Wed . 19 Sep 2019

Democracy

Democracy is a form of government in which all members or citizens have equal rights to shape organization or state policy. It derives from the Greek word okrat dimokratia yardım (δῆμος, ie, dimos, popular group, people + κράτος, kratos, power). It has been translated into Turkish by the French démocratie. Although generally regarded as a form of government, universities, workers 'and employers' organizations and some other civilian institutions and organizations can also be governed by democracy.




































it is characterized by humiliating concepts. However, democracy has become the most widely used state system in the world. Now, political scientists have entered into discussions of which democracy works better than which system works better, and liberal, communist [1], socialist [2], conservative [3], anarchist [4] and fascist [5] thinkers put their virtues in the foreground of their democratic systems. tried to remove. For this reason, too many different definitions of democracy have emerged.
Topics
1 Definition
1.1 People
2 History of democracy
2.1 Antiquity
2.2 Middle ages
2.3 18. and 19th centuries
2.4 20th century
3 Models of democracy
3.1 Classic democracy
3.2 Protective democracy
3.3 Developmental democracy
3.4 Liberal democracy
3.5 Social democracy
4 Concepts related to democracy
4.1 Democracy and republic
4.2 Democracy and secularism
4.3 Separation of powers
5 Means of democracy
5.1 Parliament
5.2 Political parties
5.3 Constitution
5.4 Civil community organizations
5.5 Law enforcement

6 Rights development in democracy
6.1 Human rights
6.2 Women
6.3 Minorities
7 Different opinions and critiques in practice
7.1 Pluralism view
7.2 Eliteism
7.3 Marxistism
7.4 Corporatistism
8 Democracy in international relations
9 a See
10 References
11 Footnotes
12 External links


Election is an important part of democracy
The debate on the definition of democracy is still an ongoing debate. The reasons for this are the reasons why some institutions in the countries use the definition of democracy in order to justify their views, the efforts of non-democratic states to introduce themselves democratically and the fact that democracy, which is a general concept, is used alone (constitutional democracy, social democracy, liberal democracy, etc.). Different references to democracy:
Management of the majority [6]
Management that secures minority rights
Management of the poor
Management that tries to eliminate social inequality
Management that tries to ensure equal opportunities
Public management based on the support of the people to serve the people.


Main article: People
A common aspect of democracies, whether majority, minority, poor or wealthy, is that of people. In everyday life, although people are thought to encompass all people living in a country, in practice democracy has imposed a limitation on the public since its history - if it has been expanded continuously. For example, in the elections after the French Revolution, the right to vote was only granted to citizens who could pay a certain amount of tax, the first time the black race in the southern states in the United States was able to vote for the 1960s. [7] Women were first granted the right to vote in New Zealand in 1893. The right to participate in the elections was not granted in any country until the 20th century. [8] If we include the disagreement arising from the self-will of the individuals constituting the people; in practice, the people become the majority.
As can be seen from the references to democracy, self-rule of the people is the main pillar. This is achieved through direct influence, such as referendums, or indirect means, such as rallies, demonstrations, as well as voting, which allows people to decide on their behalf.
History of democracy
Antiquity
Democracy first in ancient Greece, city-states Done. This system, which is very close to direct democracy, is also called as Athens democracy. In theory, all citizens had the right to vote in parliament and give their opinion, but according to the circumstances of the day, women, slaves and those who were not born in that city-state (metics, resident foreigners) did not. Considering Athens as the most powerful practitioner of this system: The population is estimated to be between 250,000-300,000 in the 4th century. It is estimated that 100,000 of this population are Athens citizens and only 30,000 of them have adult male population. [9]
The state system implemented during the Roman Empire was close to representative democracy. Democratic rights were often shaped by social class separation and power was in the hands of the elites. [10] However, systems used in some regions of ancient India are likened to representative democracy. In parallel with the Roman Empire, the existence of the caste system can be said to be in the hands of a wealthy and noble minority. [11]
The Middle Ages
Magna Carta
In the Middle Ages, the biggest event in the development of democracy is the signing of the Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Contract) in England, which limits the king's powers to the clergy and the people. According to this document, the first elections were held in 1265. However, due to the restrictions, only a small part of the population was able to participate in these elections. For example, in the Italian city-states, Scandinavian countries, Ireland, and in small autonomous regions in different countries, there were practices such as the election of the principles of democracy and the formation of a parliament. But in all, participation in democracy was restricted by standards such as being a man and paying a certain amount of tax. The 19th and 19th centuries. In the 19th and 19th centuries, democracy became a rapidly rising value with the American Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of Human and Citizen Rights. Before these centuries, democracy was referred to as a form of government that fit only small communities, not large states, and was essentially defined as direct democracy. [12] The system created by the founders of America can be defined as the first liberal democracy. [13] The American constitution, adopted in 1788, provided for the election of governments and the protection of human rights and freedoms. Before that, many of the colonies in North America had democratic characteristics during the colonial period. Although differentiated from colony to colony, white men, who gave a certain amount of tax or could meet certain adjectives, had the right to choose. [14] The changes made in the 1860s after the American Civil War gave slaves freedom and the right to vote, one of the basic principles of democracy, was recognized by the Fifteenth Amendment [15] [16], but in southern states blacks did not exercise their right to vote until the 1960s [7].

