about 469 BC
Place of birth: Athens
Date of death:
399 BC (- 399)
Place of death:
Classical Greek philosophy, the Socratic
have an impact:
Anaxagoras, Parmenides, Prodicus
Plato, Xenophon, Aristotle, most Western philosophers Socrates
(469 Alapeka (Attica) - 399 BC) - ancient Greek philosopher
believe that virtue can be taught.. Known for his statements: "I know that I know nothing" and "There is only one God - knowledge, and only one devil - ignorance" and his advice to each person to listen only to your inner voice
said. his simple tastes and loneliness - his ideals were not understood or wife Xanthippe, or many others. With invalid charges was forced to poison ( "Socrates poison chalice»).
Contents 1 Life 2
Court and death
3 Socrates method
4 Sakratava ethics
5 mentioned Socrates
7 Notes 8 References
Information about Socrates can be found in his contemporaries: in the dialogues written by Plato, one of Socrates' students; Ksenafona in the works; in the works of Aristophanes and Aristotle (see. I mentioned Socrates). However, Socrates, Aristophanes says in the context of a satirical attack on the philosophers and does not actually reflect the life of Socrates.
Parents were philosopher sculptor Safranisk and grandmother Fenareta. In Socrates' wife was Xanthippe, who bore him three sons: Lempokla, Safraniska and Meneksena. Traditionally, it considered to be evil shrew Xanthippe, mainly due to its performance in Ksenafona.
remains unclear how Socrates earned a living. According to the product Ksenafona "Symposium", Socrates is supposed to have said that he had devoted himself, he considers the most important activity, namely the discussion of philosophy.
Due to the fact that everything about Socrates, we can judge only by according to his contemporaries, it is very difficult to separate the views of Socrates on the position of the authors of the works.
Court and death
«death of Socrates" by Jacques-Louis David
In 399 BC Socrates was accused in the fact that it creates new gods and corrupts youth.
According to Socrates' speech before the court that in his "Apology of Socrates" offers Plato, the philosopher was "going blind" to Athens after his each Herefon requests Delphic oracle whether there is someone smarter than Socrates. The oracle replied that no such people. Socrates, seeing it as a riddle, I decided to find someone smarter than yourself. He interviewed the men in Athens on their knowledge of the goodness, beauty, and dignity. Determining that they do not know anything, but think they know a lot, Socrates came to the following conclusion: it can be considered very reasonable, as "knows" that he knew nothing. Intelligent advantage Socrates forced the famous Athenians, with whom he spoke publicly, feel stupid, that certainly set them against the philosophy led to his accusation of crimes.
Yet Socrates was found guilty and sentenced to death. Philosopher drank the poison from fiyaly and died in the presence of their friends. In the "Phaedo" dialog is described that Socrates met his death calmly, courageously accepting the verdict of the court.
Ksenafonam According to Plato, Socrates was in the possibility of escape, as his supporters gathered to bribe a prison guard. However, after that Socrates would have been forced to leave Athens. And he refused to escape.
Perhaps the most significant Sakratavym contribution to Western culture is considered his dialectical method of investigation, also known as the Socratic Method. This method was first described by Plato in the Socratic dialogues. Philosopher interlocutor put a series of questions to help him identify the position. This allowed them to check the validity of their thoughts. Socrates once said that "the greatest human skill - ask questions to himself and others"
Socrates believed that people should focus on self-development, rather than the pursuit of material things.. According to Socrates, the moral person can be only when he knows what is good. Knowledge and morality are inseparable for him. "Someone who knew the good and the bad, nothing will force to act differently than they require knowledge and intelligence is strong enough to help a person»
In Sakratavay ethics clearly can be traced rationalism:. Good - this knowledge, evil - ignorance . Vazhneyvyya dignity that calls Socrates, -. This restraint, courage, justice
Socrates Socrates and the young Xenophon (detail Raphael's "The School of Athens" fresco in the Vatican
Plato, and Aristotle Ksenafon - these are the main sources of information about the historical Socrates. Ksenafon Plato was a pupil of Socrates, and probably they idealize their teacher. However, they wrote the only consistent description of Socrates, which has survived to our times. Arystetel often says Socrates in his writings, but just barely. Socrates with ' . Vlyaetstsa central figure in almost all the dialogues of Plato, however, in his later works of Plato, obviously, puts his thoughts into the mouth of the teacher
View all Socrates called ugly, untrue ideals prygadostsi then, he looked like a strong -. Was short with the stomach, pug, thicklip, thick neck and large bald There are two probable decreased by the image herms, one of which it is manifested with Seneca, on the other (that zahovvaetsa in Naples.) - one. The study showed herms that made known copies of portraits of Socrates were taken from two originals, one of which was made in his lifetime, and the other, the authorship Lisipa, post-mortem and idealized, was created by the Athenians because of the guilt of the innocent death of Socrates .
↑ G. Hafner Outstanding portraits of antiquity: 337 portraits in words and images / Trans. with it. VA Seferyants. - M:.. Progress, 1984. - 311 (ru.)
the Wikimedia Commons has media related to Socrates
Encyclopedic article on Slounik.org
Proverbs Socrates (in Russian)
Socrates on encyclopedia channel (230 biographical films about historical figures).
Internet movie Database · Open Directory Project
Dictionaries and encyclopedias
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