Catherine II

Catherine II, Catherine A. (German:. Sophie Auguste Friederike von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg) - April 21 (May 2) 1729 Tserbst Prussia - 6 (17) in November 1796, the Winter Palace, St. Petersburg) - All-Russian Empress (1762- 1796). The period of her reign is often considered the "golden age" of the Russian Empire. The Senate of the Russian Empire gave her the epithets of Catherine the Great and the Mother of the Fatherland. Catherine is the leader among the Russian emperors in life expectancy and control period.
Policy Catherine II in the Russian historiography called educational policy of absolutism, because she wanted to turn Russia into a state of "common good" with wise laws, educated citizens (ideas education) and under the supervision of an absolute monarch.
at the same time, from the standpoint of the Belarusian historiography known as Catherine the center figure in the physical and cultural genocide of the Belarusian people, one of the founding chauvinist zapadnorusizma concept [3]

Contents 1 Life before coming to power
2 Domestic Policy
2.1 Legislative Commission
2.2 class
2.3 Relationship to the clergy and peasants serfs
2.4 Termination of certain forms of government on the outskirts
2.5 Regional reform
2.6 pardonable letters
2.7 2.8 Earth Crimea
former Commonwealth
Georgia 2.9
3 Foreign policy
4 Evaluation of the Board
5 See. also

6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

life before coming to power
Domestic Policy
laid
Commission In 1767, Catherine sazvala commission with 572 MPs from different classes Russia (except serfs and clergy), who were to develop the foundations of a new state law - investments (so called Commission laid). The Empress turned to the deputies with a "precept", whose ideas were based on the works of leading European thinkers. But the deputies were not ready to legislative activity - produced no legislation was not, and in 1769 the commission was disbanded
class
later Catherine held a policy rights of different classes.. Nobles received land and serf; published manifestos, which facilitate business and trade activity; in 1779 was twice increased fees peasants prypisannym to plants.
Relationship to the clergy and serfs
Catherine differed ostentatious piety, regarded itself head and defender of the Russian Orthodox Church and skillfully used religion for their political interests. But her faith, according to some historians, was not deep. In the spirit of the time she preached tolerance. When it was discontinued persecution of Old Believers, built Protestant and Catholic churches, mosques, but still the transition from orthodoxy to another religion severely punished.
Catherine was the enemy of serfdom, he considered it inhumane and contrary to human nature. In her papers a lot of evidence of this, as well as plans for its elimination was found. But to do something in this direction, she did not dare, because it could lead to a noble rebellion and revolution. However, Catherine was sure of spiritual backwardness of Russian peasants and therefore in danger of giving them freedom, it is believed that the life of the peasants in caring landlords happy enough.
In the Legislative Commission presented all classes except the clergy and peasants.
Termination of individual forms of government, on the outskirts of
important area of policy of the Empress was the gradual abolition of certain forms of government in the suburbs; In 1764, in the Right-Bank Ukraine has abolished the power of the Hetman, in 1775 the Don was spread nationwide legislation in 1781 to manage the Ukraine became the general pattern. Cossack liberties were limited: Zaporizhzhya Sich was liquidated, the Cossacks were asked to move to the Kuban and Volga Cossack Host - Terek
most dangerous was the oppression Yaik Cossacks (the introduction of the exclusive rights of the state for fishing, salt production, sale of wine, collecting customs. duties). The discontent of the Cossacks led to several uprisings of 1771-1772 years, served as the basis for the uprising Pygachova.
Regional reform
For the convenience of Catherine II of governance conducted in 1775 by the regional (provincial) reform. The country is divided into 50 provinces, approximately 300-400 thousand. The residents in each. Headed by the governor of the province, and a group of several provinces - the Governor-General or Deputy. Provinces divided into counties for 20-30 thousand. Residents, led by captains. This system is the basis of modern Russian division into regions and districts.
pardonable letters
In 1785 Catherine issued a forgivable Nobility and cities. These were documents that have determined the exclusive right to own land and peasants to organize noble communities in provinces and districts with elected representatives of the nobility. They were released from torture and corporal punishment. "Reading and writing on the rights and benefits of cities of the Russian Empire" has determined the right to different categories of citizens, order management and self-government in the cities.
Crimea
former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Earth
Georgia
Foreign Policy
Following Peter I Catherine believed that Russia should play an active role on the world stage. After ascending the throne, she tore up a treaty of alliance with Prussia, concluded by Peter III. Thanks to her efforts, was restored in Courland EI Biron. In 1763, with the help of Prussia, Russia has made the election to the throne of Rzeczpospolita their protégé Stanislaw Poniatowski. This led to a cooling of relations with Austria, which, fearing the excessive strengthening of Russia, became incite Turkey to a war with Russia, which led to the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774. This war has been quite successful for Russia, but heavy internal political circumstances have forced Russia to seek peace. It was necessary to restore relations with Austria. It was necessary to seek a compromise. And a compromise was found: in 1772, the first section of the Commonwealth between the three countries: Russia, Austria and Prussia. Later, Russia signed with Turkey Kucuk Kaynarca world, which provided favorable for Russia it Crimean independence from Turkey.
In the war of England with its North American colonies of Russia officially took a neutral position and Catherine King of England refused to help the troops. Instead, Russia issued a declaration of armed neutrality, supported by a number of European countries, which objectively contributed to the victory of the colonists.
In the following years there was a strengthening of Russian positions in the Crimea and the Caucasus. In 1782, Crimea was annexed to the Russian Empire. In 1783 it was signed the Treaty of Georgievsk with Kartli-Kakheti tsar Irakli II, which ensures the presence of troops in Georgia in the future of its accession to Russia
In the second half of the 1770s formed a new foreign policy doctrine of the Russian government -. The Greek project. Its main goal - to restore the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. In 1779, Russia has significantly strengthened its authority and participated as a mediator in Cieszyn Congress.
In 1787 Catherine, accompanied by court, foreign diplomats, the Austrian Emperor and King of Poland made a trip to the Crimea, which has become a demonstration of Russian military power. Soon a new war with Turkey (Russia was already in coalition with Austria). Almost simultaneously, the war with Sweden (1788-1790), who was trying to take revenge for the defeat in the Northern War. Russia has successfully overcome the two countries. The war with Turkey ended in 1791. In 1792 he was signed Yaski world, securing the influence of Russia in Bessarabia and the Caucasus. In 1793 there was the second section of the Commonwealth, and in 1795 - the third, finally finished with this country
Before the events in revolutionary France Catherine initially treated with sympathy, having seen them in the oppressive policies of the French kings.. But after the execution of Louis XVI in Revolution saw a danger for all of Europe.
rank reign
When Catherine increased the territory of the empire, more than fourfold increase state revenues, a 75% increase in the number of population. On the other hand, during the reign of Catherine the position of the working population remained difficult, and the reaction to it in Russia was a popular uprising Pugacheva.
In areas that are a result of the occupation were under Catherine II in the Russian Empire, the Empress policy was very rigid and aimed at suppressing any resistance and national liberation ideas of local residents. [3] That chauvinistic policy created the preconditions to Lenin called the Russian Empire
«prison of the peoples". See in the future. also
Grigory Orlov
Semyon Zorich Gavrilovic
Potemkin villages
Notes
↑ Kamensky AB Catherine II // Questions of history - one thousand nine hundred eighty-nine number 3
↑ http: // www .history-gatchina.ru / article / smert_e2.htm place of death of Catherine II the Great
↑ 3,0 3,1 Vladimir Orlov. Country Belarus (illustrated history). Typography «NEOGRAFIA», Martin, Slovakia. 2003. 319 c.
Literature
Troyat Henry. Catherine the Great. - M:.. Eksmo, 2007 - 480 pages - ISBN 978-5-699-23241-3
Training student handbook.. - 2nd edition, stereotypes. - M:. Bustard, 2000 - 1664s. - ISBN 5-7107-3026-2
Links
the Wikimedia Commons has media related to Catherine II
Catherine II the Great.. History of Russia Catherine's era.

