Czechs

Germany - 33 thousand
Slovakia -. 46 thousand
Austria -. 18 thousand
France -. 13 thousand
Serbia -. 51 thousand
Ukraine -. 5.5 thousand
. US - 75 thousand
Canada -. 25 thousand
Australia -. 21 thousand
Belarus -. 121

Czech Language Religion
Catholicism, Protestantism
ethnic Close group
Slovaks, Sorbs, Poles
Bohemia (Czech: Češi.) - West Slavic peoples, the general population of the Czech Republic. They also live in neighboring countries, the United States, Canada, Australia, Serbia, Ukraine and other Total (2012) -. 10.213 million people [1]. Mother tongue -. Czech

Contents 1 History 1.1 Origins

1.2 Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance
1.3 National Revival
2 Traditional culture
2.1 Ethnography
2.2 Key lessons
2.3 Housing 2.4
Clothing
2.5 2.6 Folklore Cooking

Language
3 4 5 Religion
Czechs in Belarus
6 Prominent representatives
6.1 Historical figures
6.2 of art
6.3 Athletes
7 Notes 8 References
history
Origin
In the first half of the 1st millennium BC Celtic tribes living in what is now the Czech Republic. In the middle of the 1st millennium there were also Germans. But in the IV - V centuries. BC a large part of the population already were Slavs. Kozma Prague Slavic lists the following families: Czech, Luciano Decan, Moravians et al. In the second half of VI. They were subordinated to the Avars. In the fight with the last formed the government itself (VII cent.). In the early
. IX century. in the Czech Republic and neighboring countries, there was a Great Moravia. In 863, the Moravian Prince Rostislav invited from Byzantine missionaries-educators Cyril and Methodius for the expansion of Christianity. Because of their activity occurred Church Slavonic language, understandable to all Slavs, as well as Glagolitic letter. Later, however, under the influence of German missionaries in the Great Moravia started to spread Catholicism.
in the beginning. X century. Great Moravia disintegrated under the pressure of the Hungarians, who captured the eastern part. In the western part in 1085 around Prague Czech state has developed personally. According to legend, the name comes from the name of the people Cech, led his people to the mountain Rzhyp; Roos and his brother Lech, who allegedly gave rise to the Slavic peoples Czechs, Roos and lyaham [2]
Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance
In XIII -. XV century. Czech lands experienced economic prosperity thanks to the exploitation of deposits of silver and other metals, which contributed to the growth of cities and the monetary economy. However, in 1306 the dynasty of Czech kings Przhamyslovichav interrupted. New monarchs were of German origin. Czech Kingdom became part of the Holy Roman Empire.
Active development of the economy and the development of new lands in the country accompanied by the German colonization. Moreover, the German settlers had certain privileges that in the Middle Ages were regarded as privileges that paid relatively high status of those who received them. Together with the colonists in the Czech Republic expanded the influence of the German language and culture. This is seen even in the reign, Charles IV, although it is traditionally regarded as the heyday of the Czech medieval culture
Czechs discontent manifested in the activities of the Czech reformer Jan Hus (about 1370 - 1415 gg.). And in the Hussite movement. Although this movement initially had a religious character, the Hussites tried to stop the German cultural influence in most of the Czech Republic and neighboring Slavic lands.
Even after the defeat of the uprising in 1434, the Czech reformers continued their work, translated into the Czech language the Bible, one of the first among the Slavs We started printing. In order to succeed the Catholic Church has also been forced to take account of linguistic and cultural interests of the Czechs. Obviously, the Czech national revival XV - XVI centuries. had a strong influence on the activities of the Belarusian printing pioneer Francis Skorina.
National Revival
Already in the XVI century., when the New World began to arrive cheap silver, and in Europe took place price revolution, the economy of the Czech lands began to take a more agrarian and city as cultural centers have lost their significance. During the Thirty Years War, the Protestants were expelled from the Czech Republic. Among them was the famous scientist and educator John Amos Comenius.
However, in the XIX century. Czech national movement revived again. This was facilitated by the following factors: The development of local intellectuals
romantic ideas and closeness to his people
appearance of the reforms in the Austrian Empire strong bureaucratic apparatus, and with it the commoners officials, among which gradually gained popularity nationalism
New economic growth, which drew in the city of immigrants from rural areas, which have traditionally Czech language
significant role in the national revival played Dobrowski Josef, Josef Jungmann, Antonin Leopold Dvorak, Frantisek Palacky, and others. That started a revision of the Czech literary language, bringing it closer to the folk, have created works on the history of language, literature and the entire Czech nation, founded the modern national musical culture. Many of the Czech national leaders focused on Panslavism, maintained close relations with prominent personalities from Slovakia, from Russia, Serbia and Croatia. But most panslavistav continued to be guided by the Habsburg dynasty.
In 1804 was proclaimed the Austrian Empire, which in 1867 was transformed into the Austro-Hungary. The Czechs seem Hungarians wanted a separate status for his country. In the second half of the XIX century. The Czech Republic is one of the most successful economic development centers of the empire. Most of the local businesses supported the idea of the presence of autonomy, and with it - the Czech nationalism. One of its successive leaders became Professor Tomas Masaryk.
Czechs made the opening of the National Museum, the Czech Academy of the Czech language had been relegated to the German in court proceedings and in school. Movement for the national school was universal. By the end of the XIX century. most Czechs became literate. But the attempt to make the Czech language equal to German in the administrative proceedings (1897) has caused strong dissatisfaction on the part of the German inhabitants.
