Socialism - economic, social and political system characterized by public ownership of the means of production and co-management of the economy, as well as the theory of the protection of such principles [1]. Public ownership can be any of the following combinations, such as cooperative enterprises, joint ownership, direct state ownership or autonomous state enterprises [2] [3]. Socialist economy based on manufacturing to use and has a direct distribution of economic contributions to meet the economic needs and human needs, depending on the physical volumes of resources, some physical quantities or direct measurement of working time [4].
As a political movement, socialism It combines a variety of political philosophies, ranging from reformism to revolutionary socialism. Proponents of state socialism in favor of the nationalization of the means of production, distribution and exchange, as a strategy for the implementation of socialism. The Social Democrats favor the redistribution of taxation and regulation of the state capital in a market economy [5]. In contrast to the anarchist movement, which is in favor of controlling the direct control of the means of production worker, without relying on state power, socialism is based on state ownership of industry.
Modern socialism is based on the political movements of the intelligentsia and the working of the XVIII century, which criticized the consequences industrialization and private ownership of the company. Despite the fact that at the beginning of the XIX century, the term "socialism", refers to the social problems of capitalism, regardless of their decisions by the end of the XIX century, socialism has become an alternative system to capitalism, based on some form of public ownership. [6] Utopian socialists, such as Robert Owen, tried to find saamapadrtymlivayuchysya commune to come out of capitalist society. Socialists Soviet model of economic development, such as Marxist-Leninists, advocated the creation of a centrally planned economy into a one-party state, which has the means of production. Yugoslav, Hungarian, East German and Chinese Communist governments have introduced various forms of market socialism, combining cooperative and state ownership model of free market and free exchange system, but not the freedom of pricing the prices of means of production [7].
original concept of socialism there is an economic system in which production is organized in such a way that the goods and services directly produced at cost price, and there was a direct allocation of resources in accordance with the pleasure economy Michna requirements without financial settlement as opposed to subordination to the economic laws of capitalism, such as the law of value. Socialism often entails an end to the capitalist ekanamichnmym categories, such as rents, interest, profits and money [8].
This concept is very contrasted with capitalism, where the production is carried out with the aim of making a profit, and thus, based on the indirect distribution. Ideally capitalism based on free competition, competitive pressures forcing businesses to respond to the needs of consumers.
Market socialism refers to a variety of different economic theories and systems that use market mechanisms to organize the production and allocation of factors of production among social enterprises economic Gains derived by society as social dividends, rather than private owners of capital. [9] Variations include myutsyuyalizm market socialism and neoclassical economic models such as the Lange model.
Ownership of the means of production can be based on direct ownership of productive property users through the working cooperative, or joint ownership of the whole society with the management and control delegated to the labor collective means of production or state ownership of the state apparatus. State ownership can occur through the creation of state-owned enterprises, nationalization or munitsypalizatsyi. The main feature of the socialist economy is that enterprises with state ownership forms, producing goods and services, at least in bringing the plans from the top, which is essentially a command economy [10] [11].
the role and use of money in a hypothetical socialist economy is a controversial issue. These socialists such as Karl Marx, Robert Owen and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon advocated a different kind of labor receipts or operating loans, which, as the money can be used to purchase a commodity, but unlike money they may not be able to become the capital and used for the allocation of resources in the production process
↑ «Home: Oxford English Dictionary»..
↑ O'Hara, Phillip (September 2003). «Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2". Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 0-415-24187-1.
↑ Nove, Alec. «Socialism». New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition (2008)
↑ David Schweickart, James Lawler, Hillel Ticktin, Bertell Ollman (1998) «The Difference Between Marxism and Market Socialism». pp. 61-63
↑ Frank Roosevelt, David Belkin (1994). «Why Market Socialism?» M. E. Sharpe, Inc. p. 314. ISBN 1-56324-465-9.
↑ Phillip Gasper (October 2005). «The Communist Manifesto: a road map to history's most important political document». Haymarket Books. p. 24. ISBN 1-931859-25-6.
↑ «Market socialism» Dictionary of the Social Sciences. Craig Calhoun, ed. Oxford University Press 2002
↑ Bockman, Johanna (2011). Markets in the name of Socialism: The Left-Wing origins of Neoliberalism. Stanford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8047-7566-3.
↑ O'Hara, Phillip (September 2003). Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2. Routledge. p. 70. ISBN 0-415-24187-1
↑ «Review of Commanding Heights by the Fred Seigel of the Democratic Leadership Council». 1 July 1998.
↑ «Excerpt from Commanding Heights». .
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«Socialism: utopia and science." Friedrich Engels
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«Democracy, socialism and theocracy." Berdyaev

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