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Russian Emperors
Peter I (1682-1725) • Catherine I (1725-1727) • Peter II (1727-1730) • Anna I. (1730-1740) • Ivan VI (1740-1741) • Elizabeth (1741-1761) • Peter III (1761-1762) • Catherine II (1762-1796) • Paul I (1796-1801) • Alexander I ( 1801-1825) • Nicholas I (1825-1855) • Alexander II (1855-1881) • Alexander III (1881-1894) • Nicholas II (1894-1918)
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age of Enlightenment
Outstanding people of the era of the countries
Joseph II of Austria

Leopold II of
Maria Theresa
France Pierre Bayle
Fantenel
Charles Louis Montesquieu
Francois Kone
Walter
Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Denis Diderot

Helvetius
Jean d'Alembert
Holbach
Marquis de Sade
Kandarse
Lavoisier
Olympe de Gouges
French Encyclopedists
Germany
Erhard Weigel
Gottfried Leibniz
Frederick II of
Immanuel Kant
Gothald Ephraim Lessing
Thomas Abt
Johann Gottfried Herder
Adam Veysgavpt
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller

Carl Friedrich Gauss
Moses Mendelssohn
England, Scotland

Thomas Hobbes, John Locke

Isaac Newton

Joseph Addison Richard Steele
Samuel Johnson
John Wilkes
Edmund Burke
Edward G Iban
Jeremy Bentham
Mary Uolstankraft

David Hume, Adam Smith
James Boswell
Adam Ferguson
John Miller
Joseph Black
Thomas Reid
Francis Hatchesan
William Robertson
Italy
Zhambatysta Vic
Cesare Bekar
Netherlands
Hugo Grotius
Benedict Spinoza
Rzeczpospolita
Frantisek wanderer
Stanislav Canarian
Stanislaw August Poniatowski
Ignatius Krasicki
Hugo Kołłątaj
Ignatius Potocki
Stanislav Stashyts
Jan Śniadecki
Julian Ursynow Niemcewicz
Andrew Snyadetsky
Kazimierz Łyszczyński
Adam Stanislav Narushevich
Polotsky
IL MP Kopievich
Casimir Narbut
Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt
Euthymios Hreptovich
see. also: Education Commission of the Commonwealth

Russian Empire Peter I
Catherine II of
Ekaterina Dashkova
Antsivoh Kantemir
Mikhail Lomonosov
Nikolai Novikov
Alexander Radishchev
Ivan Beckov
Ivan Shuvalov
Michael Shcherbatov
Skovoroda
Spain
Gaspar Melchor de Havelyanas
Nicolas Fernandez Maratsin
US
Benjamin Franklin
David Rytenhavs
John Adams, Thomas Paine

Thomas Jefferson
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