During World War I, the Czech national political movement finally broke with a focus on the Habsburgs. In 1915 in Cleveland (USA), representatives of the Czech and Slovak emigration openly announced the desire to create their own state.
In 1918, the independent state of Czechoslovakia was created, which in 1992 split into the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
traditional culture
Ethnography
Garak-Girls in national costumes
present the Czechs are quite single ethnic community, though traditionally there is a separation of the inhabitants of Bohemia, Moravia (see. Moravia) and Czech Silesia. In the past, also put forward the following ethnic groups:
moves (Czech:. Chodové), which once guarded the king's land, farmed and enjoyed considerable privileges. In the XVII century. privileges were canceled, but the moves have continued to maintain a certain cultural isolation
Garak. (Czech:. Horáci) in a mountainous area in the west of Moravia
porch. (Czech:. Hanáci) in the middle of Moravia
Valashy (Czech.. :. Valaši), descendants aramunav
main occupations
Agriculture has long played an important role in the life of the inhabitants of the Czech lands. The prevailing agriculture - the cultivation of cereals. Legumes (especially peas and lentils) planted for internal consumption. On the XIII - XV centuries. Czechs were also grown hops and grapes. It is noteworthy that in the Czech Republic has always evaluated the wine, rather than table grapes. From the XVII century. widespread hemp and flax, which provided the raw material for the textile industry.
basic agricultural implements were working beam ram, hammer, Rala, plow, modernized by local craftsmen in 1827 shelf, connected in one piece with the blade, the short scythe and g . e. in the second half of the XIX already in. agriculture has undergone a strong technical changes.
Livestock was essential in mountain areas. In the valleys of large domestic cattle kept for soil treatment. In rural and urban bred geese and pigs. Already in the late Middle Ages dug ponds carp
Czech Republic -. A country where for many centuries the city developed and mining. Artisans were a separate segment of the population. Czechs have long been well known as a skilled shoemakers, brewers, manufacturers of furniture and glassware. Traditions accumulated by artisans and workers of factories, handed down through the generations. Back in the mid XX century. distinguished representatives of the old mines and breweries, which supported the old ways - had a special festive clothing, valued patron saints of their professions and celebrated individual professional days. In the second half of the XIX century. It showed a broad migration to cities from rural areas. As a result, at the end of the century in the industry employed about half of the adult population.
Residence
Older types of buildings
Rural settlements have long been built compact or scattered. Compact, well-defined plan were village that is the administrative center. And those villages having no later than X in. They had an area that could take many forms. Village with circular plaza called circular. Houses were built on the pediment area or street. Yards necessarily were protected. For economic construction yard conducted further stretched field. In the past, the village had only one entrance with a gate, so the village at some point could be closed from outsiders.
characteristic feature is the presence of numerous Czech towns with a population of 2 thousand to 20 thousand people. Many of them were founded in the Middle Ages and up to our pair retain town privileges. They were founded as trading centers, so have a typical layout. The main part consists of a square, which was built near the town hall and / or church. Around her are growing neighborhoods. Some small towns stretched along the roads and rivers, so more like a large village layout.
In the Czech Republic there are also other types of settlements. As a rule, they relied German settlers.
dwelling, three-compartment typical of the Slavs. They are housed directly to the house, porch and storage room, which is used for household needs. Characteristic residential buildings with double heating. The house is heated only in the winter. To do this, we use the oven. In the warmer months breakfast is prepared on an open hearth, that was in the hallway or the bench.
In ancient times, the most popular material was wood for pabadov. But now it is very rare. Since the XVIII century. dominated by buildings of stone and clay. Under the influence of the Germans widely used skeleton half-timbered technique. We were covering roofs with straw, reeds, twigs, moss, wood shingles. The crest of the roof reinforced turf. Inside the house plastered with clay and whitewashed. Pediment and front decorated in every way.
Clothing
pilsner outfits
Already during the Renaissance in the territory of the Czech lands mostly widely spread urban wear, so the Czech national costumes underwent a strong impact Europe-wide fashion.
been to western regions characterized by long women's shirts with gathered sleeves and a collar, garset and form-fitting bra that lined the front, several petticoats, a wide apron, scarf, starched hood for adult women and girls thin strips of fabric. Women also wore white or red stockings and wooden shoes in the winter -. Coats sheepskin
Men's clothing consisted of short trousers, shirts with large collars, neck scarves, vests, blue or white stockings, sometimes - skirt, long jacket long boots.
in Upper Silesia and East Moravian folk costumes for a long time retain more originality. There, women wore a simple shirt worn under a sleeveless linen from upstairs - extra short shirt, front and rear aprons. Men wore leather or linen trousers, trimmed around the edges, wide shirts without collars, coarse woolen stockings, fur hats and felt hats. The holidays hat decorated with flowers or white chicken feathers.
By the end of the XIX century. traditional clothing almost fell into disuse.