In the French Revolution of 1789, a constitution was prepared and the power was divided between the parliament and the king. The Government of the National Convention came to power with a general vote and a two-tier election. [18] But in the years that followed, Napoleon came to power and he became very far from democracy. Reviews 20 century. century, democracy has shown a rapid change and development. At the turn of the century, at the end of World War I, with the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires, many new states emerged, and the state administration of these new countries was generally democratic in that period. During the Great Depression that emerged in 1929, dictators emerged in many countries in Europe, Latin America and Asia. While fascist dictatorships emerged in Spain, Italy, Germany and Portugal, non-democratic governments came to power in the Baltic and Balkan countries, Cuba, Brazil, Japan and Soviet Russia. For this reason, the 1930s are described as the age of the Dictators. [19]
II. After World War II, the understanding of colonialism ended and many independent countries emerged again. Democratization movements intensified in Western Europe. In Germany and Japan, dictatorships came to an end. With the effect of the agreements signed at the end of World War II, they aimed to become a welfare state. One of the biggest conflicts in the 21st century was the Cold War between non-democratic Soviet Bloc countries and Western democracies. In 1989, the conflict between Soviet Russia, which tried to spread communism, and the US-led western group, which tried to spread liberal democracy, stripped from other forms of democracy, came to an end. Francis Fukayama in his article The End of History reports that liberal democracy will spread all over the world with the end of the Cold War. As a matter of fact, this democratization process continues with the Rose Revolution in Georgia and the Orange Revolution in Ukraine.
Models of Democracy
The systems used in the history of democracy are quite diverse. These can be briefly grouped into five groups:



