Peter III Fedorovich (21 February 1728-17 July 1762) - Emperor of Russia in 1761-1762. Grandson of Peter I, son of the crown princess Anna Petrovna and the Duke of Holstein-Gatorpskaga Karl Friedrich. On his father's side was a great-nephew of the Swedish king Karl XII and first brought up as the heir to the Swedish throne.
The boy's mother, named at birth, Karl Peter Ulrich, died shortly after his birth and at age 11 he had lost and father. His tutors OF Brummer and FW Bergholz does not have high moral qualities, not just severely punished the child and cared little about his education: for 13 years he owned only a little French. Peter grew nervous, impressionable, fond of music and painting, and at the same time adored all military. It is with the military pleasures were tied all his ambitious dreams. According to the character he was more good-natured than evil. According to some reports, in his childhood he was addicted to wine.
In 1742 declared his aunt Empress Elizabeth heir to the Russian throne and brought to Russia. He was baptized in the Orthodox Church under the name of Peter Fedorovich, and in 1745 married a princess of Anhalt-Tserbstskay, the future Empress Catherine II. His teacher and mentor was Academician Jacob Shtelin, who considered his pupil quite capable, but lazy, while noting there such things as cowardice, cruelty to animals, a penchant for boasting.
Peter's relationship with his wife did not work from the beginning: it was intellectually more advanced, and he, on the contrary, the infantile. His mind was still occupied by children's games, military exercises, and he was not interested in women. It is believed that prior to the 1750s between spouses were not marital relationship, but then Peter certain operation, after which a 1754 Catherine bore him Paul son (future Emperor Paul I) was made. Peter, however, more and more estranged from his wife; it has become a favorite of the KR Vorontsov (sister ER Dashkova). At the same time he was allowed to write galshtynskih regiment of soldiers, and all the free time he spent with them doing military exercises and maneuvers. His other passion was playing the violin.
Peter III Fedorovich
Over the years spent in Russia, Peter had made no attempt to get to know this country, its people and history, he did not respect the Russian customs, he behaved inappropriately during church service, not observing the fasts and other ceremonies. Elizabeth did not allow him to participate in the solution of political issues and the only position in which he somehow could show itself, it was as Director of Noble body. Meanwhile, Peter was openly critical of the Government, and during the Seven Years' War, has publicly expressed sympathy for the Prussian King Frederick II. Condemnation of anti-Prussian and Petr praavstryyskay policy shared with Catherine, but expressed it much more openly and carelessly; Elizabeth is rumored to be the end of life to think about the arrest and expulsion of both. All this was widely known not only in the court, but also in the broader strata of Russian society, where Peter did not enjoyed any prestige or popularity.
After the death of Empress Elizabeth 25 December 1761 (January 5, 1762, new style) was announced emperor. Led by 186 days.
Assessments Peter III activities generally face two different approaches. Traditionally, the negative approach, based on his absolute evils and blind confidence in the way that create memoirist - the organizers of the coup (Catherine II, | ER Dashkova). He is accused of ignorance, dementia, dislike of Russia, total inability to govern. In recent years, attempts were made to more objectively consider his personality and activities. It is noted that Peter III energetically engaged in public affairs, and its policy was quite consistent and progressive in nature; it outlines a series of radical reforms; Catherine, in general, only continued his course "educated absolutism". Among the most important affairs of Peter III include the abolition of the secret office, the secularization of church lands, promotion of trade and industrial activities through the creation of the State Bank, the adoption of the decree of commerce, which requires careful attitude to forests as one of the most important Russian wealth decree allowing open a factory for the production of sailcloth in Siberia decree qualified landlords peasants murder as a "tyrant torture 'and provides for a lifelong exile. He also stopped the persecution of the Old Believers and intended to reform the Russian Orthodox Church
Among the most important documents adopted by Peter III, -. «Manifesto on freedom of the nobility." Peter III cease hostilities against Prussia and concluded with Frederick II peace on unfavorable conditions of Russia, returning the conquered East Prussia. At the same time, he plans Holstein patriotism in alliance with Prussia to speak against Denmark (yesterday's ally Russia) in order to return it taken away from Schleswig-Holstein, with he intended to march at the head of the Guards.
Despite its progressive nature, indiscriminate and ill-conceived actions of Peter not only added credibility to it, but was deprived of any social support but may be lower layers, which have long seen in Petra "good king"; in court circles and guards his policy gave rise to only insecurity. His measures against the church alienated from him the clergy, the introduction of the Prussian army orders - the army; peace with Prussia was regarded as a betrayal and national humiliation; Finally, bring guards from St. Petersburg, and send it to the obscure and unpopular Danish campaign served as a powerful catalyst for the plot, which appeared in the guard in favor of Catherine I.
the morning of June 29, 1762, Peter, who was then in Aranienbavme, learned about the disappearance wife. After a short time, it became known that Catherine had fled to St. Petersburg, where she swore Guard and the population. Further actions of Peter show an extreme degree of confusion. Throwing advice Munnich immediately dispatched to Kronstadt and to fight, relying on the fleet and loyal troops in East Prussia, he was about to defend himself in Peterhof in a toy fortress built to maneuver by galshtyntsav squad. However, learning about the guard approached, led by Catherine, Peter dropped the idea and sailed to Kronstadt with all the yard, buildings, etc. But Kronstadt has sworn to Catherine. After that Peter completely disheartened and, again rejecting advice to go to Munnich vskhodnepruskay army, he returned to Aranienbavm, where he signed a recantation. Accompanied by a guard guards headed by AG Orlov was sent to Ropsha 30 miles from St. Petersburg, where he died a week later. According to the official version, the cause of death was an attack of hemorrhoids, intensified by prolonged use of alcohol. A common version is called killer Alexei Orlov; It appears even the text of his letter of repentance to Catherine, but the authenticity of the document is in doubt. Rumors also called him a murderer heat and Kronstadt governor Shvanvich like to strangle his gun belt.
Initially he was buried without honors at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, but in 1796 by order of Paul I, his body was transferred to the Peter and Paul Cathedral.
ancestors and descendants Fedorovicha Peter III (1728-1762), Russian Emperor
Peter I (1682-1725) • Catherine I ( 1725-1727) • Peter II (1727-1730) • Anna (1730-1740) • Ivan VI (1740-1741) • Elizabeth (1741-1761) • Peter III (1761-1762) • Catherine II (1762- 1796) • Paul I (1796-1801) • Alexander I (1801-1825) • Nicholas I (1825-1855) • Alexander II (1855-1881) • Alexander III (1881-1894) • Nicholas II (1894-1918)
BNF: 123483685 · GND: 118740180 · ISNI: 0000 0000 5534 8785 · LCCN: nr89002938 · LNB: 000 082 894 · NTA: 074 249 517 · LIBRIS: 221917 · SUDOC: 032 457 472 · VIAF: 47557349
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