Cooking dumplings
Even today, Czech cuisine is not very diverse. Since ancient times, the foundation of the food dishes were made of flour and beans. It is interesting that today buckwheat is grown almost exclusively as fodder culture. But even two - three centuries ago, buckwheat and unleavened bread were widely known in the mountainous regions. They quickly became hardened, but better preserved. The devotion to this "Pastukhov bread" and buckwheat preserved only in a few places of Moravia.
to the XIX century. no vegetables except cabbage, Czechs are not used. A significant role in changing the culinary traditions played potatoes. Grout potatoes and cabbage has become very common, although it was considered a food of the poor. Famous are Czech dumplings made of flour and potatoes, and potato dumplings shkubanki. Prepare bramborak, potato pancakes with butter, poppy seed and cottage cheese.
very popular dairy food, especially cheese. Moreover, it is made not only from cows but also sheep's milk. Meat eating is different, most pork and poultry.
From the Middle Ages in Bohemia beer was brewed intoxicating. Nowadays it is considered the national drink. In the south of Moravia is grown grapes from which prepare homemade homemade light wine. Coffee became known in the XVII century., But is treated as a beverage rich. In the XIX century. Coffee drinking has all strata of the population, but the usual pavsedonnuyu coffee brewed from roasted oats. Natural drank on holidays.
Folklore
Czech folk musicians
Czech folk heritage is rich in genres such as fairy tales, historical legends, songs, ballads, and others. In Eastern Moravia popular so-called vocal singing. In other parts of the Czech Republic -. Tool, usually adnagalosyya singing
Obviously, one of the most ancient types of dance were dances and round dances. Of the latter, in the Czech Republic distributed tachyvy accompanied by dance songs. From the Czech Republic also occur dancing polka and abkrochak.
Songs and dances were accompanied by the accompaniment of bagpipes, flutes, violins, cymbals. Distinguished professional musicians Cantor [3].
From other types of folk art spread Christmas and Easter spectacle. The first are accompanied by poetic and comic performances, sometimes musical interludes. Easter spectacle are much more religious in nature. Since the XVIII century. There is a puppet theater, similar to the Belarusian Language den

Czech -. of west. It has official status in the Czech Republic. Widely used in public goods, media and others.
Religion
More than half of the Czech population does not openly identify themselves as believers. Most of the believers - Catholics, Protestants have
Czechs in Belarus
Main article: Belarus Czechs
In 2009, in the Republic of Belarus lived 121 people, who confessed his identity as Czech [4]... Of these 15 people. called their mother tongue Czech, 26 -. Prominent representatives of the Belarusian

Historical figures Significant
persons of Czech origin, who played a big role in the history of the whole of Europe was Jan Hus, Reformation leader, educator and humanist John Amos Comenius .
of art
Among Czechs many significant figures of the art world. The poet Jaroslav Seifert was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Jaroslav Hašek, Karel Capek complement galaxy Czech writers from around the world. Czech people also belong to composers Bedrich Smetana and Antonin Dvorak; artist Alphonse Mucha; filmmaker Milos Forman; Photographer Ian Savdek
Athletes
Czech Republic -. traditionally strong hockey power. Among the famous Czech hockey players - Dominik Hasek and Jaromir Jagr. There is also a well-known athletes, the Czechs are tennis players Ivan Lendl and Martina Navratsilava; athletes Emil Zatapek and Jan Zelezny; players Josef Masopust and Pavel Nedved.
Notes
↑ Czech
↑ Kostomarov NI Historical work. Autobiography. By: Publishing House of the Kiev State University, "Lybid", 1990
↑ submissive P. Musical life in the Czech Republic in XVIII - the beginning. XIX centuries. // The French Revolution and the fate of the world. / Ed. VS Koshelev VN Sidortsova. / Transl. from English. Shutov VM, fr. K. Kazakov, chesh. D. Samohvalova. . - M: BSU, 1999, pp 190 - 191
↑ belstat.gov.by
Links
Folk architecture
Czech folk songs Folk dance

ethnographic regions
Czech culinary


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