Athenian senators gathered at: Pnyx
It is based on ancient Greek city-states. It is also called Athens democracy because of its best practitioner and the most powerful city of that time, Athens. Tüm All major decisions were taken by the parliament or Eklesya, where all citizens were members. This assembly convened at least forty times a year. When full-time civil servants were needed, they were chosen by lot or alternately to be a small example representing all citizens, and their term of office was kept short to ensure the widest possible participation. The Assembly had a council of five hundred citizens, which acted as the executive committee, and a committee of fifty people prepared proposals for it. The task of chairing the committee was only one day ’[20]. The only exception was the possibility of re-election of the ten generals on military issues.
Athens 'democracy was characterized by its citizens' willingness to participate widely in political responsibilities. Of course, the most important reason for this was the system of slavery, which was implemented in opposition to democracy. Thus, all the men born in Athens who are entitled to vote have placed a large part of their daily responsibilities on the back of slaves. Apart from this, women, metics and slaves did not have the right to vote in the democracy of Athens.
Today, in the small cantons of Switzerland, the classical democracy, which can survive with popular assemblies, is not preferred for technical reasons. br> Europeans trying to get out of the Middle Ages, in the 18th and 19th century saw democracy as a way of protecting themselves from the tyranny of the government.
'Protective democracy offers a limited and indirect model of democracy. In practice, the consent of the governed is ensured by regular and competitive choices. Political equality thus becomes a technical concept that expresses equal voting rights. Moreover, the right to vote is not sufficient for a true democracy. In order to protect individual freedoms, the establishment of a system based on the separation of powers through legislation, executive and judiciary is essential. [21]
Developmental democracy
He considered the development of the individual and society as essential. The most radical of such democracies was expressed by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. According to him, individuals can be 'free' only if they participate directly and continuously in shaping the decisions of the society in which they live. From this point of view, although it defines direct democracy, it is separated by the assertion that citizens will be free if they obey the general will to be formed in this way.
The more moderate form of developmental democracy to liberal democracy is expressed by John Stuart Mill. According to Mill, the greatest benefit of democracy is that it enables citizens to participate in political life and strengthen their understanding and sensitivity. Therefore, he argues that everyone, whether women or poor, should have the right to vote. However, he did not defend this right to vote as ‘equal oy. For example, one unqualified worker argued that one vote should have two votes for skilled workers and five for qualified professionals, so that democracy can avoid the fear of t tyranny of the majority.. He simply argued for the right of everyone to vote, and that the majority's decisions were not always right. The liberal democracy system is one of them. It represents freedom with the liberal word it contains and equality with the concept of political equality in democracy. In thinking of this, we must distinguish between liberalism in the discipline of economics and liberalism in the discipline of politics.
Simply liberal democracy; the power is determined by the people as a political system where this power is limited to individual freedoms.
Tolerance and the election of representatives of power through the principles of competition and political equality where all ideas can exist are the basic characteristics of liberal democracies. the concept includes developed types of democracy in communist regimes. Although there are differences between them, it is in strict contrast with liberal democracy systems. They argued that social democracy and economic equality should be achieved in addition to political equality in general.
Karl Marx argued that after the collapse of capitalism, the revolutionary dictatorship of a temporary proletariat would be formed, followed by the formation of a communist society with the system of proletarian democracy. [22] The idea of the democratic system seen in the communist states belongs to Lenin rather than Marx.
In these countries, there is widespread criticism that the uncontrolled power of the parties overshadows democracy. [23]
Concepts related to democracy
Democracy and republic > Main article: Republic (concept)
Republic is a regime and democracy is one of the forms of implementation of the republic. Besides the democratic republic, there are forms of religious republic, oligarchic republic and socialist republic. In democratic republics, it is essential for the people to elect the parliament and the country's president at regular intervals. While this system is generally accepted in Black Europe, for example in England there is a king or queen apparently not at the head of the country, but the government is in the hands of the people (oligarchic republic). '' In order for a republic to become a full democratic republic, voluntary associations exist together. o A state in which all segments of the peoples of the country participate directly in the management and control processes as a participant with pluralistic free will, created democracy with all civil institutions, organizations and cadres, and allows multi-identity, different faiths and various cultures to coexist to form a mosaic. secularism with democracy




















































































































































Secularism with democracy Liberal democrats see it as an obligation to keep the state at the same distance from all religions in order to prevent democracy from turning into t the tyranny of the majority.

