1. ^ Ahedo, Igor 2005, "Political parties in the Basque autonomous community", Basque Society: Structures, Institutions, And Contemporary Life, Center for Basque Studies, p 177 
  2. ^ Ramiro, Luis; Morales, Laura 2007, "European integration and Spanish parties: Elite empowerment amidst limited adaptation", The Europeanization of National Political Parties: Power and organizational adaptation, Routledge, p 145 
  3. ^ Pallarés, Francesc; Keating, Michael 2006, "Multi-level electoral competition: sub-state elections and party systems in Spain", Devolution and electoral politics, Manchester University Press, p 101 
  4. ^ a b Gibbons 1999, p 25: «the PNV, a Basque nationalist and Christian democratic party»
  5. ^ "El PNV aboga por una Europa federal sin Estados-Nación" in Spanish 24 March 2013 Retrieved 15 January 2018 
  6. ^ Magone, José M 2009, Contemporary Spanish Politics Second ed, Routledge, p 170 
  7. ^ Papini, Roberto 2010, "The Identity of the Christian Democratic Movement and Theory of Democracy", Religion, the Enlightenment, and the New Global Order, Columbia University Press, p 259 
    Keating, Michael 2009, "Nationalist Movements in Comparative Perspective", The Modern SNP: From Protest to Power, Edinburgh University Press, p 208 
  8. ^ Basabe Lloréns, Felipe 2003, "Spain: the emergence of a new major actor in the European arena", Fifteen Into One: The European Union and Its Member States, Manchester University Press, p 207 
    Irvin, Cynthia L 2000, "Negotiating End Games: A Comparative Analysis of the IRA and ETA", Reconcilable Differences: Turning Points in Ethnopolitical Conflict, Kumarian Press, p 191 
    Newton, Michael T 1997, Institutions of Modern Spain: A Political and Economic Guide, Cambridge University Press, p 207 
  9. ^ Hans Slomp 26 September 2011 Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics : An American Companion to European Politics ABC-CLIO p 519 ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8 
  10. ^ Mateos, Araceli; Penadés, Alberto 2013 "España: crisis y recortes" pdf Revista de ciencia política Santiago in Spanish 33 1: 175 ISSN 0718-090X Retrieved January 4, 2016 Convergencia i Unió CiU y el Partido Nacionalista Vasco PNV-EAJ son los partidos nacionalistas de centro-derecha en Cataluña y el País Vasco, respectivamente 
  11. ^ Nuñez, Xosé-Manoel 2003, "A State of Many Nations: The Construction of a Plural Spanish Society since 1976", The Social Construction of Diversity, Berghahn Books, p 287 
    Keating, Michael; Loughlin, John; Deschouwer, Kris 2003, Culture, Institutions, and Economic Development: A Study of Eight European Regions, Edward Elgar Publishing, p 55 
  12. ^ http://wwweuskomediaorg/aunamendi/6047
  13. ^ "Archived copy" Archived from the original on 2009-06-23 Retrieved 2015-08-29 
  14. ^ http://wwwe-f-aorg/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/3443_EFA-THE-INTERNATIONALISMpdf
  15. ^ Jan Mansvelt Beck 2004 Territory and Terror: Conflicting Nationalisms in the Basque Country Routledge p 162 
  16. ^ Paul Preston 2013 The Spanish Holocaust: Inquisition and Extermination in Twentieth-Century Spain London, UK: HarperCollins p 436 ISBN 978-0-00-638695-7 
  17. ^ Müller, Annika April 26, 2012 "A Survivor Recalls the Horrors of Guernica" Spiegel Online Retrieved 28 March 2013 
  18. ^ "Urkullu: "Euskadi es una nación que debe ser reconocida y necesita mecanismos de bilateralidad"" EuropaPress 2016-11-23 Retrieved 2016-12-01  Compare it to Sabino Arana's definition of Euzkadi as a political projection of Euskal Herria, or to the party's name for its main executive board, the Euskadi Buru Batzar, regrouping the party leaders of all the Basque territory


  • Gibbons, John 1999, Spanish Politics Today, Manchester University Press, 174, ISBN 978-0-7190-4946-0 
  • Hepburn, Eve 2013, New Challenges for Stateless Nationalist and Regionalist Parties, Routledge, 186, ISBN 978-1-317-96596-1 
  • Anttiroiko, Ari-Veikko; Mälkiä, Matti 2007, Encyclopedia of Digital Government, Idea Group Inc IGI, 1916, ISBN 978-1-59140-790-4 
  • Verney, Susannah 2013, Euroscepticism in Southern Europe: A Diachronic Perspective, Routledge, 224, ISBN 978-1-317-99611-8 
  • Ştefuriuc, Irina 2013, Government Formation in Multi-Level Settings: Party Strategy and Institutional Constraints, Palgrave Macmillan, 200, ISBN 978-1-137-30074-4 
  • Cabestan, Jean-Pierre; Pavković, Aleksandar 2013, Secessionism and Separatism in Europe and Asia: To Have a State of One's Own, Routledge, 246, ISBN 978-0-415-66774-6 
  • López Basaguren, Alberto; Escajedo San Epifanio, Leire 2013, The Ways of Federalism in Western Countries and the Horizons of Territorial Autonomy in Spain: Volume 2, Springer Science & Business Media, 924, ISBN 978-3-642-27717-7 
  • Chislett, William 2013, Spain: What Everyone Needs to KnowRG, What Everyone Needs to Know, Oxford University Press, 256, ISBN 978-0-19-993645-8 

External links

  • EAJ-PNV page in English in Basque in Spanish in English
  • EGI, youth movement of EAJ-PNV in Basque
  • Basque Nationalism Museum in Spanishin Basque in English
  • The cradle of Basque nationalism
  • Manifiesto y Organización del Partido Nacionalista Vasco, PNV's internal rules from 1906 As heavy scanned JPEG images of Spanish text in Spanish
  • EAJ-PNV Ordizia in Basque in Spanish

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Academic year

An academic year is a period of time which schools, colleges and universities use to measure a quant...
Lucrezia Borgia

Lucrezia Borgia

Lucrezia Borgia Italian pronunciation: luˈkrɛttsja ˈbɔrdʒa; Valencian: Lucrècia Borja luˈkrɛsia...