Cosmopolitanism (from the ancient Greek:. Κοσμοπολίτης (kosmopolites) - a cosmopolitan man of the world) - ideology, worldview, according to which all human ethnic groups belong to the same community based on common morality. Cosmopolitanism may entail the idea of creating a sort of world government or it may simply refer to a broader moral, economic and / or political relationships between nations and individuals from different countries. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms called cosmopolitan. Cosmopolitanism is also the idea of world citizenship, which puts human interests and values above the interests of individual nation or a concept at all deny.
cosmopolitan community may be based on a comprehensive morality, common economic relations, or political structure, which includes a different nations . For example, Kwame Anthony Apia provides for the possibility of the existence of a cosmopolitan community in which people from different places, spaces (physical, economic, and other) are in a relationship of mutual respect, despite the different beliefs and convictions (religious, political and other).
ideas of cosmopolitanism, we can see for the first time in the Diogenes of Sinope (about 412 BC), the founding father of the movement of the Cynics of Ancient Greece. Diogenes, when asked where he came from, he replied: "I am a citizen of the world (kosmopolitês)». It was a pioneering concept, because a broad foundation of social identity in ancient Greece at the time was for the individual city-state (polis), or for all the Greeks (Hellenes) as a whole. The Stoics, who later took the idea of Diogenes and turned into a full-scale natural concept, it was emphasized that each person lives in two communities - the local community where he was born, and the community of human argument and aspiration. The decline of the political life of the Greek cities after the Peloponnesian War, as well as the development of philosophical thought led to negative attitude of the Greeks to the requirements of the limited local patrytyzmu. Now, with the loss of independence, and in general - with the reduction of the value of cities in the economy (particularly after the Great and the Roman conquest of Greece), Ellen began to realize himself as a citizen of the world cosmopolitan
In the Middle Ages had a religious character and considered in an effort to create a Catholic papal theocracy. but it did not develop in theoretical terms. Starting from the XVI century, cosmopolitanism is predominantly secular. In 1544 Guillaume Pastel reinvent the term "cosmopolitanism", putting in it not heavenly, and the earthly sense, imagining a world power as a supranational and pazareligiynyya brotherhood, based on the free choice of each. However, cosmopolitanism was still in its infancy, developing in secret societies and alchemists germetystav.
Freemasonry became the first major center of spread of cosmopolitan thanks to the developed structure of brotherhood and political influence.  Becoming world has coincided with the growth of pacifist sentiment tired of the war in Europe, this has led to the fact that some leaders of the Enlightenment such as Montesquieu and Voltaire, began to see the solution to the problem in the unification of Europe into a single republic, in which the country should become a province . In this way the important role played by the projects "Eternal Peace" Bentham and Kant, who offer to create Europe's Congress, the main purpose of which would be a union of states in the world. In his discussion of Kant went further and saw the crown of cosmopolitanism history, including its natural state of man.
revival of cosmopolitanism is happening in the XX century in the wake of strong social unrest related to the wars and revolutions. At the beginning of the century there is in thinking of the Marxist intelligentsia as an opponent of internationalism, but it is recognized that compared to him it impersonal and nepadyhodits for socialism.  However, note that Lenin developed the idea of the destruction in the long run, "after zdyaysnennyadyktatury the proletariat on a world scale," not only to "the division of mankind into small states and all isolation of nations, not only the rapprochement of nations, but also merge them"  . Such an idea has evolved into Europe with the movement anationalism, which can be considered a branch of the radical cosmopolitanism, in 1921 Eugène Lanka founded the World Association nationless (SAT), whose mission is to contribute to the disappearance of all the nations, as sovereign alliances and the use of Esperanto as a common language of culture. In 1931, it published by the main document the association - "anationalism Manifesto»
After World War II cosmopolitanism in the capitalist countries is expressed in a number of successful projects. December 10, 1948 adopted "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights", to fix the natural rights of each in international law inhabitant of the Earth, and in 1954 founded Harry Davis' world Government of world citizens »(world Service Authority), a non-profit organization known issue of" world passport ". Continues to evolve philosophical platform in the works of Jacques Derrida and Emmanuel Levinas.
In the XXI century cosmopolitanism continues its development in the wake of general globalization. Part of libertarians and even kamunitarystav in opposition to nihilism and individualism, cosmopolitanism is considering as one of the most important pillars of human freedom. . See
struggle against cosmopolitanism
↑ Freyhof Willem. Cosmopolitanism // World Education. Historical Dictionary
↑ AN Potresov Internationalism and cosmopolitanism: two lines of democratic politics
↑ myth about the formation of a world state and law in the context of globalization
↑ Gallagher. They are opposed to each other communitarianism and cosmopolitanism? http://academia.edu/2371246/Are_Cosmopolitanism_and_Communitarianism_Really_Opposites
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