Though religious scholars and theologians of different religions oppose secularism in various religions, these issues are often controversial. However, in the religious plan, democracy has generally been accepted, and even some anti-secular clergy have argued that democracy can exist without secularism. [25] [26] [27]
Separation of powers
The principle of separation of powers is that of legislative, executive and judicial institutions. means to prevent the gathering of power in one hand and to ensure that these three institutions can control each other. 'The approach that state power should be divided into three and given to separate organs is also based on the classification of political regimes. According to this, the regimes where the legislative and executive powers are gathered in one hand are called bir unity of powers ”and the systems in which these powers are assigned to separate organs are called ayr separation of powers. Systems. It separates. 'Here the federative power is expressed as the whole community, war, peace, unity, alliance and the power of the state to carry out all kinds of transactions with all persons and communities outside of it.' [29]
People coming to power through democratic means to establish their own tyranny. tried to be blocked. The importance of mutual control with the principle of separation of powers, especially II. It was increased after Adolf Hitler came to power in democratic ways before World War.
Tools for Democracy
Parliament of Bern
The institutions and formations that provide democracy and aim for the development of democracy exist in many political systems. Although each state has a constitution or a political party in every country, they are renamed as forms of government. Because what matters is the relations between these institutions.
Parliament
Main article: Parliament
In democracy, parliament is an institution of people's representatives with the principles of competition and equal votes. Parliamentary systems have developed differently in each country, both in terms of quality and quantity.
Election list of political parties
We can generalize as a single-parliamentary system, a dual-parliamentary system and a presidential system. As a duty, we can generalize it as the legislative institution in the principle of separation of powers. The functions of the assemblies are: legislature, representation, control and legitimacy

Political parties
Main article: Political party
Parties are the means used for representation. In democratic countries, the political party is one of the most important areas where individuals will actively engage in politics. A two-party system or a multi-party system is formed according to the electoral systems in the countries.
Two-party systems, such as those in the United Kingdom, tend to lead to a concentration in the ‘central area ğu where the majority of voters are located and to exclude more radical ideas. [30] Each party is thought to represent multiple views.
In multi-party political systems, ideas are more directly represented. There are parties that think they represent religious, ethnic or class thoughts. While this provides more reflection of the sovereignty of the people to the parliament, it becomes more difficult to ensure stability because there are many parties in the parliament who have different opinions.
Constitution
Main article: Constitution The Constitution is the written documents that determine how the basic institutions of a state will operate. In addition, since personal rights and freedoms are set out in this document, it determines the limits of those in power in a majority-ruled society. It is accepted by democratic thinkers as a state organ that will prevent the establishment of the tyranny of the majority. ’While civil society gains its meaning in a modern sense with democracy, democracy has provided the solution of the problems with civil society. 31 [31] It is a way to make the voices and wishes of the groups of people with common goals more pronounced. For example, businessmen who seek to reduce state participation in the economy have gathered for a variety of purposes, such as organizations aiming at equality in the social services of the state and trade unions trying to improve the quality of life of workers or civil servants, and in a way they have strengthened participation in democracy and, in a way, able to supervise or are the groups that try to create public opinion

Civil society organizations have a pluralistic structure. According to Larry Diamond, 'this pluralistic structure of civil society makes it incompatible with ethnic, religious, revolutionary or authoritarian organizations trying to control the political sphere.' [32]
Law enforcement
Thailand, September 24, 2006 an image

The extent to which the army and the police forces are present in democracy has always been the subject of debate. The presence of monopolies of the police in the internal order of the army against external dangers has made them necessary for democracy, but has also been the subject of debate with the powers of abolishing or interrupting democracy.
In developed democratic countries, civilian politicians are both legally and de facto superior to the military and the military is in the political decision making mechanism. joins into as little as possible. Particularly in the post-Cold War civilian politician, the rule is increasing.
In democratically underdeveloped countries, soldiers are directly or indirectly involved in decision-making through advisory boards. The common feature in such countries is; is the most advanced technology among the domestic institutions and the closest institution to the modern world. 'The military usually intervenes in politics due to economic backwardness, increased internal turmoil, the loss of legitimacy of civilian rule, the conflict between the military and the government, or the positive approach of the international public to a coup.' [33]
The police ne what if the ruling class starts to act in its interests? It is a topic that the thinkers emphasize. Aristotle's question of kim who will keep the guards? Göster shows that this concern is very old. Despite the common attitude of democratic thinkers, there is disagreement about how and how this should be done, although the necessity of the police force not to restrict the rights and freedoms provided by democracy and to be able to account for the judiciary when necessary. Human rights
Human rights are based on the understanding that all people are born equal and free in terms of rights and dignity. Human rights give each individual the freedom to make independent choices and develop their skills. Because of its resemblance to the classical definition of democracy, today human rights and democracy are often used together.
The definitive link between human rights and democracy: if human rights are a necessary condition for the full development of an individual, democratic society can be used to create the framework for an individual's development. human rights are seen as a precondition for such a society because a democratic society is based on the voluntary support of individuals for the survival of the community. [34]
Women
Bangladeshi women
they achieved this equality only in the 20th century. Those who support women's participation in political life; this would improve political ethics, while opponents expressed the idea that the family structure would deteriorate.
The dates of women's equal rights to vote with men and the right to be a candidate in some countries: [35]
History
Country
History
Country - History - Country

1893 - New Zealand - 1928 - United Kingdom - English - United States - English Turkey Reviews 1956 Egypt, Suriname Reviews 1913
Norway Philippines Member Reviews 1962 Reviews 1937 Reviews 1918 Algeria Germany, Russia | 1944
France, Bulgaria
1971 - Switzerland - 1919 - Belgium, Ukraine - 1945 - Georgia, Italy - 1974 by the operator of Jordan in the region 1920 - Albania, United States
1947 - Argentina, Japan
1976
Portugal
According to 1999 statistics: [36]
13 out of every 100 parliamentarians in the world
Presidency of state or government in the world 5 out of every 100 people in the world
12 out of every 100 ministers in the world women The proportion of women in the parliament is less than 25%
Democracy should not reduce women to the right to vote. Efforts have also been made to ensure effective participation in democracy with feminist non-governmental organizations.
Minorities
Groups separated from the general partnerships of a society, ethnic, religious or sexual, have the status of a minority in that society. defending more democracy is a generally accepted phenomenon. In addition, minority rights are an important criterion in the evaluation of the level of democracy by international institutions.
Different views and criticisms in practice
Pluralism (Pluralist)
The pluralist perspective is based on Montesquieu and Locke. James Madison's articles in Federalist Writings are systematized. According to Madison, the uncontrolled democratic system could have turned into a "majoritarianism" system in which individual rights would be violated. To prevent this, the principle of separation of powers has proposed federalism and a bi-parliamentary form of government. 'Madison's model is the first developed expression of pluralist democracy, since it recognizes the existence of diversity and "multiplicity" in society, and sees it as desirable. [37]
Noam Chomsky, criticizing the Madison model, "was founded on the principle that the main task of the government was to protect the rich minority from the majority, as James Madison stressed at the US Constitutional Conference in 1787. Therefore, it was the only semi-democratic of that period. He warned that if the public was given the right to speak in public affairs, giving the example of his country of England, the public could carry out reforms or other monopolies of equality and that the American system should be on the lookout for attacks on property rights that should be defended (in fact, dominated). ]
Eliteism (Eliteism)
Main article: Eliteism
The most typical representative of this view is Plato (427-347 BC), who wanted the philosopher kings to be in power. Classical elitism argues that elite rule is an inevitable and irreversible fact of social life, with the claim of detecting a fact rather than offering a prescription. Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) and Gaetano Mosca (1857-1941) are major theorists of classical elitism

Mosca divides society into two classes as "ruler" and "ruled", while Pareto describes Machiavelli's "foxes" (cunning). and lions (forced use).
In the modernist elitist view, competitive elitism (democratic elitism) is more common than other elitist views. According to this, voters vote again, but only to choose which elite will rule them. Competitive elitism is portrayed as a weak image of democracy because it embodies some of the democratic rights. [39]
Marxist view
Main article: Marxism
Marxism thinks that society is class-based and that true democracy can only be achieved when class differences are abolished. claims. So; Democracy argues that political equality is not enough for social equality. The Marxist approach is similar to popular democracy. It criticizes liberal democracy and bases its criticism on the contradiction of liberal democracy's promise of political equality and social inequality created by the capitalist system. force them to meet demands; on the other hand, the financial crises that it may cause threaten the system. ' [40] In other words, the risk of legitimacy crisis exists for a capitalist democracy. Ayrıca bu görüş uluslararası ilişkiler alanında da kullanılmaktadır.
Korporatist görüş
Ana madde: Korporatizm
‘Toplumda temel birim olarak birey ya da sınıfı alan görüşlere karşıt olarak, insanları işbölümü içinde oldukları yere göre ve sahip oldukları mesleğin bütün üyeleriyle birlikte örgütleyen korporasyonların toplumun örgütlenmesinde temel olmasını, bu örgütlerin bireysel ve sınıfsal çıkar çatışmalarının yerine bireyler ve bireyle devlet arasında bir çıkar uyumu ve dayanışma sağlayacağını savunan siyasal öğreti’dir.[41]
Mussolini, korporatist devlet yapısı için şunları söylemiştir: "Korporatist devlet liberal kapitalizmin -ki bu ekonomik sistem, bireysel kâr'ı vurgulamaktadır- sonu demek olup kolektif çıkarları öne çıkaran yeni bir ekonominin başlangıcını işaret etmektedir. Bu kolektif çıkarlar üreticilerin kendilerinin hazırladığı üretim regülasyonlarına dayanan bir korpor atift sistem vasıtasıyla elde edilecektir. Üreticiler derken sadece işverenleri kastetmiyorum, işçiler de bunun içindedir"[42]
Korporatist düşünürler, bireylerin bağlı bulunduğu örgütlerin siyasi karar alma sürecinde etkinliği arttığı için demokraside temsil özelliğinin arttığını söylerken karşıt düşüncedekiler; güçlü ve etkin örgütlenmelerin karar alma sürecinde kendi çıkarlarında hareket edeceğinden siyasi eşitliği bozabileceğini veya hükûmetin kendine yakın örgütlere ayrıcalık tanıyabileceğinden dolayı demokrasiyi geliştirici bir sistem olmadığını savunurlar.[43]
Uluslararası ilişkilerde demokrasi
Demokrasiyi uluslararası ilişkiler disiplininde özellikle cumhuriyetçi liberal düşünürler dile getirmişlerdir. Genel olarak 'demokratik, liberal cumhuriyetler birbiriyle savaşmazlar' cümlesiyle açıklanabilir. ’Demokratik cumhuriyetçi hükûmetlerin karşılıklı saygı ve uzlaşmazlıkların barışçıl yollarla çözümüne daha fazla önem verdikleri iddia edilerek liberal demokratik devletlerin artması, uluslararası barışın yaygınlaştırılmasının garantisi olarak görülmektedir.[44]
Ayrıca bakınız
İktidar
Yürütme
Yönetim biçimleri
Referandum
Seçmen Katılımı
Kaynakça
Allen Nevins, Henry Steele Commager, ABD Tarihi, Doğubatı yayınları, ISBN 9758717111
Andrew Heywood, Siyaset, Liberte yayınları, ISBN 9752500153
Anthony Giddens, Sosyoloji, Ayraç yayınları, ISBN 9758087363
Anthony Arblaster, Demokrasi, Doruk Yayımcılık, ISBN 9755533133
Arend Lijphart, Demokrasi Motifleri, Salyangoz yayınları, çev:Güneş Ayas/Utku Umut Bulsun ISBN 975-6277-18-1
Eddie J. Girdner, People and Power, Literatür yayınları, ISBN 9757860808
Manfred G. Schmidt, Demokrasi Kuramlarına Giriş, Vadi Yayınları, ISBN 9756768274
Mi chael A. Ledeen, Liderlik ve güç kullanımında Machiavelli, Literatür yayıncılık, ISBN 9758431234
Mümtaz'er Türköne, Siyaset, Lotus yayınları, ISBN 9756665068
Oral Sander, Siyasi Tarih, İmge Kitabevi, ISBN 9755330437
Platon, Devlet, Çev:Canan Eyi, Temmuz 2001, İstanbul
Robert A. Dahl Modern political analysis, Prentice-Hall, ISBN 0135970474
Selahattin Ertürk, Diktacı Tutum ve Demokrasi, Kültür Bakanlığı, ISBN 9751712149
Tayyar Arı, Uluslararası İlişkiler Teorileri, Alfa yayıncılık, ISBN 9752970761
Timur Taner, Küreselleşme ve Demokrasi Krizi, İmge yayınevi, ISBN 9755331603
Dipnotlar
^ genbilim
^ Güçlü Türkiye Partisi
^ Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi
^ Aşırı Demokrasi Olarak Anarşi (Erişim tarihi:29.02.2008)
^ Anthony Arblaster, Demokrasi, Doruk Yayımcılık, s:79
^ Demokrasi ve yargı (erişim tarihi 2 Eylül 2010
^ a b Kara Panterler Partisi eski liderlerinden Bin Vahad ile röportaj erişim tarihi 18 Temmuz 2008
^ http://www.wilsonsalmanac.com/womens_electoral_chronology.html Wilson's almanac
^ Hansen (1999, 231–2)
^ Fordham.edu
^ Eski Hindistan'da demokrasi
^ Manfred G. Schmidt, Demokrasi Kuramlarına Giriş, çeviren:M. Emin Köktaş, Vadi Yayınları, Ekim 2002, Ankara
^ oxonianreview
^ Allan Nevins, Henry Steele Commager, ABD tarihi, s:31
^ Allan Nevins, Henry Steele Commager, ABD tarihi, s:226
^ ABD demokrasi tarihi erişim tarihi: 18 Temmuz 2008 (İngilizce)
^ Oral Sander, Siyasi Tarih, s:164
^ Anadolu Üniversitesi erişim tarihi: 18 Temmuz 2008
^ Totalitarianism in the Interwar Period (1919 – 1939)
^ Andrew Heywood, Siyaset, Liberte yayınları, 2006, s:102
^ Mümtaz’er Türköne, Siyaset, Lotus Yayınları Eylül 2005, Ankara s:197
^ Andrew Heywood, 'Siyaset', Liberte yayınları, 2006, s:109
^ Mümtaz’er Türköne, Siyaset, Lotus Yayınları Eylül 2005, Ankara s:199
^ tmobb.org
^ www.nzcatholic.org.nz (Erişim tarihi:12.12.2007) (İngilizce)
^ Zaman gazetesi
^ Aksiyon dergisi
^ Dr. Şeref İba
^ Dr. M.Tevfik Gülsoy
^ Anthony Giddens, ‘’Sosyoloji’’, Ayraç Yayınevi, Ankara, 2000, s:367
^ Osmangazi Üniversitesi kongre tutanakları
^ Larry Diamond, Rethinking civil society: Toward Democratic Consolidation. Journal of Democracy
^ Andrew Heywood, 'Siyaset', Liberte yayınları, 2006, s:548
^ Avrupa Komisyonu Türkiye Temsilciliği'nin görüşü
^ Wilson's Almanac (İngilizce)
^ Kadın Sorunları Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi (doc)
^ Andrew Heywood, 'Siyaset', Liberte yayınları, 2006, s:112
^ Noam Chomsky ropörtajı
^ Andrew Heywood, Siyaset, s:116
^ Mümtaz’er Türköne, Siyaset, Lotus Yayınları Eylül 2005, Ankara s:208
^ Teknik Güç Sayı 144/1 Ocak 2005
^ Doç. Dr. Andrew Ryder
^ Mümtaz’er Türköne, Siyaset s:205
^ Tayyar Arı, ‘’Uluslararası İlişkiler Teorileri’’, Alfa Yayıncılık, 2004 Ekim, s:385
Dış bağlantılar
Konuyla ilgili diğer Wikimedia sayfaları :
   
Commons'ta Demokrasi ile ilgili çoklu ortam dosyaları bulunmaktadır.
   
Vikisöz'de Demokrasi ile ilgili alıntılar bulunmaktadır.
Makale ve ropörtajlar
Niyazi Berkes Sempozyum (Sükülerizm-demokrasi)
Prof. Can Aktan
Aksiyon dergisi Pervez Mansur ropörtajı(Sekülerizm-demokrasi)
Friedrich A Von Hayek
Radikal gazetesi
Kuruluşlar
SODEV
Demokrasi Vakfı
Araştırmalar
Kadın Sorunları Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi
Osmangazi Üniversitesi kongre tutanakları
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Demokrasi

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